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A Report from

SE Brazil and Pantanal, Aug 27-Sept 31, 2005,

Remco Hofland

Includes GPS coordinates of several Pantanal and SE Brazil sites and specialties

Visited sites: ‘new’ Marsh Antwren site at Biritiba-Mirim, Boraceia (E of São Paulo); Serra das Araras (Harpy), Pantanal and Chapada dos Guimarães (all near Cuiabá, Mato Grosso); Intervales, Itirapina, Serra da Canastra, Serra do Cipó, Caraça, Pindobas IV, Caetes (Cherry-throated Tanager), Carmo, Itatiaia, Algulhas Negras, Perequê, Trindade, Paratí, Ubatuba (Fazendas Capricornio and Angelim, Corcovado and Folha Seca)(all SE Brazil).

Participants: Johan van ‘t Bosch (list of birds recorded and chapters marked by [JB]) and Remco Hofland (introductory chapters, GPS waypoints and finishing touch) from The Netherlands.


Having known each other and birded together since their early teens, twenty years ago, Johan and Remco decided to go on a birding trip together. After a long fight they decided to visit Brazil first, a country Johan is very fond of and had visited before. In fact, Johan spent a couple of months there earlier and learned Portuguese, which came in handy during this trip. [After this one, we did another trip together in China and Tibet in 2006-a part of the world Remco is more familiar with (for details and photographs of that trip see and].

Basically, Johan planned the Brazil trip and picked the sites - Remco knew he would see several hundred lifers and a great number of fantastic birds anyway, this being his first trip to S America. The trip was very succesfull, as we saw all our most-wanteds apart from the (Great) Potoo. These most-wanteds included all bird families and ‘distinct genera’ specific for the Neotropics such as tinamou, rhea, screamer, guans, limpkin, sungrebe, sunbittern, seriema, motmot, jacamar, puffbird, nunbird, swallow-wing, crescentchest, bamboowren, bristlefront, tapaculo, (ground) antbird, gnateater, ovenbird, spinetail, firewood-gatherer, foliage-gleaner, leaftosser, antpipit, streamcreeper, (tyrant-)manakin, cotinga, piha, bellbird, purpletuft and piprites; as well as new birdfamilies jacana and skimmer for JB.

We had a great time, due to the large numbers of bird(specie)s, good accommodation and great food. One warning though: Brazil is a very large country and should not be attempted by car with only one driver….unless one has a lot of time like we did.

Some of the best endemics/rarities seen (for our top-10 birds see below):  

Agami and Boat-billed Heron, Brazilian Merganser, 26 birds of prey including Harpy Eagle; Sungrebe, Sunbittern, Red-legged Seriema, Hyacinth and Golden-collared Macaw, Long-trained Nightjar, 30 hummingbirds including Plovercrest, Frilled and Festive Coquette; Brown and Three-toed Jacamar, Collared Crescentchest, Spotted Bamboowren, Slaty Bristlefront, Brasilia, White-breasted and Notorious Tapaculo, 44 species of antbird including Black-hooded, Serra, Salvadori’s, Unicolored and the ‘new’ Marsh Antwren, Dusky-tailed, Squamate and Scaled Antbird, Large-tailed, Giant, Spot-backed and White-bearded Antshrike, Cryptic and Rufous-tailed Antthrush, Variegated and Speckle-breasted Antpitta, Rufous and Black-cheeked Gnateater; Planalto Foliage-gleaner, Great Rufous Woodcreeper, Black-billed Scythebill, Chapada Flycatcher, Rufous-sided Pygmy-tyrant, Brown-breasted Bamboo-tyrant, Fork-tailed Tody-Tyrant, Russet-winged Spadebill, Cock-tailed and Streamer-tailed Tyrant, Three-striped Flycatcher, Helmeted, Band-tailed and Fiery-capped Manakin; Serra do Mar Tyrant-Manakin, 10 species of cotinga including Greenish Schiffornis, Red-ruffed and Bare-throated Fruitcrow, Swallow-tailed Cotinga, Buff-throated Purpletuft and Sharpbill; Black-capped and Wing-barred Piprites; 44 species of tanager including Cherry-throated and Chestnut-backed Tanager and Black-legged Dacnis; Bay-chested and Red-rumped Warbling-Finch, Buff-throated Pampa-Finch, Coal-crested Finch, Yellow-billed Blue Finch.

In addition, we also saw Coati, Giant and Neotropical River Otters, Marguay, 2 Ocelot, 2 Tamandua and Orange-spined Hairy Dwarf-Porcupine.

Photographs of our trip, incl some of Brazilian Merganser, can be found on

Some birds not seen: Spotted Nothura, Barred Forest-falcon, Rufous-sided Crake, Pheasant Cuckoo, Mottled Owl, Rufous-capped and Short-tailed Antthrush (all heard only (HO), Black-fronted Piping-guan, Horned Sungem, Crescent-chested Puffbird, Campo Miner, Cipo Canastero, Rio de Janeiro Antbird and Shrike-like Cotinga. 

Birds seen by one but not the other were comparatively few, given the number of birds seen and the habitat visited (forest mostly). These are indicated in the species list.

Climate and timing [JB]

Best time to visit Southeastern Brazil is between September and November. This is the austral spring, so more birds are calling. Best time to visit the Pantanal is in the dry period, roughly from May to October. In the wet period the Pantanal can be inaccessible. In the dry period the Pantanal slowly gets drier and birds are concentrated in the wet areas. As we wanted to combine these two parts of Brazil, we decided to go in September, starting in the Pantanal and ending in Southeastern Brazil. So we could visit the Pantanal before it was at its driest and visit the southeast when the breeding season was just starting and the worst of winter was over. Moreover, this was just the most convenient time for both of us. For the largest part this worked out well except for the following things:

The Pantanal was much drier than we expected. Maybe it was a dry year, but maybe going a little bit earlier in the year is better. There were plenty of birds anyway.

Some birds weren’t singing or nesting yet, the main example being Rufous-capped Antthrush, which we missed because it wasn’t singing and did not react to random taping. Also, Swallow-tailed Cotinga turned out to be a lot harder at Intervales than we expected. This cotinga was the main reason for going to Intervales, but as they were not nesting yet, they were unpredictable. It took us three days to finally find it.

The weather during our trip was influenced by passing coldfronts, as follows:

Money [JB]

Car Hire [JB]

We rented a car through Localiza, a well known Brazilian car rental company. Take the complete insurance package. We didn’t have any complaints about the cars or the company. The costs of car rental were:

Booking is possible through, but not for a longer period than 21 days. To book, you need a credit card and passport number. When filling out your passport number, only use the numbers, not the letters (we have letters in our Dutch passport number), otherwise it won’t work.

Hotels and accommodation

Readily available everywhere. Most we used are mentioned in the text. Golfinho Tropical at Ubatuba is recommended, as the friendly owners speak English well, it makes a good base for visiting nearby sites and their hummingbird feeder (also) attracts hummingbird bats at night.

Permits [JB]

  1. Of the places we visited we only needed a real permit for Boraceia. We had e-mailed in advance with the Sao Paulo University for this permit. It cost us US$ 15 per person per day including a night at the furnished researcher’s house. We used to contact the professor. According to Arthur Grosset (AG), see next paragraph, getting access to Boraceia has become more difficult in recent years, but it’s worth a try. After all, the site is close to the Marsh Antwren (and Sao Paulo), has great birding in a rustic setting, makes for a good start in SE Brazil and Hooded Berry-eater and Brazilian Tapir are common.
  2. In Itatiaia you need to pay a modest entrance fee.
  3. For Intervales it is good to book beforehand, so you are sure you don’t go there and don’t have a place to stay. But also to make sure you can have Luiz as your guide. AG mentions the phone and fax numbers as follows: telephone (015-3542-1245) or fax (015-3542-1511).
  4. For Serra das Araras it is also good to make a phonecall, so they can arrange the guide to be there to show you the Harpy Eagle’s nest.
  5. For the higher parts of Canastra you need to pay an entrance fee and normally you cannot get in before 8.00. However, the landlady of hotel Chapadão da Canastra made a phonecall to the guards and wrote us a note for them. Then we got in at 6.40. The lower parts near the Casca d’Anta waterfall also require an entrance fee, but most birders don’t go there (we did).

Books and reference material

“All the birds of Brazil” by Deodato Souza. This book may have poor drawings, but the plates in fact show most field marks and the text, though brief, is accurate. Even without other guides this book enables one to ID most birds encountered.

Birds of South America”, vols 1 (1989) and 2 (1994) by Robert S Ripley and Guy Tudor. This helps the ID of the more difficult groups like the tyrannulets, foliage-gleaners and woodcreepers. Try to get hold of a copy and take copies of the plates (using digital camera is easiest). The plates are a lot better than the ones in Souza.

Handbook to the birds of the world”, Josep del Hoyo et al (1992 onwards). These books may aid identifying photographed birds afterwards; the volumes are to bulky to take along on a trip. Especially the volume dealing with the antbirds, woodcreepers and ovenbirds is recommended.

Birding Brazil” by Forrester. A site guide.

At Arthur Grosset published many pictures, tripreports and site notes that are extremely helpful when planning a trip and studying the birds, both before and after a trip.

We used tripreports by John van der Woude (SE Brazil, Oct-Nov 2001), Samuel Hansson (June-July 2000), Mike Hunter (Oct-Nov 1999).

Other literature includes “Guia de Campo”, “Swifts” and “New World Warblers”.


Peter van Scheepen was very helpful in providing us with a number of compilations of birdsounds he’d used on his trip to the area. Juan Mazar Barnett, our guide during the Pantanal / Chapada dos Guimaraes leg of the trip, gave us invaluable information on where to find some of the Canastra endemics, noticeably Brasilia Tapaculo, Sharp-tailed Tyrant and Collared Crescentchest (the latter also seen at Chapada dos Guimaraes). Moreover, Juan proved very knowledgeable about the sounds and sites of Pantanal birds. Arthur Grosset is also thanked for updating his invaluable site and for his response to Johan’s enquiries.

Itinerary [JB]

26/08   Flight Amsterdam Schiphol - São Paulo Guarulhos with a stop at Paris Charles de Gaulle
27/08   Arrive at São Paulo Guarulhos at 5.00 am. Pick up car, drive towards Boracéia at 6.40 am. Birding along the way and at Biritiba-Mirim. Late afternoon birding at Boracéia.
28/08   Birding Boracéia, drive back to São Paulo Guarulhos; flight Guarulhos-Cuiabá; pick up car.
29/08   Drive Cuiabá-Serra das Araras; birding Serra das Araras.
30/08   Birding Serra das Araras.
31/08   Birding Serra das Araras; drive back to Cuiabá.
01/09   Meet trip members and guide Juan over breakfast. Bird down Transpantaneira to Fazenda Sta Teresa. Birding near Sta Teresa; night birding Transpantaneira.
02/09   Morning birding Fazenda Sta Teresa, Afternoon boat trip over river Pixaim.
03/09   Morning Pixaim river boat trip; drive to Porto Joffre, while birding Transpantaneira; arrive in the dark; night birding Porto Joffre.
04/09   Morning birding Porto Joffre; afternoon driving to Fazenda Sta Teresa, some birding along the way; night birding Fazenda Sta Teresa.
05/09   Morning birding Fazenda Sta Teresa; afternoon drive to Chapada dos Guimarães.
06/09   Morning birding cerrado; little birding Pousada Laura Vicuña (Johan); afternoon birding Véu da Noiva.
07/09   Morning birding gallery forest; late morning and early afternoon birding in forest Pousada Laura Vicuña; afternoon drive back to Cuiabá.
08/09   Morning flight Cuiabá - São Paulo Cogonhas; pick up car; longish drive to Intervales.
09/09   Birding Intervales.
10/09   Birding Intervales.
11/09   Birding Intervales.
12/09   Early morning birding Intervales; long drive to Itirapina; late afternoon birding Itirapina.
13/09   Long drive Itirapina - Serra da Canastra, late afternoon birding Vargem Bonita; check in São Roque de Minas.
14/09   Birding lower parts of Serra da Canastra.
15/09   Birding higher parts of Serra da Canastra.
16/09   Drive to Serra do Cipó, some birding along the way.
17/09   Morning birding Serra do Cipó; afternoon sleeping, reading, swimming.
18/09   Morning drive to Caraça; sev hours birding Caraça; drive to Venda Nova; long wait for Ana and Pedro.
19/09   Morning birding Pindobas IV; late afternoon birding Caetes.
20/09   Morning birding Pindobas IV; afternoon birding Caetes; drive back to Venda Nova in torrential rain; finding very dodgy hotel with lot of difficulty.
21/09   Longish drive to Carmo; afternoon birding Carmo; late afternoon and night drive to Itatiaia: long drive, traffic jam; arriving at 23:00.
22/09   Birding Maromba trail, Hotel do Ypê and grounds Hotel Simon.
23/09   Morning birding Tres Picos, afternoon birding grounds Hotel Simon and Hotel do Ypê.
24/09   Birding Algulhas Negras.
25/09   Morning birding Tres Picos trail and a little on grounds Hotel Simon; afternoon birding Hotel do Ypê; late afternoon and early night drive to Paratí.
26/09   Birding Perequê until 15:00; late afternoon birding Condominio Trindade.
27/09   Morning birding beach Paratí; drive to Ubatuba; afternoon birding Fazenda Capricornio.
28/09   Morning birding Corcovado; early afternoon birding Folha Seca-Jonas’ feeders; mid afternoon ‘at home’ at Golfinho Tropical; end afternoon heronry river mouth Ubatuba.
29/09   Morning birding Fazenda Angelim; resting at Golfinho Tropical in afternoon.
30/09   Morning birding Folha Seca and Jonas’ feeders; afternoon drive back to São Paulo Guarulhos; arrive Guarulhos 19:30; flight 2 hours delayed; final departure 00:20.
01/10   Brief stop at Paris Charles de Gaulle 16:00; arrive Amsterdam Schiphol 18:00.


Most visitors hire guides to show them around SE Brazil and help them find and identify the endemics and other rarities. We decided against it as it would cost too much, whereas we also had quite some time and thought we could do it ourselves. This proved true, apart from some more difficult Phyllomias tyrannulets which are hard to identify without prior knowledge of habitat, calls and song. Professional guides are mentioned at (AG’s) and include, apart from the mentioned Ricardo Parrini, Andrew Whittaker and Edson Endrigo, also Paulo Boute.

The Curripira das Araras has an in-house guide, Manuel, to show guests the local Harpy Eagle and some other specialties. Manuel could have shown us more if he’d taken us to various habitats. The birding is generally slow in Araras and even a guide can’t really help that.

It seems like the Pantanal is easy enough to go birding on your own, which of course is true: there are plenty of birds around and as long as one visits the various habitats one will find many. However, we decided to go on an organised tour, for a number of reasons. We found out that renting a car for two, staying at the fazendas and renting boats would probably cost us around 700 USD per peron/week, whereas going on a fixed tour with the Pantanal Bird Club ( would only be slightly more (around 1,000 USD). This would mean having an experienced guide around who knew the sites and, more importantly, could put us in the right direction when identifying flycatchers and other difficult groups by call and habitat. Another important reason was that from tripreports we learned that the Pantanal Bird Club knew a site for Great Potoo, a most-wanted. In the end, the Great Potoo was not at home, though the other reasons were fully met and we recommend going on a tour with the Pantanal Bird Club, apart from one thing:

When we contacted Braulio Carlos, owner of the Pantanal Bird Club, about joining one of their tours, he suggested he book our domestic ticket Sao Paulo Guarulhos-Cuiaba for us. We accepted his offer against the price he mentioned, then didn’t hear from him/his office staff again for months. We emailed a couple of times, offering to book the domestic ticket ourselves if there somehow was a problem with them booking it for us. In the end, he did book our ticket but apparently at the last moment, when prices had increased. We felt this was his responsibility, as we had offered him to book it ourselves. Prior to us going on the tour, he sent us emails in which he demanded the extra money from us (100 USD per person) and, as we didn’t respond to the emails, he visited us while we were at Fazenda Sta Teresa. It took us an hour deliberating before we let him know that we, like the other tour participants, would prefer birding or having a nap right after lunch, instead of discussing money-we didn’t pay in the end (more out of principle than the money). We expect him/his office to have learnt from this (minor) mistake, so we have no trouble recommending Pantanal Bird Club.

Juan Mazar Barnett was our knowledgeable guide on the Pantanal tour. The tour also includes a visit to Chapada dos Guimaraes, that is scenically beautiful and holds a different set of birds. Usually, a pre- or post-tour extension can be arranged to Serra das Araras for Harpy Eagle. This extension will cost around 500 USD extra, whereas it’s, of course, cheaper when done yourselves.

At Intervales, everyone is required to have a guide with them when away from the central area, the Sede. Apparently there are two knowledgeable guides of which the most experienced one is Luiz. Luiz is very good on habitats, ID and calls/song, but he doesn’t speak English. He uses the scientific names and if you don’t know them, he’ll show you what he hears (or has just seen) in his kingsize Souza. Time-consuming, a little stressfull sometimes but nevertheless funny and we saw lots of good birds with him. [How about 6 cotingas in a day-4 lifers-Bare-throated Bellbird, Cinnamon Piha, Sharpbill, Red-ruffed Fruitcrow, Swallow-tailed Cotinga and, HO, Hooded Berry-eater]. Hiring Luiz cost 50 BR (about 16 EUR) a day but of course we tipped him well.

The most expensive bird in Brazil surely is Cherry-throated Tanager, that apparently occurs only in two adjacent forest patches near Venda Nova: Pindobas IV and Caetes. Flock sizes at our time of visit was about 7 and 11, respectively, and these are currently the only known birds in the world. For some reason, Johan desperately wanted to see these birds, so we spent 250 USD a day (excl hotel and food expenses for 5), two days in a row, to hire Ana and Pedro (Ana Cristina Venturini and Pedro Rogério de Paz), two biologists who know the area and the birds well. They claim to are studying the birds and to be the only ones able to get access to both forest patches, and although we don’t doubt their well-meaning, it is somewhat of a circus. [Then again, this is easily said, as we now have seen these birds and people reading this might not have]. Basically, Ana and Pedro, a couple, guide people to these areas constantly taping Sirystes, the local flock leader. When a flock comes in, which might take a while, they start taping the Cherry-throated Tanager-loud. I wonder how you can study a bird if you tape them constantly-I mean, I use tape myself but never tape an individual bird longer than 10 mins (usually less than 5) as the risk of disturbing them becomes too high. Ana and Pedro can be more or less fully booked for months and will then tape the same birds over and over again. Again, it is easy to be critical once you’ve seen the birds, but if it’s birding, not twitching/listing you like, you might want to skip this. That said, Ana and Pedro are very knowledgeable on the birds and their calls and both areas, especially Caetes, hold a number of good birds that mainly Ana will try to show you. Caetes even has a site for Shrike-like Cotinga, but as we were too early in the year (or just unlucky), we dipped. A number of goodies Ana (and a biologist-in-training trailing us) showed us include Tawny-browed Owl, Gray-headed and Rufous-thighed Kite, White-bibbed Antbird, Cryptic Antthrush, Rufous Gnateater, Sharp-tailed Streamcreeper, Wing-barred Piprites, Notorious Tapaculo and Spotted Bamboowren. Ana and Pedro can be contacted through or


Fri Aug 26: Finally on our way

Our flight leaves Amsterdam Schiphol Airport at 20.15. After a stop of about one hour at Paris Charles de Gaulle we continue to Sao Paulo Guarulhos.

Sat Aug 27: Marsh Antwren-day of Brazilian Tapir day?

We arrive at Guarulhos at 5.00, pick up some money at the ATM in the hall and go on to Localiza at the edge of the airport to pick up our car. Here we see our first birds of the trip incl Remco’s first new species-Southern Lapwing. My first new species turns out to be a White-tailed Kite, near a toll stop. Feeling good in our ‘own’ car, we go on our way to our first stop just past Mogi das Cruzes, at Biritiba-Mirim, wanting to start the trip with the recently discovered Marsh Antwren species/population as our first antbird. The spot is easy to find with the site description we have found on the internet (AG). But our first antbird is an antshrike, identified as an Eastern Slaty (but in retrospect it might have been a Variable), our second is a male Rufous-capped Antshrike giving great views upon playing the cd. The right spot for the newly discovered Marsh Antwren turns out to be a bit further along the cattail marsh, marked by a large spot of flattened vegetation. After taping the sound of Parana Antwren (a species / population occurring several 100s of kilometres further south and at much lower elevation) a pair gives great views. A nearby flowering tree holds 5 species of hummingbird. It is great to be in Brazil!

We continue on the same road towards Boracéia research station, stopping along the road and being invited to bird the grounds of a farm where many Bare-throated Bellbirds are calling. Great sound, no views! On these grounds we have a surprise encounter with a female Giant Antshrike which gives good, but relatively short views. Here we also see our first Hooded Siskins, Blue Manakin and Lineated Woodpecker.

Around 14:30 (2.30 pm) we arrive at Boracéia, find my first Wattled Jacana (first jacana ever, remarkably) at the mudflats close to the entrance. We bird along the road, seeing Hooded Berry-eater, Black-tailed Tityra and Sharp-billed Treehunter. Near a bridge, we hear a singing Cryptic Antthrush at dusk, not too far from the road and decide to try and tape that one in tomorrow. On the last part of the track to the houses, I see ‘a horse standing on the road’ (yeah, sure!). It turns out to be a Brazilian Tapir, which we can watch in the headlights of the car. What a first day!

Sun Aug 28: Thank god I speak Portuguese

Today we start with the Cryptic Antthrush. It isn’t very cooperative but after a long time trying to tape-lure it it gives poor but satisfying views, especially while walking over a log above a stream. After all, it is an antthrush-what views can you expect….

We mainly bird the road to the right just after the second bridge (1) and the main road just before the bridge (2). On 1 we have great views of a Russet-winged Spadebill, Remco sees another female Giant Antshrike which I only hear. From the tanager front there are Black-goggled, Azure-shouldered, Red-necked and Brassy-breasted Tanagers. From the bridge we see a Pale-browed Treehunter and our first Sharpbill. The main road just before the bridge turns out to be quite birdy, with good views of Spot-backed Antshrike, Buff-browed Foliage-gleaner, Eared Pygmy-tyrant and the beautiful Fawn-breasted Tanager. The place is simply teeming with Oustalet’s Tyrannulet, but there are other tyrannulets that we can’t identify….yet. Of course someone has forgotten to bring the article on identification of tyrannulets..…(Johan!)

Time to head back to Guarulhos. We do some birding along the way (Hangnest Tody-tyrant), but the main event is being halted by a policeman, while we aren’t exactly early for our flight. The policeman isn’t convinced by my international driver’s licence (always immediately show your national licence and your passport as well!) and it seems like it is going to take a while. Thank god we managed to explain to him that we had to catch our flight. He turns out to be o.k. and lets us go without contacting headquarters and tracking us down in the computer… so we manage to catch our flight just in time. Cuiabá, here we come. Of course we arrive in the dark. So after a disappointing drive through town looking for other hotels than the obvious ones near the airport, we end up in the Diplomata hotel, which is also used by the Pantanal Bird Club.


On our way to Serra das Araras. During a short roadside stop-the trucks pass very close-by-about 20 km north of Varzea Grande we see our first White-edged Piculet, a large flock of (mainly Double-collared) Seedeater and our first Thrush-like Wrens… many more will follow. A second stop produces Giant Cowbird and Orange-backed Troupial. At the turn-off towards Araras we have a nice coconut juice and see Dusky-headed Parakeet, Piratic Flycatcher and Purplish Jay. The entrance road produces a group of no less than 9 Swallow-wings and a beautiful Plumbeous Kite. We find the pousada, which turns out to have no other guests. We are very welcome, but the guy who usually guides to the Harpy Eagle nest has got a couple of days off. Lucky for us they have a replacement.

The pousada grounds are already paradise and live up to its name-many Red-shouldered Macaws (‘araras’) around. Sitting at the lunch-table brings us Black-fronted Nunbird and the beautiful Yellow-tufted as well as White Woodpeckers. While Johan goes to sleep for a short while Remco discovers more on the pousada grounds, a beautiful pair of Red-necked Woodpecker, Blue-crowned Trogon and a Pectoral Sparrow (the only one of the trip, unfortunately missed by Johan).

From 14.00 until dusk we are on our way to the harpy eagle spot. Our guide thinks it necessary to first try and look for the adults all over the place, but after a while we tell him we will do for an easier juvenile. In the meantime we see many birds near the water basins, but less birds in the dry forest, which looks a bit dead.

We see a surprise lone Southern Screamer, but apparently it has been around for a while. And among other things Green Ibis, Gray Monjita and our first Toco Toucan. The trail in the forest is rather quiet, but we manage to see Cuvier’s Toucan, Blue-crowned Motmot and a female Black-throated Antbird. The harpy eagle clearing turns out to be more birdy. We see an empty nest tree, with many carcasses of dead animals, mainly armadillos, underneath it-this Harpy Eagle surely must be a monster. We walk around the clearing looking for it, when suddenly it calls from a tree above us-it is HUGE! You wouldn’t leave your children playing out there in that clearing. We get great views and even see it flying a little bit. WOW!

Another good bird around there is Spix’s guan. Also on the clearing we find Magpie Tanager, our only male Hepatic Tanager of the trip, Lettered Araçaris, Green-barred and Little Woodpecker and a male Vermillion Flycatcher.

It’s dark when we head back to the Pousada, but our young guide deserves a tip.

Tue Aug 30: New day, new surprises

Today we don’t go to see the Harpy Eagle, but we go birding on our own in the forest and along the main track. Remco thinks he has seen a Bare-necked Fruitcrow, but I simply cannot believe it. I almost step on a snake which is big, black and yellow, but doesn’t look poisonous (who walks backward in a Brazilian forest without looking well!). We see our first real Puffbird: White-necked, a female Masked Duck, Chestnut-eared Araçaris. A pair of Red-and-green Macaws fly over the forest, croaking loudly. We get good views of a singing male Black-throated Antbird and some Short-tailed Pygmy-tyrants. But star-bird of the day is a stunning male Bare-necked Fruitcrow……Remco was right after all! At the pousada grounds we see a mystery bird, yellow with a grey head (is it a flycatcher or a tanager?) which, after a long search in our bird books, turns out to be a female White-shouldered Tanager.

When dusk falls we decide to try random-taping some owls-you never know. Within seconds after starting the tape a Ferruginous Pygmy-owl flies in and gives good views at 2 meters distance. A (Southern) Tawny-bellied Screech-owl responds, but stays far.

Again it is dark when we head back. We drive slowly, barely falling asleep, when suddenly a big fat rattle-snake crosses the road. We want to take a photo, but don’t dare to get very close. We are less afraid of a Pauraque on the road. Sweet dreams again!

Wed Aug 31: our most intimate moment

On our last morning, we go out with real guide Manuel. We hope he has some knowledge of where we can find good birds. But the morning starts with us waiting by the car and him being hung-over and still lying in his bed. We get someone to shake him out of his bed, but we are pissed off-he’d better be good. We start off a little bit further along the main road in more open country. We think we see two or three different species of Amazon, as they all look different. In the end they all turn out to be Orange-wingeds. They seem quite variable, maybe they are immature birds?

Good birds are Gray Hawk, Black-tailed Trogon and a pair of Spix’s Warbling Antbirds. We are doing well with the antbirds. They sometimes react a bit too well on tape-luring. After half a minute of (randomly) playing the tape, they often keep singing and showing for half an hour. We go back for the Harpy Eagle and again see it well. The harpy-eagle clearing turns out to be very birdy and suddenly we run out of time. A Double-toothed Kite is perched in a tree, while a Pied Puffbird is sitting in another. We get great views of Great and Barred Antshrike and a male Rusty-backed Antwren. Go antbirds! A pair of feeding Brown Jacamars are also obliging.

On our way to and back from the clearing the forest proves again hard to bird, but nevertheless the male Bare-necked Fruitcrow shows well again along with 2 Ferruginous Pygmy-owls in broad daylight, without having to tape or whistle. A female White-backed Fire-eye provides a mystery at first. In the end Manuel proves himself by finding us a Southern Antpipit, which gives a great show by walking towards us on the path. It is blind on one eye, maybe that’s why it doesn’t seem to react to us at all. By lying on the trail we manage to take pics of it using only 35mm lense. Great little bird!

In the afternoon we need to head back to Cuiabá, unfortunately. But not before a last roadside stop in a cerrado type area along the entrance road. It was just luck, but it proved to be a good stop, with Helmeted and Band-tailed Manakin, Chivi Vireo and Hooded Tanager. A worthy goodbye to Serra das Araras.

Back in Cuiabá, we check in at Hotel Diplomata again and return our car to Localiza. Tomorrow our trip with Pantanal Bird Club starts. In the hotel we meet some of the other group members and learn that the next morning we are having breakfast together at 6.00. So time to go to bed, but only after having our most intimate moment of the trip… a long tick-removing session (without tick-remover). Serra das Araras must be the most tick-infested place we have ever been to. I only have about 8. But Remco has at least a record 20!

Thu Sept 1: Pantanal and… Remco explodes… (I know it sounds strange, but it was kind of true)

Breakfast at 6.00 as planned. We meet the group, our guide for the next week, Juan Mazar Barnett, and our driver Claudio. The rest of the group are Jane and Robert, a British accountant couple (but not boring at all), Frank, a raptor lover, Ed and (‘I am older than’) Yanga from the US and Swedish couple Christian and Gunel who respectively photograph everything and watch only parrots and other colourful stuff. Of course Remco and I want to see all the boring little brown jobs too. Compared to the rest of this group we probably are a little bit annoying, know-it-all, want-to-know-it-all and want-to-see-it-all. Especially to Juan, who had to get used to us at the start of the trip. So it’s good we still have our Dutch charm to compensate :-).

The Pantanal is great and there is so much to see. Of course you know what you can expect, but-although the lack of water was a bit disappointing - the amount of birds is amazing. Some highlights:

We start slowly, but at one of the first water holes Remco nearly explodes from enthusiasm: JABIRU! His most wanted… Juan and Claudio nevertheless stay irritatingly cool and tell us that there are many more to come. But this is our first ever…. Remco is annoyed, but Juan is right of course. We will see more but not at our first stop where we are spoiled with a beautiful pair of Streamer-tailed Tyrants, our first White-headed Marsh-tyrant and our only (fly-by, bad-views, but least-interesting of the stop) Nanday Parakeets. And we aren’t even on the Transpantaneira highway yet.

Our next stop produces Scarlet-headed Blackbird and Black-capped Donacobius (a relict babbler? Or a wren?). Then the Pantanal descends on us, a fly-by pair of Hyacint Macaw! Sunbitterns, some even spreading their wings. A Greater Rhea (although strange with a fence in the background-wild though). And a great stop at a water hole with many Jabirus, many Cayman and 4 Giant Otters giving a great show. It seems to be time for the mammals to show: an (injured) Neotropical River Otter, Capybaras, Black Howler Monkeys and to top it an OCELOT crossing the road. To think these are only our first hours in the Pantanal.

Nice raptors include perched Laughing Falcon and Crane Hawk. The cracids perform well too: Chestnut-bellied Guan, Bare-faced Curassow and Chaco Chachalaca (I still don’t know how to pronounce this).

We arrive at Fazenda Sta Teresa for lunch. A relaxed pousada, from which we will do boat, walking and driving trips in the next couple of days. There are always many birds on the feeders. And the food is good. I keep eating the doces.

But a cold front has hit the Pantanal and we feel like we are freezing and all have to wear jumpers in the middle of the day to keep warm-strange! Because of the cold we don’t go for a boat trip in the afternoon. Instead we drive and walk on the fazenda grounds. We enjoy displaying pairs of Common and Greater Thornbird, a surprise Red-pileated Finch, a nicely perched Blue-throated Piping-guan and Chotoy Spinetail. The mammals put in a Crab-eating Fox. On a spotlighting drive after dusk we come across one of our targets: Boat-billed Heron, what a strange bill! We go to sleep feeling veeeeery satisfied.

Fri Sept 2: Agamia agami

Remco and I start with a morning walk in the forests on the rivers’ edge. We don’t get far before breakfast, but see Solitary Cacique, Red-crested Cardinal and Buff-bellied Hermit. After breakfast we walk the same trail with the group, seeing Band-tailed Antbird, a beautiful pair of Rufous-tailed Jacamar, Moustached Wren and a nice pair of Large-billed Antwren.

On a small walk on our own during lunchtime we see Grassland Sparrow. The afternoon boattrip turns out to be great. Remco finds a very well-hidden immature AGAMI HERON. The two of us get out of the boat to get closer and get good views. What a neck! What a bill! Other birds are Pale-legged Hornero, American Pygmy-kingfisher, our only certain Red-throated Piping-guan (colour and shape of the dewlap both seem right), Buff-breasted Wren and Little Cuckoo. When dusk falls Band-tailed Nighthawks are hawking above the river and a Pauraque gives a good show sitting by and fly-catching above the river’s edge. What else… more Sunbitterns, still beautiful.

Sat Sept 3: Sungrebe

One of our most wanted species in the Pantanal was Sungrebe. We were very keen to see it and the other day we had been searching the river, all water vegetation and overhanging branches in order to find it. Juan had told us there was little chance. Of course we kept asking him what our chances were to see some of our most wanted bird species on this tour (Great Rufous Woodcreeper, Collared Crescentchest, etc.). And Juan of course kept saying he didn’t know, because you can never push nature. At the boat trip this morning we were even more focussed on finding it (Agami Heron was in the pocket). Remco searched the left side, Johan the right (or the other way around)-it was almost pathetic. The whole way we didn’t find our target. We were on the way back and we were almost giving up, when Remco shouted SUNGREBE! Panic, at least in my boat, where is it? Where is it? The rest of us couldn’t find it until just before it flew. Fortunately we got even better views when we refound it under the overhanging branches. Phew!

Other birds on the boat trip were Mato Grosso Antbird and Green-and-rufous Kingfisher – the only kingfisher that still eluded us. During a walk on the other side of the fazenda Juan and his magic tape called in a beautiful Red-billed Scythebill. We also saw our first (identified) Tinamous-3 Undulateds, walking on the trail.

In the afternoon it turned out Juan had kept an option for Sungrebe in his mind all the time (sneaky bastard). Along the Transpantaneira, on the way to Porto Joffre, was a water hole where they had regularly found it. After some searching Robert found it, although not being quite sure of himself. This bird gave even better views, but for some of the group it wasn’t more than a little brown duck-like job… They got their chance a little bit later when we saw perched Golden-collared and Hyacinth Macaws. At the same time Juan heard a Great Rufous Woodcreeper. Again with the help of his tape this giant rufous monster came flying in. Most were more interested in the macaws, but Remco and I were quite happy to have a look at all of them.

On the way to Porto Joffre we saw Great Horned Owl at a regular stake-out, some Maguari Storks and-perhaps Juan’s bird of the trip-a Little Blue Heron I found in a large roost of Snowy Egrets. On all his trips to the Pantanal, this was only the third or fourth he saw here.

On our way to Porto Joffre, we simply saw too many birds-so we arrived at the Fishing Lodge after dark and could only hear the Hyacinth Macaws at their roost on the grounds. Hopefully they would put on a show tomorrow morning.

Night birding was poor, seeing only Southern Crested Caracaras. Before we found out what they really were we had had a good time fantasizing what this sound could be though. Owls, frogs, mammals… nothing was left unmentioned… great to have a good guide like Juan around J.

Sun Sept 4: Oh, what a night…!

Today we started the day by birding the area around Porto Joffre. For a while Remco and I parted ways, which meant that afterwards we had to run around because we wanted to try and find each other’s birds again. The jaguar photos in the lodge looked very good, but we didn’t get to see more than the photos. At least the lodge was very luxurious with airconditioning etc. It was warm and the birding was a bit poor this morning, the best birds being Fawn-breasted Wren, Tawny-bellied Seedeater and White-winged Becard. We also saw Tawny-crowned Pygmy-tyrant – this little bastard proved terribly hard to see for Johan-and there isn’t even anything to see on this bird. Why do we want to see all these drab-looking birds? A pair of Blue-crowned Trogons showed us what we were doing it for. On the other hand it was nice to see some waders, South American Snipe showed well and there were also a pair of Collared Plovers. Some Solitary Sandpipers were obviously the first migrants to arrive.

Did I say the birding was poor? The Hyacinth Macaws gave a great show near and on the water tank. They look like they are always laughing and telling jokes.

The return journey to Santa Teresa brought a roadside Red-billed Scythebill showing off its feeding tactics [an amazing find by Johan while we sped by doing 60 mph, RH]. Some Little Woodpeckers were found in the same tree. Unexpected was a Yellow-browed Tyrant.

At Santa Teresa the local Great Horned Owl showed well during dinner. After dinner Juan, Claudio, Remco and I went for some night birding. From the car we suddenly spotlit an Ocelot, which we could follow for 5 minutes, shortly after followed by a Southern Tamandua giving good views. Time to go find us some nightjars. Some Spot-tailed Nightjars were calling not too far away, while at least three Little Nightjars gave their strange call in the distance. After finding a pair of eyes in the spotlight we slowly walked closer and closer, as silently as possible. We didn’t want to disturb the bird… this would be a great opportunity to see a perched Spot-tailed Nightjar. Surprise surprise, as we came closer the eyes turned out to be… a Scissor-tailed Nightjar!!!! We could approach to a meter and it still did not fly. Then Juan decided to try and catch it by hand… he missed it only by an inch. Later on we found it again. The Spot-tailed Nightjars showed reasonably well after a lot of walking back and forth. We gave up on the Littles, because they were far away and it was past midnight already. What a night! Next morning we hardly dared telling the others about our adventures.

Mon Sept 5: Doing business and more nighthawks

Our last day in the Pantanal. We walked our familiar trail along the river again, seeing some completely different birds than before-somehow Juan knows how to plan seeing the birds. New birds were White-tailed Goldenthroat, Pale-crested Woodpecker, Stripe-necked Tody-tyrant and Streaked Xenops. Unfortunately the hoped-for Cream-coloured Woodpecker didn’t show.

Lunch had us talking with Braulio Carlos about some financial stuff related to the booking of our flight to Cuiabá (see guided tours). It was a good thing that he came to talk to us, but in the end none of us were any happier. Good to see the man behind Pantanal Birdclub though.

We hardly dared telling the others about our late night encounter with Southern Tamandua. Luckily when Braulio Carlos arrived it turned out he saw another (or the same) some kilometres south on the Transpantaneira. We are all happy to see it resting in the fork of a tree giving good and prolonged views. And telling the others afterwards about our late night encounter with one is not that hard.

The way to Cuiabá and on to Chapada dos Guimarães was rather uneventful. Until a giant Nacunda Nighthawk decided to start flying around in broad daylight. Thank you! As we had to get to Chapada dos Guimaraes, we could hardly get Juan to stop the van. It gave good views perched on the ground afterwards. Strangely, a Lesser Nighthawk chose to start flying around in broad daylight at exactly the same spot, at exactly the same time. Lucky us! Other highlights were a Coati (Frank: Kinkajou!), a Greater Rhea and some Marsh Deer. It was dark when we arrived at pousada Laura Vicuña, on the road from Chapada to Cuiabá.

Tue Sept 6: Johan’s bird of the trip: Collared Crescentchest

All these days of getting up early and birding all day were taking their toll. Getting up was getting harder and harder for me. We still managed to get up quite early and went birding the cerrado at the Agua Fría road. On our first stop we see Black-faced Tanager, White-vented Violet-ear and Pale-breasted Spinetail. Our next stop brought more Tanagers, White-banded and White-rumped, but also Rufous-sided and Tawny-crowned Pygmy-tyrant, a female Coal-crested Finch and Curl-crested Jay. A Swallow-tailed Kite in a kettle of Plumbeous Kites was distant unfortunately. We really want to see that one well. The recently described Chapada Flycatcher gives a good show, incl courtship display, and we can compare it with look-alike Campos Flycatcher. White-eared Puffbirds give good views and we are happy to bump into a Checkered Woodpecker. Then it is time for the real work. We hear a Collared Crescentchest, one of our most wanted birds. Unfortunately it stops singing quite soon after we play the tape. Luckily we get a second chance, when we hear it again a bit later. We all climb the fence and walk into the cerrado. We form a line in order to best try and find it and Juan plays his magic tape again. After a while we find it, typically skulking on the ground. Most of us got to see it, but some didn’t get more than reasonable views of it moving to the next bush or clump of grass. After a while it disappeared, never to be found again.

Another bird giving better views was Rufous-winged Antshrike. We got good views of both male and female out in the open and Johan took some photos. Another highlight was a pair of Red-and-green Macaws perched, although quite far.

We drove a bit further on the road where the vegetation was a bit more open. Our target was Red-legged Seriema, which we had already heard in the cerrado. We didn’t have high hopes, but amazingly Claudio found one, which was half hidden in the vegetation. This man has got amazing eyes and no binoculars. We all got good looks through the telescope. At the same spot we saw a remarkable dark phase White-tailed Hawk! Everybody was getting warm, sweaty, tired and some a bit bored. Time for lunch, for which we drove back to the town of Chapada dos Guimarães. A big surprise (though not for Juan) awaited us there: some slender, long-tailed birds came gliding down fast above the village, but what were they? They turned out to be 3 Swallow-tailed Kites, which are apparently quite regularly seen above the village. The village was quite nice actually, especially the large, white, church-like building in the centre.

Time to relax a bit after lunch. Johan was tired, but felt like exploring the gallery forest behind the pousada a little bit. Surely there had to be some birds there. But it was the heat of day and birds were not very cooperative. The only thing of interest seemed a repeated frog-like beeping sound, but he could never find the source and couldn’t decide if it was a bird, a frog or an insect. Unfortunately had to let it go… for now.

After the siesta it was time to bird again, this time near the Véu da Noiva waterfall, where we wanted to see many parakeets and parrots. Near the entrance they performed very well. Four beautiful Blue-winged Macaws were feeding on the nuts in the trees next to the guard house. A few more of them would follow, but the masses were formed by many White-eyed Parakeets coming to roost near the waterfall. Others were Red-shouldered Macaws and Blue-headed Parrots. We got interesting scope-views of White-collared and Great Dusky Swifts roosting behind the waterfall. We managed to find one or two Biscutate Swifts in groups of flying White-collared Swifts-their half-collar best visible when the birds pass the edge of the gorge at eyelevel. A superb Bat Falcon perched in a lone tree above the waterfall and showed remarkable hunting flights after which it returned to its perch… to eat a bat.

Johan and the rest went to bed after dinner, feeling very tired, but Remco, Juan, Robert and Jane tried for owls and the highly wished-for potoo again-to no avail.

Wed Sept 7

Our last day with the tour group and our last day in Chapada dos Guimarães. It was good being with a group for a change, but now we are looking forward to just go birding and having holidays with the two of us. But first some more birding with the group, in a gallery forest a little bit towards Cuiabá. Jane had been joking (maybe dreaming) about Hairy Hermits all week and today we finally saw one. The forest was again different from where we had been before. We saw Yellow-ridged Toucan and a young male Amethyst Woodstar. A pair of Red-necked Woodpeckers gave good views while excavating a nesthole; a pair of Thick-billed Euphonia was also building their nest. After a lot of work we all got to see our only Guira Tanagers, although they are supposed to be quite common. In a total of 4 months spent in Brazil these are the only Guira Tanagers I ever saw. Maybe they are widespread, but certainly not common. We all had to keep really quiet to see two Tataupa Tinamous cross the path. But the most remarkable thing happened when Juan tried randomly taping Fiery-capped Manakin, which is supposed to be there. The manakins never showed; didn’t even call, but this call on the tape sounded remarkably like the froglike call I had heard next to the pousada… this needed some action. So when the others went to pack their bags or went to sleep before lunch, Remco and I went into the gallery forest next to the pousada searching for the manakins. Again the forest was quiet, so we tried random taping the manakin. After a while we heard a response….. YES, it was Fiery-capped Manakin … now we wanted so SEE it. We did some walking back and forth, some taping, pishing and whistling ‘Ferruginous Pygmy-owl’. A pair of White-bellied Warblers came in, a female Plain Antvireo and three Gray-headed Tanagers and then… YES, a tiny, but beautiful male Fiery-capped Manakin showed beautifully, while calling at a couple of meters distance.

After lunch we went back with the whole group and after a long time we again saw a male Fiery-capped Manakin. Other birds were a Planalto Woodcreeper and a Tataupa Tinamou.

Then it was time to head back to Cuiabá. We made one last stop hoping for perched Red-and-green Macaws. Instead we flushed a Black-chested Buzzard-eagle, which unfortunately only gave short views. At night we have pizza together at our-by now regular-pizza place across the road from the Diplomata. Yep, pizza rucola again. We say goodbye to the rest of the group, because tomorrow we all go our own separate ways.

Thu Sept 8:

While most of the (former) group have to get a 6.00 o’clock flight to Rio, Juan and the Americans go to Araras for the Harpy and we get to sleep in until 7.40. After breakfast and some internet (to book our car with Localiza in São Paulo), we go to the airport. It’s hot, about 35 C today-so different from our first day in the Pantanal. We buy T-shirts and souvenirs on the airport and then our plane takes us back to São Paulo, to Cogonhas this time. Remco is pissed off, because the plane makes a stop-over, although they had ensured us it wouldn’t, after us specifically asking about it. Remco doesn’t like flying-especially taking off. Me, I don’t care, except for my ears always exploding when the plane is going to land again - I sometimes stay half-deaf for days after landing.

At São Paulo Cogonhas we pick up our car at Localiza. The office is at the airport, but the garage is quite far away in the city. That means we have to manoevre through the city to get out on the highway towards Intervales. Nothing much happens on the way, except that it starts raining quite heavily when we get close to Intervales: we’re back in the Atlantic rainforest. We arrive just before 21.00 and when we get out at the gate to sign in, in pouring rain, we hear at least 10 different frogs calling from a nearby pond. We are the only guests in the park and they have been waiting for us with our dinner, which at least I have been looking forward to. We sleep in a very nice bungalow called Esquilo-the strong light on our veranda attracts many moths. There is a very large living-room with couches, a wooden table with benches (very good to hit your knees in the dark) and a fireplace. We will hardly use it in the next couple of days-there is birding to be done. Hardly any birds seen today. We sleep just before 22.00 (10 pm).

Fri Sept 9

I can hardly believe it has been only two weeks, still three to go. We have seen and done so much; it could have been a complete holiday already. Today we go birding in Intervales, which feels like paradise. We wake up with a drizzle, but that doesn’t keep us from birding the surroundings of our bungalow. We’ve got Swallow-tailed Cotinga on our mind-the main thing we came here for. There are many birds around and we see Ferruginous Antbird, hear Bertoni’s and Dusky-tailed (although we didn’t recognize the latter at first) and see Ochre-faced Tody-tyrant, Variable Antshrike, Diademed Tanager and Shear-tailed Gray-tyrant. A flowering tree a bit further down the road holds many tanagers and Blue Dacnis and a fair amount of Violet-capped Woodnymphs. We keep checking the dacni for Black-legged Dacnis that has been seen in the park in the past.

Around 9.00 we go for breakfast at the restaurant, which has nice feeders where we see our first Yellow-fronted Woodpecker, Olive-green Tanager and Golden-winged Cacique. Azure-shouldered Tanagers often show well here. At the restaurant we meet Luiz, who has been waiting for us. He will be our guide for the next couple of days. He is a small very sweet-looking, friendly and dedicated guy in his late 40’s, who has an enormous knowledge of the birds in the park. It is a pity not many people come here, because the park is brilliant, but the guide can almost match it. He doesn’t see many birdwatchers and is happy to guide them instead of his normal guiding work (the park normally attracts cavers and few other tourists). It is hard to keep from laughing when you see him walking around in his rubber boots and his bright yellow raincoat (only with heavy rain). It is also a pity he only speaks Portuguese and no English. Talking about birds he hears or sees goes by scientific names. So make sure you know most of them. If you still don’t understand each other he takes out his big version of Souza’s ‘All the birds of Brazil’ and points out the right picture. It sometimes takes a while, but it works well. For us it is a bit easier, because I speak reasonable Portuguese. But this means that I (or Remco actually) have to actively keep myself from pointing out the birds I see in Portuguese to Luiz, instead of in Dutch to Remco, who sometimes gets a bit annoyed by that. I mean, we are on holiday together and not with Luiz.

First Luiz brings us to his regular stake-out for Tropical Screech-owl and we are happy to find the pair. We also get good views of Red-capped Parrot near the restaurant. This morning we go in the direction of Carmo, although we don’t get very far. Luiz proves to know many bird sounds, although we can tell our hearing is better than his, because many sounds we hear first… but we don’t know what it is. Time for some bamboo specialistst, of which Intervales has a lot. Good birds are Bertoni’s Antbird, White-collared Foliage-gleaner, Uniform Finch and good views of a female Tufted Antshrike. A group of four Three-striped Flycatchers pause for a moment to show themselves to us.

After a good lunch we check the flowering trees near the restaurant and find a male Sapphire-spangled Emerald and a female Festive Coquette. With Luiz we first head out to the football pitch and surroundings. Here he has recently seen 3 Swallow-tailed Cotingas, but as they are not nesting yet, they can be hard to come by-and we don’t find them. Then we walk a fairly level trail starting from the restaurant. We get great views of Squamate Antbird and a male Black-throated Trogon, but a singing male Scale-throated Hermit only shows to Remco, despite it not moving and Remco repeatedly explaining where it is. We will see more of them later.

At another stake-out near the Reception we do not find the cotingas either, but we do find Slaty-breasted Woodrail, Ochre-collared Piculet and White-throated Spadebill.

At night we have no luck seeing owls nor the Long-trained Nightjar at its stake-out. Today we have a frustratingly long list of new birds heard only, namely Mottled Owl, Rufous-capped Motmot, Yellow-browed Woodpecker, White-throated Woodcreeper, White-breasted Tapaculo, Bare-throated Bellbird, Cinnamon(-vented) Piha, Brown-breasted Bamboo-tyrant, Rufous-breasted Leaftosser, Long-billed Gnatwren, Dusky-tailed and Ochre-rumped Antbird, White-shouldered Fire-eye, Rufous Gnateater and Temminck’s Seedeater. This only means we will have many birds to look forward to. Mottled Owl turns out to be the only one we will not lay our eyes on this holiday.

Sat Sept 10

Today it’s dry, there are less clouds, but it is still quite windy. We head out to a track that apparently goes to Caverna da Pivia. Good for many bamboo birds again, most notably in the form of White-bearded Antshrike and Ochre-rumped Antbird. We also see Rufous Gnateater, Rufous-breasted Leaftosser, White-browed Foliage-gleaner (Remco only), Greenish Schiffornis, Serra do Mar Tyrant-manakin and Gray-bellied Spinetail. Apparently time for a celebration as Remco sees his 3000th bird species: Star-throated Antwren, and a little beauty too. [Some weeks after our holiday however, Remco does a recount and it turns out it was false alarm. He finds out he had not been doing his counting right. Even after our holiday he still had some birds to go until 3,000. Alas, the celebrating was done in N India in January 2006, with Variable Wheatear being no 3,000 instead….]

We have a little nap after lunch. And even then we are still very tired, so we don’t go far and walk a trail which starts opposite the restaurant. But not after checking for Swallow-tailed Cotingas first-no luck. On the trail (which is supposedly good for Black-billed Scythebill) we see a great male Large-tailed Antshrike - one of our trip favourites - and a pair of Streak-capped Antwren. Also at least 10 Swallow-tailed Kites are hanging around above the park and they give great views. In another spot we try for Variegated Antpitta, Slaty Bristlefront and White-breasted Tapaculo, which we all hear though none are seen. They don’t respond to tape, but a passing cachorro da mata (forest fox?, bush dog?) definitely spoils our chances. We also hear a party of Spot-winged Woodquail, but don’t see them either. I don’t really care about those chickens, but Remco does. All these birds are just a bunch of sneaks here. Bugger!

Luckily we have more luck with the Long-trained Nightjar tonight. We see a pair; the male gives great scope-views while perching on the road. He repeatedly flies off when he gets too much of the spotlight, but immediately returns every time. Its tail-feathers are fantastic-so long and shining white in the spotlight.

Sun Sept 11: Cotinga bingo

Up at 5.15 today as we are determined to see Variegated Antpitta this morning. So we start where we ended yesterday. After a lot of taping and searching we still haven’t found the bloody thing, while we know it is close. Luiz tries a different tactic and bushwhacks in from the other side-he just has to find it (we agree). It still takes a long time, but in the end Luiz motions us to follow him. We cross the stream and we are in continuous doubt if we have to run of walk very carefully. We do the last. Luiz tells us not to touch the liana which we normally would hold on to. When we are up the little slope a couple of meters, we understand why. The liana goes straight in the direction of the Variegated Antpitta which is sitting motionless in a tree at about 4 meters height. YES! What the hell were we looking on the ground for? The bird is silent and watching us all the time, but gives us the great looks we hoped for. When we leave, it starts calling again.

Then we go on for what else the morning is going to bring us. We go toward Carmo again, but do not find any Black-fronted Piping-guans, maybe we are already too late (but we have seen the antpitta so we don’t really care). Other birds that elude us are Crescent-chested Puffbird and Rufous-capped Antthrush-both high on our wishlists, though we’ll not see them this trip. What we do see is a pair of Black Hawk-eagles flying fairly low, a beautiful male Black-cheeked Gnateater and some Long-billed Gnatwrens (although Remco needs better views). But in the end we will certainly remember this day as Cotinga-day. One after the other they fall:

A calling male Bare-throated Bellbird gives good scope-views on an exposed branch. Cinnamon Piha is taped in and shows close to the path. We see many Sharpbills, about 8, of which a group of 3-5 feeding in a fruiting tree over the path. Hooded berry-eater we only hear. Then, when in the afternoon we do our rounds at the Sede (central area) again, Remco suddenly stumbles into a group of three Swallow-tailed Cotingas near the football pitch. To finish things off, we find a superb Red-ruffed Fruitcrow in the antpitta forest-patch. Man, how things can change…

And this wasn’t all. We see a pair of Red-eyed Thornbirds of the ferrugineigula subspecies at one of their known spots. And, almost at the same time as the fruitcrow, we see a very unexpected Chestnut-backed Tanager. It was raining at the end of the day, but this will certainly be a hard day to top! To bed at 21.00.

Mon Sept 12
It is raining and we have overslept. Half an hour late we meet Luiz at the reception, where he is waiting patiently. The weather is not very appealing, but we decide to go birding anyway. We are not wearing enough clothes and try to stay dry under Luiz’ umbrella. He is walking around in his bright yellow raincoat. We decide we are only going to try for 4 specific birds: Dusky-tailed Antbird, White-breasted Tapaculo, Rufous-capped Antthrush and Wing-barred Piprites. We see the antbird, but the views are a bit poor due to the rain and the dark weather. The antthrush and piprites won’t react to our taping and we give up on the tapaculo without trying. We finish our walk, on which we do see Ruddy Quail-dove and Grey-hooded Attilla. We try for Sharp-tailed Streamcreeper, which Remco desperately wants to see. In the end we hear one calling, but don’t even see a glimpse of a feather. The rain starts pouring down even harder and we decide to leave. We have seen most of the things we wanted to see here, after all. We hope the weather will be better further inland.

We fill out the park questionnaire very positively and tip Luiz well, as well as the ladies who have made our food and washed our clothes. Just before 10.00 we leave and head for Itirapina, which is more or less on our way to our real destination, Serra da Canastra. Close to Intervales we see a group of Yellow-rumped Marshbirds and at another roadside stop we see our first Plain-breasted Ground-doves.

At about 15.30 we reach Itirapina, but we find it hard to find the cerrado reserve. We think we have the right road, but who knows. Our car certainly doesn’t like the sandy track and some men we ask for directions look at us as if we’re crazy. It looks like we are at the right spot, but we don’t see many birds, we don’t like the place and it’s getting late. We do see many Wedge-tailed Grassfinches and Black-throated Saltators though, but none of the hoped-for seedeaters. We see a flying Aplomado Falcon and we hear a Red-legged Seriema. That’s about it. We decide to leave and look for a hotel. But as we get back to the entrance road a nasty surprise is awaiting us. The workmen have closed the fence and locked it. No way we can open this. We discuss our options and decide to walk along the fence in the direction of some men which are working far away from us. We are looking for weak spots in the fence and I am pissed off and prepared to cut or break the fence down, if only I had the tools. Then we find a spot where the edges of the barbed wire are wrapped around each other. We unwrap them and try if we can pull one of the wooden posts out of the ground. We even succeed in doing this. Now it’s time to get to the car and pray I can drive through the loose sand without getting stuck and drive through the fence without hitting a pole. I hit the gas and drive through, swaying in the loose sand and missing the pole by a hair… but we are safe.

We leave the fence as it was before we arrived and head for the village. There we find a room in a pousada with quite an unpleasant atmosphere and some macaws in a mini-birdpark. We need food and a bed, so it will do. How different one day can be from the other. Tomorrow can only be better.

Tue Sept 13

We both wake up early and want to leave as soon as possible. So we leave before breakfast and start our driving day in the direction of Serra da Canastra. It is basically a driving day and we don’t get to do much birdwatching. From the car we see the occasional White-tailed Kite (we only see them from the car, somehow). As long as we’re in the state of São Paulo the roads are very good. Once we get into Minas Gerais, they become smaller, less good and trucks become an annoyance. Remco doesn’t have a driver’s license so unfortunately I have to do all the driving. I get tired from it and from things taking longer than I expected. We both notice (it’s impossible not to) how annoyingly grumpy I can get (unfortunately) when I get tired and things don’t go the way I want them to. Holidays are always good to get to know yourself and your travel companion better, just when you’d rather not want to. But then we get closer to Canastra. A Red-legged Seriema crosses the newly asphalted road, giving good views and we get the feeling we are nearly there. We decide to got to Vargém Bonita first to look for the hummingbird feeders and hopefully the Stripe-breasted Starthroats mentioned in other trip reports. Unfortunately, despite a big search we cannot find the feeders. We find one empty feeder. Maybe this is the one, but there are no hummers around. Maybe the feeders are just not there any more. We end up at the edge of town, with some clumps of bamboo and a view on the hills. Here we do find a male Stripe-breasted Starthoat that gives reasonable views. We also see Yellow-bellied Seedeater and Stripe-tailed Yellow-finch. On the hills at the edge of town we find two more Red-legged Seriemas-a bird we hadn’t even counted on seeing this trip!

At around 17.30 we arrive in São Roque de Minas and check into hotel Chapadão da Canastra. We have a good room and the landlady speaks English and is very helpful. Remco jokingly decides he wants to marry one of her three beautiful daughters, who are not there, but of which she proudly shows pictures. Dream on! At least he gets as far as dreaming of someone real tonight, while my beautiful men are nowhere to be found. I guess we should not have come to the country side for that. The landlady draws us a map of a good spot to find the Brazilian Mergansers tomorrow. After a good pizza (again), we go to bed early.

Wed Sept 14

Up at 4.10, ooof. Breakfast is the best we have had all holiday. We didn’t even know that many different types of cake existed (13! And we have the pictures to prove it!). We are off an hour later, when it is still dark, because we want to be early to search for the Brazilian Merganser. Then we have more time and we will be there before the other tourists. We park the car at Restaurant Buteco Ra, just when it is getting lighter. As the landlady suggested, we walk down the campsite at this restaurant until we get to the river São Francisco. We start scanning the river and first walk as far as possible to the left. We see Masked Titi Monkeys and Tufted-ear Marmosets (also monkeys). Then, as we haven’t found the merganser yet, we walk to the right. We scan the river in as many places as possible. The good thing here is, that there are enough stretches of river bank with less vegetation, so we get the feeling we can search almost the whole river. When we are about 1 km to the right we decide to try a small trail through the bushes to the river, before heading back to the car. While standing on some stones at the edge of the river, suddenly I see a pair of Brazilian Mergansers slowly swimming away from us at only 20 meters distance. I can only very softly and quietly say: ‘There they are’. This doesn’t mean we lack enthousiasm. These two beautiful (and unfortunately critically endangered) ducks give us great views for a couple of minutes, before flying off over the rapids. Now we can give way to our enthousiasm-this is a great experience! Amazingly, the same pair is sitting on a stony bed in the middle of the river when we make our way back. Again they allow great views, through the telescope this time. We also manage to get reasonable photos. We are feeling very lucky… not just because we have seen these beautiful birds (Remco’s last merganser), but also because we have seen them on our first morning already and won’t have to spend searching for them for two or three (or more) days. We can just go birding and see what we bump into.

Of course we also bumped into some other birds while searching for the mergansers. While walking to the left on the Buteco Ra grounds, we see some Sooty Tyrannulets on the stones and the rivers’ edge. We find a mixed flock containing our only Planalto (formerly called Russet-mantled) Foliage-gleaner as well as a Rufous-headed Tanager and our only Chestnut-vented Conebill of the trip. Unfortunately Remco misses the latter when trying to hold onto the (rare) foliage-gleaner. But, compared to the things he did see, I think he can live with it. At the same place we get good views of a Red-ruffed Fruitcrow. Near the mergansers we see Hooded Siskins and a surprise Sombre Hummingbird (Remco only). When we walk back to the road we see a very obliging Red-legged Seriema inspecting some termite mounds, that we can take photos of.

We have a rather strange breakfast at Buteco Ra. It is some sort of restaurant, but they don’t have anything to eat. They are out of bread, cake and coffee, but they can offer us rice or an egg. We decide to have extra large portions of scrambled eggs, Remco has a juice and they reheat some old coffee for me-at least I am getting my daily dose of caffeine. During breakfast we see many Crested Oropedolas and quite a few Toco and Red-breasted Toucans.

After breakfast we continue towards Casca D’anta waterfall. We make one or two stops on the way there, bumping into a female Pin-tailed Manakin and a Gray Elaenia near a stream that crosses the road.

We walk from the car park towards the water fall and, although it is getting hot and we are getting tired, we see many things. In the forest we see Eastern Slaty-thrush and the place is simply teeming with Helmeted Manakins. Unfortunately Remco is bothered by a gnat in his eye and he misses the Cinnamon Tanager and White-bearded Manakins I see, but we are quite sure he will get another chance later. We both see a male Amethyst Woodstar. Moreover, we get good looks of a pair of Black-chested Buzzard-eagle and when walking back a low-flying big raptor strangely confuses us at first. Strangely, because it is an immature King Vulture, a species we didn’t expect to see. To make it even better, when we get to the carpark we find a kettle with no less than six adult King Vultures! Around 14.30 we are both tired, satisfied and completely done with birding, so we go back to the hotel, where we have a quiet remainder of the day.

Thu Sept 15

Today we will bird the higher parts of Serra da Canastra. We don’t have one big target, like yesterday. Instead we have many small ones, although good views of a Giant Anteater would be appreciated. The landlady has made a phonecall to the National park guard house and with a note from her, we get in early, around 6.40. The landscape is beautiful, a high plain, sometimes rocky, sometimes grassy and at some places with many termite mounds. On our way we see Cinnamon Tanager, 2 Red-winged Tinamous and at least 3 cute Cock-tailed Tyrants. Around 9.00 we arrive on the upper side of the Casca D’anta waterfall. From here we go by foot, helped by a map that Juan has drawn for us. At the described spot we immediately hear a Brasilia Tapaculo. We certainly want to see this bird as up to now, all real tapaculos have eluded us. So we settle in the bushes. There we sit, play the tape and wait. It takes a lot of patience, but after a while Remco sees the tapaculo only two meters away from us, low above the ground, but in a more open patch of vegetation. It takes a while before I find it, but luckily I do before it scuffles on. In the next half hour we get some reasonable views of it moving low in the vegetation and on the ground.

On our way back to the car we find one or two Sharp-tailed Tyrants. We decide to climb the rocks above the waterfall where we see a pair of Velvety Black-tyrant and (probably) the same pair of Black-chested Buzzard-Eagle we saw yesterday.

Slowly we drive back across the planes, searching for Giant Anteaters. We do find three of them, but all are far away and the wind is blowing toward them, so trying to get closer will most probably be useless. So we don’t see much more than large moving dark blobs, unfortunately. A target for our next trip (Oct 2007, to Emas).

We realise that we have probably seen Tawny-headed Swallow, but didn’t pay enough attention. Once we do realise this, we don’t see them any more. We do find some singing Hellmayr’s Pipits, more Cock-tailed Tyrants and a strange-looking, strange-singing wren. We don’t exactly know what it is and it reminds Remco of Sedge Wrens he has seen in Canada-which, in fact, they are (although they’re called Grass Wren here).

At Curral de Pedra, we have lunch and bump into a trip-exclusive Firewood-gatherer. We also hear another in the distance, but we cannot find a nest the bird gets its name from. Here we also see White-rumped Tanager and a male Plumbeous Seedeater.

Near the source of the Rio São Francisco we see many Cock-tailed Tyrants, a singing Great Pampa-finch and a Sooty Tyrannulet. On our way back, already outside the park, we stop at a piece of land with the sign ‘Capão Forro’. When getting out of the car we immediately hear a Collared Crescentchest singing and decide this is going to be our chance for better views. On our way up, closer to the bird we bump into a female Pauraque and a male Grey Pileated Finch. When we finally play the tape, the Crescentchest turns out to be close to us. We find it singing almost on top of a low bush, giving great and prolonged views. For me, this is the bird of the trip! I even get a Remco and the bird identifiable together on the same photo. And even though this is a great bird, we nearly can’t keep our eyes on it, because a Least Nighthawk decides to start hawking ‘around our heads’ in the daylight.

What a day! Lying in our beds, aching with sunburn, Remco starts dreaming about the landlady’s daughter again, while I keep looking at the photos of the Crescentchest over and over again. Everybody’s got his own preferences, no matter how pathetic they might be.

Fri Sept 16

After again a delicious breakfast with 13 different types of cake, we leave Sao Roque at 8.00 for a driving day to Cipó. Between Sao Roque and Piumhi we have a brief roadside stop with many birds, among which Plush-crested Jay and Rufous-tailed Jacamar. We also see Tufted-ear Marmoset. Somehow we keep seeing Red-legged Seriemas on and very close to the road. One of our most remarkable roadside stops is at a gas station (see list of GPS waypoints). The nearby paddocks are full of birds, especially all kinds of tyrant-flycatchers. Apart from good looks at Yellow-browed Tyrant and Fork-tailed Flycatcher, we see two new species here: a Crowned Slaty-flycatcher (the longest scientific name in the world?) and a pair of White-throated Kingbird. Once you see the latter, you immediately see it is different from the more common Tropical Kingbirds. Especially the smooth-looking, light-gray crown, contrasting with the darker eye-stripe and ear-coverts, are an eye-catcher.

After a detour in Belo Horizonte, in order to get some money in a ‘shopping’, we are getting closer to Cipó. Around 18.00 we arrive at the fairly expensie pousada Chão da Serra. I am knackered and just cannot be bothered to look for another pousada. This one has hammocks and a swimming-pool. What else do we want?

Sat Sept 17: the moment Remco gave up

Up at 5.00 again; we drive towards the birding spot in the Serra do Cipó at 5.30. The landscape consists of many hills, combined with steep rocky outcrops and some grassy plains. The sun is soon burning in our necks again. Most species we find fairly easily. Hyacinth Visorbearer is nice, but seems no way as beautiful as we expected. Here we do see Tawny-headed Swallows. We see a beautiful singing male Yellow-billed Blue-finch, 2 singing Buff-throated Pampa-finches and a Gray-backed Tachuri showes well. Moreover, we see Plain-crowned Elaenias, a singing male Grassland Yellow-finch (Remco only), a White-tailed Goldenthroat and many White-vented Violet-ears. All in all, it isn’t a big spectacle and we do not really like the place. To make matters worse, we keep searching and searching for the Cipó Canastero, but do not find it. After a couple of hours even Remco gives up. This is a moment I haven’t witnessed before….

We decide to have a quiet afternoon, sleeping, swimming, lying in the hammock, some real holiday for a change. Today I think we must be crazy to go running around after all these birds. But tomorrow there’s a new day again.

Sun Sept 18: Birdy Caraca

Today we are on our way to Venda Nova. Unfortunately we don’t have time to stay in Caraça. We had some discussions about it and decided for Cipó. But mainly because I really want to see Serra Antwren we have decided to leave early today and agreed to go birding for 1 hour at Caraça. Remco can be strict, but he is right. We have to get on our way to Venda Nova and we don’t know how long it will take.

So we get up at 4.30 and leave around 5.00. Luckily it is possible to make it to the right highway without having to go far into Belo Horizonte. At 7.50 we reach the turn-off to Caraça and at 8.30 we are at the gate of the park. There are many Dusky-legged Guans on the entrance road. After paying at the reception near the monastery, we walk the Tanque Grande trail. It’s a short trail, but it is teeming with birds, maybe because of the rain. We come across a very large mixed flock, that seems to hang around forever. Amazingly it holds 3 Red-ruffed Fruitcrows, about 5 Sharpbills and a Swallow-tailed Cotinga, along with White-throated Woodcreeper, 2 Pallid Spinetails, White-necked Thrush, Streaked Xenops and a Yellow-lored Tody-flycatcher.

We loved the place so much we decided to stay longer than 1 hour and walked the Cascatinha trail, hoping to find Serra Antwren. It doesn’t take long before we find a singing male. On this trail there were many birds too. We are surprised to find Swallow-tailed Cotingas, appararently a pair inspecting a nesting tree. We also find an Ultramarine Grosbeak, a Green-backed Becard and a pair of White-shouldered Fire-eye. Amazingly, just before we leave the trail, we find another pair of Swallow-tailed Cotinga sitting high up in the trees along the road. Luckily the roads towards Venda Nova are rather quiet and we are able to make good progress; we arrive 18.30. We order a terrible tasting pizza and Ana and Pedro are very late.

Mon Sept 19: crippling views of Cryptic Antthrush and Murucutu

Breakfast at 5.00; out in the field at 6.15. We are then at the Fazenda Pindobas IV in Conceição do Castelo, together with our guides Ana and Pedro. Well-known because they guide people at this and another private property to see the rare Cherry-throated Tanager. This is also our target on this and the next day. In the morning and beginning of the afternoon we search for the tanagers at Pindobas. After lunch in Venda Nova, we search another spot, Caetes, at the end of the afternoon. We don’t find a trace of the tanagers. Ana and Pedro have some spots where they often encounter the tanagers. Tactics are to listen for Syristes, which is often the flock leader of the flocks the tanagers are in. Once they hear one, they play the sound of Syristes in order to attract Syristes and the rest of the flock. Once the flock is approaching they play the sound of the tanager, in order to attract it. But, of course, most Syristes don’t have Cherry-throated Tanagers trailing them. The tanagers can be hard to find sometimes, even though Ana and Pedro know their habits. Unfortunately Ana and Pedro haven’t been here for a while and we are the first visitors in months. So, to be honest, they don’t know exactly where to find them this year and we are some sort of test case.

But there are many other birds to see at both Pindobas and Caetes. Some flocks pass and we get almost constant views of lekking Blue Manakins. We get great views of White-bibbed Antbird, Yellow-browed and Yellow-eared Woodpecker; we also see a pair of Grey-headed Kite, all at Pindobas. Top bird of the day, however, is a Cryptic Antthrush that we hear very close to the trail. So we move a little into the forest and play the tape. The bird gives us excellent, prolonged views while circling around us. At Caetes we see a Robust Woodpecker and finally connect with the much wanted Sharp-tailed Streamcreeper. A Notorious Tapaculo [formerly the tapaculos in this area were assigned to Mouse-coloured Tapaculo, RH] hardly gives satisfying views, but at the end of the day a Tawny-browed Owl reacts very well to the tape and gives us very good views. We love its sound; its (onomatopaeic) Brazilian name is surely fitting: Murucutu.

Tue Sept 20: the day Johan explodes….

Our second day searching for the Cherry-throated tanager. Today we start at Pindobas IV again, at a different part of the Fazenda. But not after Remco has had a good conversation with Ana. Ana has done all she can yesterday, but Pedro and their student have not been helping much. They have been busy laying out their transects and doing other research work. But to us it seems he has not been actively searching for the tanagers. That is not what we are paying this ridiculous 250 USD per day for. Today he has to help more. And he does. But this morning’s search proves fruitless again and we don’t see many other birds either. One big flock makes the search exciting, but that’s it. Remco sees a great male Frilled Coquette. I sure want to catch up with that one later; it is high on my wishlist. We have a great lunch in some sort of home-restaurant near Caetes. We love the atmosphere and I love the cook. She’s so warm and friendly and I just need to tell her that. We have more time than yesterday at Caetes, but somehow we get the feeling it is not going to happen. We search, but we also pay a lot of attention to other birds. And there are plenty: the wished-for Wing-barred Piprites, finally a very well-showing Notorious Tapaculo and fairly good views of a Spotted Bamboowren. If we hadn’t been here for the tanagers, it would have been a perfect afternoon. At the end of the afternoon, when we have lost all hopes of seeing the tanagers, Pedro’s student finds us a perched Rufous-thighed Kite. It is quite far away from where Pedro is, but we are happy to see this new raptor. Until suddenly Pedro comes running and waving like a madman. At first we don’t understand, but when he shouts ‘NEMOSIA’ we all run after him. He has seen four birds well, but when we are back at the spot the birds aren’t there any more. Luckily we still hear them, though quite far away. Ana and Pedro start playing their tapes like their life depends upon it. Then we see one or more birds flying down to the opposite slope. Adrenaline rushes through our bodies when first Ana and later Pedro finds a bird, but somehow we can’t find it. I have never cursed more (in Portuguese too), when not being able to find a bird. And luckily we finally get to see a bird. It is quite far, but because it is sitting at the same spot for a long time we both get good scope views. Phew! Time to relax and let go of all the tension. We both didn’t know we (and especially I) could get so caught up in trying to find a bird. We thank Ana and Pedro and they ask us to say something on their video, which they will use to make people in the area realize how important the conservation of the forest is. Of course we are happy to do this. Afterwards we say goodbye. When we drive back to Venda Nova torrential rain starts and we end up in a very dodgy hotel. But at least we have a bed. And we have seen the tanager.

Wed Sept 21

We sleep in until 6.50 and at 8.10 we leave for Carmo, where we arrive around 14.30. With some difficulty we find the Three-toed Jacamar site. And luckily, it doesn’t take long before we find a pair, perched in a tree. They give great views and, satisfied, we decide to go search for Rio de Janeiro Antbird. We don’t find it, but many other things instead. Some Band-tailed Horneros, 6 Black-necked Araçaris, Yellow Tyrannulet, Long-billed Wren, Lemon-chested Greenlet and two female White-bearded Manakin are the new birds. We also see a pair of the yellow-bellied race of Surucua Trogon and two pairs of Blue-winged Macaw.

On we go, because we really want to reach Itatiaia today. But we take a wrong turn and only find out when we are nearly in Rio de Janeiro. We end up in busy traffic around the city and later in a large traffic jam on the road to Itatiaia. We have a surprise roadside encounter with a Marguay (a beautifully marked cat) on our way up and arrive at Hotel Simon at 23.00. We decide to stay there although it is expensive. To bed at 23.25.

Thu Sept 22

Somehow we manage to get up at 5.00 and have breakfast at 5.30. At breakfast we notice Paulo Boute, a well-known SE Brazilian birder, with two American tourists. We bird the grounds of Hotel Simon for a while and see a pair of Swallow-tailed Cotinga. According to Mr Simon their nest has been robbed by some toucans. We are informed by Mr Simon that the flowering tree near the car park often holds Frilled Coquette and indeed we see a beautiful male. We decide to take birding a bit slowly today and walk the Maromba trail, where we see a Rufous-capped Motmot and a very surprising Southern Bristle-tyrant. Is this possible? We go on to Hotel to Ypê where we spend the rest of the morning drinking coffee (tea for Remco) and enjoying the feeders on the veranda. I remember them from the other time I was here and love them just as much. This is a great place for photographers and birders alike. Except for the more common hummers, such as Black Jacobin, White-throated Hummingbird, Brazilian Ruby, Versicoloured Emerald and Violet-capped Woodnymph the feeders today get regular visits of another beautiful male Frilled Coquette, a female Stripe-breasted Starthroat and a Scale-throated Hermit. A nice pair of Blue-naped Chlorophonia also visits the tanager feeders. When we walk back on the Maromba trail we bump into a large flock, which holds a Black-capped Foliage-gleaner and two Thrush-like Woodcreepers. During lunch back at the hotel we see a bird through the windows, which we cannot recognize immediately. Scanning through our Souza, we think of a female Chestnut-vented Conebill, but know that’s not right. When I go for a nap Remco finds the bird again, accompanied by a male, and gets much better views: they are Black-legged Dacnis. He immediately wakes me up and together, after half an hour’s wait, we get good views of the birds. What a great discovery! Later we find out that the Ridgely & Tudor plates depict the female quite right…..

Fri Sept 23: Orange-spined Hairy Dwarf Porcupine

It is very, very misty when we get up at 5.30. When we get onto the Tres Picos trail it is very hard to watch birds that are more than five metres away. Only at around 11.30 the mist seems to lift. Bird of the morning is a very obliging Slaty Bristlefront. On playing the tape we hear it come closer and suddenly it is just walking on the trail. It shows well for some minutes on or near the trail. We also get good looks at some Star-throated Antwrens, but many other birds are only heard, like White-breasted Tapaculo, Rufous-capped, Rufous-tailed and Cryptic Antthrush. When we split up for a while, we both end up blowing our whistles at each other at the same time so I decide to run toward Remco. Wrong choice unfortunately, as Remco was only hearing the same Black-billed Scythebill I was getting good views of. Later the bird doesn’t show anymore. Back at the hotel we see the resident pair of Swallow-tailed Cotinga again. In the afternoon we relax a little bit; near the hotel it is still misty and we feel that we have been getting up early for four weeks now. Remco goes for a little nap and some third floor window birdwatching, while I take some photos of tanagers and hummers at the feeders. We both get to see the pair of Black-legged Dacnis again a couple of times and I manage to take some bad photos of them (which are posted on one you can just make out the brownish back of the female; the legs of the male are hidden behind a tiny branch though!).

Later in the afternoon we decide to go for some tea and hummer-watching at Hotel do Ypê. We really love those feeders at Ypê. We see about the same birds as yesterday at the feeders along with Dusky-legged Guans on the hotel parking. When we walk down the hill a little bit we find some hawking Semi-collared Nighthawks. We also try taping owls. Two years ago I have seen a Least Pygmy-owl near Ypê, but now we don’t get any owl response. When we drive back down the hill, we watch a Tawny-browed Owl well in the car’s headlight while it is sitting on and near the road. Back at Hotel Simon we walk around the hotel and in the backyard we find an Orange-spined Hairy Dwarf-porcupine, a very cute little animal.

Sat Sept 24

The Algulhas Negras mountains are constantly looming above Itatiaia National Park and today we are going there. In fact, we are going to the Algulhas Negras Road, but don’t have to go as high as the rocky peaks. It looks a bit like Scotland. Most birds we want to see can be seen along the lower part of the road; for some we have to go a bit higher. As the Algulhas Negras road is about an hour’s drive from the entrance of the national park we get up at 4.15. We leave Hotel Simon at about 5.00 and start birding at 6.20. The area is quite birdy and we easily see Rufous-tailed Antbird, Thick-billed Saltator and Bay-chested Warbling-finch. Some Black-and-gold Cotingas are singing, but they are harder to find. After quite some bushwhacking and half an hour walking back and fourth in an area of 10-20 m with a invisible male continuously singing above my head, I finally find the bird. We both get very good looks of the bird. Remco, who was birding a little bit further down the road, has seen 3 Red-ruffed Fruitcrows in the meantime. A little further up the road we stop again and see Serra do Mar Tyrannulet and more Bay-chested Warbling-finches. A Rufous-tailed Antthrush shows, finally, after a lot of waiting and taping intermittently. In the end we both get good views. Along this part of the road many Notorious (these were also formerly assigned to Mouse-coloured) Tapaculos are singing and during the day we get some to provide very good views. Again higher up we find a singing male Rufous-backed Antvireo and hear another. We also find a beautiful male Large-tailed Antshrike, which behaves just like the one we’ve seen at Intervales. It immediately stops singing when we play the tape, but comes in anyway-very sneaky. Just when we are about to give up we find it in the semi-open, watching us, low in the bush, at only 2 meters distance. A little higher up the road, at our first stand of Araucaria trees (I love those trees-I like the seeds too by the way) we find some Araucaria Tit-spinetails – one of them even gets down to about eye-level and gives a good show. At this location there are also some Hooded Siskins. When we arrive at the marsh at the right hand side of the road, we start walking around hoping to find Itiatiaia Spinetail. We only get to see one flying off just before I almost get lost in the high grass behind the marsh. Those clumps of grass are about one and a half times as tall as I am, they hurt and are very hard and unpleasant to walk through-DON’T try this, just walk around them. While I am stuck in the high grass, Remco gets a bit worried because he cannot even see or hear me anymore. But in the end we find each other, just after I have found a big lek of at least ten male Plovercrests in the spiny bushes at the far end of the field of tall grass. They are singing everywhere around us, are sometimes hard to find, but very beautiful. A Giant Antshrike singing in the same spot doesn’t show.

The highest part we reach is Hotel Alsene (2,400 meters). On the slope behind the hotel we find some Itatiaia Spinetails and a Blue-billed Black-tyrant. A female White-vented Violet-ear washes itself in a stream by plummeting into it. We decide to drive down and bird the lower part of the road again. Birding is a bit slower than this morning, but suddenly we hear a Spot-breasted Antpitta. We perform our-by now regular-bushwhacking-and-taping routine and get good views of this mini-antpitta. It constantly stays on the ground under the cover of bamboo and we have to perform some very acrobatical movements to finally see it well. When we walk out on the road again, we accidentally bump into a Brown-breasted Bamboo-tyrant. It is quite an uninteresting drab little bird, but as it is often hard to find, we are happy to get it so easily. Time to drive back to Hotel Simon, after an e-mailing session in town. When we arrive at the hotel dinner turns out to be a barbeque beside the pool, with all the guests who have come for the weekend. Good atmosphere, lots of good meat (says the ex-vegetarian Johan) and the band playing Forro….

Sun Sept 25

This is our last day at Itatiaia, but it also feels like the end of our holidays is nearing. We decide to go for another try at the Tres Picos. At the higher parts of the trail we hope to find Black-capped Piprites, which we missed at Algulhas Negras yesterday. It is misty again, but we hope that when we get higher there will be less mist. Unfortunately, when we are halfway, I feel too tired to go on. I’d rather to back to bed than see the piprites, so I decide to turn around. So this is the only day we both miss some birds. On the first part, when we are still together, we finally see a White-breasted Tapaculo, taped out along the trail. Just before I go back we get good views of Black-billed Scythebill - glad Remco has seen that one now - and of a Cryptic and a Rufous-tailed Antthrush. I walk back down and see some more Rufous-tailed Antthrushes. One even comes in when I imitate its voice. The trail is a lot more birdy when I walk down. Among other things I see some Saffron Toucanets and the only Spot-billed Toucanets of the trip. Remco unfortunately misses the latter. Remco continues on to the higher parts of the Tres Picos trail, where he hears Speckle-breasted Antpitta but fails to see it. He also sees two new species for the trip up there: Fork-tailed Palm-swift and the wished-for Black-capped Piprites. I miss these, but at least I get some extra sleep. When Remco walks down he also gets very good views of the only Spot-winged Woodquails of the trip (which I also miss of course). He wakes me at around 14.00. Just before we leave, we pay one last visit to Hotel do Ypê’s feeders. Apart from all the hummers we see a Robust Woodpecker working at its nesthole, about 50 meters away from Ypê’s veranda. Off we go towards Parati. We decide to take a short cut, but this turns out to be a very bad road. It also gets dark and starts raining, so we have to drive very carefully (not always my style, according to Remco). This wasn’t the best choice of route we have made, but in the end we arrive in Parati and settle in the very rustic Pousada da Marquesa. Across the square, beautiful voices float from the old colonial church and hum us to sleep.

Mon Sept 26: Black-hooded Antwren and fake Buff-throated Purpletuft

Time to bird a new area again, so new birds to be expected. Thus we get up at 5.00, organise ourselves some lunch and leave Parati at 5.45, when it is just getting light. We drive (about 50 km) to Pereque to search for the rare Black-hooded Antwren. The site is quite easy to find, but it turns out to have ‘entrance prohibited’ signs and is fenced with barbed wire. We have never read about the site being undisclosed (though private) and decide to climb the fence and bird the area. It is raining most of the time, but the area is quite birdy. We only stop birding to wait in the car when the rain is getting too heavy. The Black-hooded Antwrens are quite common and fairly easy to see - and just as beautiful as expected. In total we see at least 4 pairs; some of the birds are ringed with plastic colour-rings. A pair of very attractive Blond-crested Woodpeckers are attracting our attention. Also the place is simply full of lekking White-bearded Manakins. They are often hard to see but their firework-like cracking calls sound all around us. We get to see many beautiful males, although we don’t actually see them displaying. The hummingbirds are well-represented today. We see some Reddish and Saw-billed Hermits (Remco’s first) and a White-chinned Sapphire. A male Black-throated Mango gives us neck-ache because it is sitting high in a tree. Other birds are Brazilian Tanager and Sulphur-rumped Flycatcher, while a Half-collared Sparrow and the rare Fork-tailed Tody-tyrant both give brief but satisfying views. After a lot of taping we get very good views of a male Chestnut-backed Antshrike; Scaled Antbird proves much easier to see. After a while we end up in a big mixed flock with-among others-Eye-ringed Tody-tyrant, Black-capped Foliage-gleaner, Streak-capped Antwren and São Paulo Tyrannulet. A Red-eyed Thornbird (nominate subspecies) is sneaking about through the bushes. Another rare bird we see is Russet-winged Spadebill. Two birds give us headaches and adrenaline-rushes respectively. The first turns out to be a female Blue-billed Black-tyrant. Without a male in sight, we first don’t realize this rather different-looking bird can be the female of that species. Our adrenaline levels peak when we think we have found a Buff-throated Purpletuft. But the light is bad, it seems too big and after a while we get the feeling the colours aren’t right at all. The bad light and our wishful thinking tricked us. Better looks show it to be a lone immature Swallow-tanager just impersonating the purpletuft. Luckily we find this out in time. We totally lose track of time and when we finally get the feeling we are finished at Pereque, it is already 15.00. On our way back we make a stop on a beach and see about 20 Brown Boobies and some Kelp Gulls. Although it is already late we decide to drive past Parati to bird at Condominio Trindade (a known site for Salvadori’s Antwren). But it is getting dark and we hardly see anything. We are tired and after dinner, we go to bed looking forward to sleep in tomorrow.

Tue Sept 27: Buff-throated Purpletuft, the real deal

While I try to sleep in, Remco gets up at 8.00 and goes birding in Parati’s harbour. Again he has to come and wake me, this time because he has found a Black Skimmer in the harbour. It is a bit distant, but we get good views. At the same mudflats we find an American Golden Plover, a group of Semipalmated Plovers, a Ruddy Turnstone, a Spotted Sandpiper and a Greater Yellowlegs. This is some different birding for a change. It is raining again, but we also find some Little Blue Herons, a South American Tern and two Royal Terns. We are surprised to find a singing Yellowish Pipit, too. Not bad for a morning sleeping in. After checking out we are off to Ubatuba, where we arrive in the early afternoon. We pay two visits to Fazenda Capricornio; in between we check into Pousada Golfinho Tropical, where I also stayed two years ago. When we arrive at Capricornio the first time, we see a small bird sitting in the top of a bare tree. With yesterday’s Swallow-tanager in mind Remco jokes that it is a Buff-throated Purpletuft. Which, in fact, it is!! Although it is still raining, we get good scope-views. New birds are Flame-crested Tanager (new for Remco only), Green Honey-creeper (new for me only) and finally another becard: Crested Becard. Somehow we haven’t seen many becards on this trip. The flocks of tanagers at Capricornio are mainly Red-necked and Green-headed, with some Brazilian.

During our days in Itatiaia we realized that we haven’t been paying enough attention to the Chaetura swifts. Most of the trip we have basically taken them for granted. Because we have decided to pay more attention from now on, I start scanning the Blue-and-white Swallows flying above the river at Capricornio. While I am a bit disappointed that they are swallows and not swifts, suddenly I find one or two very well-marked Chaetura-swifts flying in between them. I call for Remco and together we see the bird(s). It is rather dark blackish with a well-marked, contrasting and small greyish-white rump, very different from the large grey rump and/or tail area that the regular Chaeturas here have. What we see of the underparts is at least a large area of the throat, but we don’t get good looks of the rest of the underparts. This is something rare! It turns out it can only be Band-rumped Swift, a species normally confined to the north of Brazil. We can confirm this identification when, at home, we look in ‘Swifts’.

Wed Sept 28

Today we want to go birding at Corcovado, but it turns out the site is very hard to find, even with the GPS coordinates provided by John van der Woude. It is 8.25 when we think we finally found the right trail, but still we’re not completely sure. New species we see today are Neotropical River Warbler, White-eyed Foliage-gleaner and Unicolored Antwren. All give very good views in the end. Other birds showing well are Rufous-breasted Leaftosser, a beautiful male Black-cheeked Gnateater and a pair of Scaled Antbird. When we find a 5-m wide river, we cross it and continue on the trail for a while, but decide to go back. We then go on towards Folha Seca, where we spend our time at Jonas’s feeders watching all the hummingbirds and tanagers. This certainly is one of the highlights of our trip! We see ten species of hummer, including a Reddish Hermit (not at the feeders but at nearby roadside flowers), a beautiful male Frilled Coquette, many Festive Coquettes, a female White-chinned Sapphire and 2 Sombre Hummingbirds. Jonas is a very friendly guy, who speaks English very well. He is just finishing two small apartments, which he is going to rent out to tourists (birders). At 14.30 we are finally back at the pousada for ‘breakfast’. The afternoon is spent relaxing at the pousada with Darryl, Denise (the couple that runs the pousada) and Darryl’s father. Shortly after ‘breakfast’ I am having lunch with them, eating fish from the barbeque, prepared by Darryl. Remco finally goes to a hairdresser (who Denise wants to fix him up with) and gets his head shaven. When dusk is falling Remco and I walk to the river mouth, where I hope to see yellow-crowned night heron. Just as I remember, many herons and egrets come in to sleep in the mangroves at the river mouth, which is quite a spectacle. And just as we hoped, we see two adults Yellow-crowned Night-herons. Some Black-crowned Night-herons are around as well. When we get back, I try to find some owls that Darryl has seen around, but my search is fruitless.

Thu Sept 29

We sleep in until 8.00, mainly because I don’t want to get up early any more. We have a relaxed breakfast and finally, at 9.45, we head off towards Fazenda Angelim. The birding is a bit tough in the beginning. At a certain moment we feel like we are watching the same flock all the time. Later it gets better, when we walk the trail behind the clearing. We somehow lose track of each other, but luckily when we find each other again I can catch up with the goodies Remco has seen: a pair of Salvadori’s Antwren. We find a Black-capped Foliage-gleaner and a White-thoated Woodcreeper at the same spot. When we walk this trail we find a Buff-bellied Puffbird. We also see some Ferruginous Antbirds and a male White-fringed Fire-eye. We hear a Rufous-winged Antwren, but don’t see it. Because we still haven’t seen Rufous-winged Antwren at all, we decide to go to the road to Fazenda Pica-pau, where I have seen a pair two years ago. When we randomly tape them, a pair reacts immediately. They are beautiful and give great views. This is our 46th species of (ground) antbird of the trip! We also see two stunning males White-bearded Manakin. When we get back to the pousada it is already 14.45. The weather in the meantime changed from sunny to heavy clouds and a lot of wind. The rest of the day we spend relaxing. The only thing of interest we see are the ‘hummingbird bats’ drinking from the hummer feeder in the pousada’s front yard.

Fri Sept 30

Our last day in Ubatuba. Our last day in Brazil. After a long breakfast we decide we want to go to Jonas’s feeders at Folha Seca one more time. Again it is full of birds and we enjoy it very much. One of the Saw-billed Hermits is partly albino and I manage to take some photos of it. Hummers that we didn’t see the other day are a female Black-throated Mango and a male White-chinned Sapphire (and the female again). We also walk a bit further on the forest tracks of Folha Seca trying to find owls that Jonas told us bird tourgroups try for, and find a small flock near a small bridge (probably the same place where a Kinglet Calyptura was reported, few months after our visit). For a long time we try seeing a Spot-backed Antshrike we hear singing in the canopy, but we don’t even glimpse it. Nice birds we do get to see are 2 Black-capped Foliage-gleaners, while some Bare-throated Bellbirds are constantly calling.

Then the time has come to leave. After a last por kilo meal at an Ubatuba restaurant, buying some last souvenirs (jars of doce de leite for me) and saying goodbye, we drive off at 15.35. We arrive at Guarulhos at 19.30 and after delivering our car at Localiza, we are ready to go home. Unfortunately our flight has a two-hour delay and it is 0.20 when we get into the air.

Sat Oct 1

The flight goes well and after a short stop in Paris we arrive at Amsterdam Schiphol airport well and with all our belongings. Remco’s parents and girlfriend Nan are there to pick us up. After some beer and a taste of doce de leite for everyone we each go our way.


We limit ourselves to some lesser-known/visited sites. Check the site notes at Arthur Grosset’s site (AG’s) for up-to-date information, as well as for information on other sites visited by us, such as Pantanal, Chapada dos Guimaraes, Intervales, Itirapina, Serra da Canastra, Carmo, Itatiaia, Algulhas Negras, Pereque and Ubatuba (Fazendas Capricornio and Angelim, Corcovado and Folha Seca).

Biritiba-Mirim: the ‘new’ Marsh (Parana) Antwren Stymphalornis acutirostris site

The ‘new’ Marsh Antwren site is situated along the road to Boraceia. The following route description

Is taken from AG’s site notes: “The site is about an hour’s drive from São Paulo’s Guarulhos International airport. Take the Rodovia Ayrton Senna [highway] from the airport towards Rio and exit to Mogi das Cruzes. From Mogi take the road to Biritiba-Mirim and Salesópolis. Just before you reach Biritiba-Mirim, opposite a large sign "Estrada do Sogo 200 metros" turn left onto a dirt road with a small sign to "Bairro Rio Acima". Follow this road for 3 km and turn left at a T junction. Continue for 2.8 km when the road turns to asphalt. Look for the birds in the typha (cattails) on the left.” Also see GPS waypoints.


We had a spare day between arrival at Sao Paulo and continuing towards Cuiaba and decided to visit Boraceia (and the ‘new’ Marsh Antwren, see above) on this day. We used AG’s site notes and can’t add much. Indeed we saw a bunch of Hooded Berry-eaters and a Russet-winged Spadebill. Other goodies seen include Brazilian Tapir, Spot-backed and Giant Antshrike, Cryptic Antthrush, Sharpbill, Black-goggled, Azure-shouldered, Fawn-breasted, Red-necked and Brassy-breasted Tanager; Pale-browed Treehunter, Buff-browed Foliage-gleaner and the cute Eared Pygmy-tyrant. The place is simply teeming with Oustalet’s Tyrannulet and we’re sure to have seen several others of the supposedly 8 other occurring tyrannulets-if only we could make sure which ones……

This place is worth spending more time in. It is necessary to make arrangements with USP staff as mentioned in AG’s site notes. We did this by e-mail (see AG’s). There are several guarded gates along the way, so you definitely don’t get in without a permit. Recent information suggest getting permission may have become harder, although speaking a bit of Portuguese might help.

Serra das Araras

We went to Serra das Araras because it is a well-known spot for Harpy Eagle. We basically wanted to see the Harpy Eagle and anything else would be extra. It would serve as some sort of adjusting-to-lowland-South-American-birds–site for Remco who had never been to South America before.

The pousada provides you with guide Manuel to show you the Harpy Eagle’s nest and help you find the young bird or the adult. This doesn’t cost anything and they usually know where to look for the chick. He supposedly knows a lot about the birds in the region, but our experience was that he wasn’t much use in finding the birds and as he doesn’t speak English it might be easier to go into the forest without him after seeing the Harpy. Maybe this was only because he was pretty hungover during our stay. It was his holiday. He has a keen eyesight to find small brown birds on the forest floor though and without him we would not have seen Southern Antpipit. We think he actually saw this species a couple of times earlier and tried to tell and show us, but we didn’t realise this until we finally found this bird.

We missed out on some birds, because we didn’t know where to go or what to look for. If we would have asked him to bring us to a cerrado site he probably would have and probably some other habitat as well. Also, because we didn’t know it occurred, we did not pay much attention to distant vultures. These could well have been Greater Yellow-headed, which occurs in the area.

Pousada grounds

The grounds of the Pousada Currupira das Araras provide relaxed birding with some beautiful birds. The small forest behind the swimming-pool appeared to have more birds than most of the forest we visited in the area. At the grounds immediately surrounding the pousada, including the orchard, we encountered large flocks of Red-shouldered Macaws. They roost in the large trees in front of the pousada. Some Yellow-chevroned Parakeets are always around as well. Other nice birds are White and Yellow-tufted Woodpeckers along with Black-fronted Nunbirds.

In the forest behind the swimming-pool a lot of birds come to drink at the stream. Among others our only White-shouldered Tanager (a female-providing a real identification challenge as we couldn’t even decide which family it belonged to in the beginning. In the end it seemed rather obvious) and our only Pectoral Sparrow of the trip (Remco only). The forest also held a pair of Red-necked Woodpeckers, Magpie Tanagers and Epaulet Oriole (with yellow epaulets - brown in nearby Pantanal). At the soccer field we saw a flock of Swallow-wings on one day (not checked again).

Serra das Araras forest

The forest looked dry and not very promising. Bird activity and the amount of birds in general were low during any time of the day. We birded along the main track and the ‘circular trail’. Most common birds are Silver-beaked Tanager (although it was even hard to find a tanager-flock) and Buff-throated Woodcreeper. The birds you do find are mostly good and different from the other places we went to. We did not hear any antshrikes sing, but we found a pair of Spix’s Warbling Antbird and some Black-throated Antbirds. Spix’s Guan, Cuvier’s Toucan, Lettered and Chestnut-eared Aracari and Green-barred Woodpecker, Short-tailed Pygmy-tyrant, White-necked Puffbird, a fly-by pair of Red-and-green Macaws and a female White-backed Fire-eye were among the highlights. Top birds here were a splendid male Bare-necked Fruitcrow on some occasions and a very obliging Southern Antpipit walking on the path only a meter away. Ferruginous Pygmy-owl appears to be common.

Open Serra das Araras forest

A bit further along the main track there is some more open forest. Here Orange-winged Amazon and Dusky-headed Parakeet are fairly easy. With Manuel we climbed a fence and walked a small track until it ended along a stream between the rocks. Here we saw our only Black-tailed Trogon.

Clearing near Harpy Eagle nest

The clearing holds a lot of birds, but we only noticed this during some of the last hours of our stay. Still we found Brown Jacamar, Double-toothed Kite, Pied Puffbird, Swallow-tanager, Black-crowned Tityra, Rusty-backed Antwren, our first Barred and Great Antshrikes, Pearly-vented Tody-tyrant and some more common birds. If we would have had more time we would have seen more here.


A great place and we recommend going there. Book in advance and ask for Luiz to guide you. He is very good. He knows all the birds and where you can find them. Main problem is that he doesn’t speak English. As I speak a little Portuguese, we didn’t have any trouble, but still it makes conversation harder. He has got a large version of the Souza in which he and you can point out the birds you think you are seeing. He knows all the scientific names and calls them out. Make sure to make clear to him which birds are your main target, so together with him you can make an itinerary directed to seeing those birds. If you want to see Black-fronted Piping-guan, make sure to leave early and be down at Carmo road early in the morning. We ended up looking too much at other birds on our way there, ending up at the right spot too late for the guans. The food and the housing in Intervales are great-it is a real pleasure to stay there. For more info see AG’s.

Serra do Cipo

Except for the Cipo Canastero (which we didn’t see) we wouldn’t recommend this place to anyone. Why: it is very hot, there aren’t many birds in general, there aren’t many species that you can’t see anywhere and yes, the specialty of this place is indeed a very local endemic, but is of course a rather boring brown creeper (but….we didn’t see it, so maybe we are wrong). We used John van der Woudes waypoints to get there, but still had some difficulty finding the right spot. As far as the specialties are concerned, we suggest the following:

Caraca [RH]

This is a forested site surrounding an old monastery. After paying a modest entrance fee, we drove up to the monastery, encountering a number of Dusky-legged Guans on the road (and it wasn’t that early in the day when we drove there). We only birded the Cascatinha and the Tanque Grande trail as mentioned by AG. The Tanque Grande, a short dead-end trail ending at a water tank, was very birdy. Despite the pouring rain, we encountered a large mixed flock including 5-8 Sharpbills, 3 Red-ruffed Fruitcrows, a Swallow-tailed Cotinga, White-tailed Trogon, Yellow-lored Tody-Flycatcher, Ochre-breasted Foliage-gleaner, Drab-breasted Bamboo-tyrant, 10 Streaked Xenops, Pallid Spinetail and Brassy-breasted, Gilt-edged, Burnished-buff and Rufous-headed Tanagers. In scrub near the water basin we saw Cinnamon Piha and Serra do Mar Tyrant-Manakin.

Caraca is a known site for Swallow-tailed Cotinga, and we also found them along Cascatinha Trail (a pair inspecting a nesting tree). The old monastery, somewhat of a tourist site, is said to attract Maned Wolf in the evening. In retrospect we wished we’d chosen Caraca for our resting day instead of Cipo….

GPS WAYPOINTS PER SITE                     


We saw 574 birds, with another 11 heard only. Six species were not identified with certainty but were regarded possible/probable, due to known occurrence at that site. Two ferals were seen. all of these are listed below.

Legend: HO = heard only; max = maximum; 2/9 = Sept 2nd (so it’s the European notation / not Febr 9th); btw = between; km = kilometer; ad = adult(s); imm = immature(s); juv = juvenile(s); m = male; f = female; NT = Near-Threatened; VU = Vulnerable; EN = Endangered; CR = Critically Endangered

Bird sites as follows:

Marsh Antwren site, Biritiba-Mirim, near Mogi das Cruzes, SE Brazil
Boracéia, SE Brazil
[Serra das] Araras, north of Cuiaba-grounds of Curripira das Araras; circular trail; Harpy clearing; stream trail
Pantanal, south of Cuiaba-Transpantaneira; Fazenda Sta Teresa; river Pixaim; Porto Joffre
[Chapada dos] Guimarães-cerrado; gallery forest; Véu da Noiva vantage point at waterfall
Intervales, SE Brazil-Sede (central area); Carmo
Itirapina, SE Brazil
[Serra da] Canastra, SE Brazil-lower parts: Buteco Ra campsite; lower Casca d’Anta waterfall; upper parts: Curral das Pedras; upper Casca d’Anta waterfall;
Forrester’s “G”; source of São Francisco river; outside reserve: Capão Forro farm, Vargem Bonita village
[Serra do] Cipó, SE Brazil
Pindobas IV, SE Brazil
Caetes, SE Brazil
Paratí, SE Brazil - Pereque; [Condominio] Trindade
Itatiaia, SE Brazil-[Hotel] Simon; [Hotel do] Ypê; Maromba [trail]; Tres Picos [trail]
Algulhas Negras, SE Brazil
Ubatuba, SE Brazil - Folha Seca; Fazenda Angelim; Corcovado; Fazenda Capricornio; road to Pica Pau

[Solitary Tinamou Tinamous solitarius – Macuco NT]
Intervales (11/9, 1). Unfortunately we did not have enough time to watch this bird well before it took off. Therefore we do not count it for our personal lists, but it definitely was one. Luiz concurred with the ID.

Undulated Tinamou-Crypturellus undulates - Jaó
Pantanal-Fazenda Sta Teresa (max 3 on 3/9), Porto Joffre (max 2 and 4 HO on 4/9)

[Brown Tinamou – Crypturellus obsoletus - Inhambu-guaçu HO]
Intervales (2 HO), Pindobas IV (max 2 HO), Itatiaia - Tres Picos (max 1 HO), Algulhas Negras (1 HO), Itatiaia - Ypê (1 HO), Ubatuba - Folha Seca (2 HO)

Tataupa Tinamou – Crypturellus tataupa - Inhambu-chintã
Guimarães-Gallery forest (1 and 1 HO), Guimarães-Pousada (1)

Red-winged Tinamou – Crypturellus rufescens - Perdiz
Guimarães-cerrado (3 HO), Canastra-higher parts (3 and some HO), Cipó (2 HO)

[Spotted Nothura – Nothura maculosa - Codorna-amarela HO]
Canastra - higher parts (2 probables HO)

Greater Rhea – Rhea Americana-Ema NT
Transpantaneira (1), Guimarães-cerrado (1)

Least Grebe – Tachybaptus dominicus - Mergulhão-pequeno
Araras-water basins (max 4), Canastra-higher parts (pair)

Brown Booby – Sula leucogaster - Atobá-pardo
Pereque-coast (70+)

Olivaceous Cormorant - Phalacrocorax brasilianus - Biguá
Sao Paulo (20), Pantanal (seen daily), btw Canastra/Cipó (4), Pereque/Parati/Ubatuba (max 80+)

Anhinga - Anhinga anhinga - Biguatinga
Pantanal (some seen daily)

Magnificent Frigatebird – Fregata magnificens - Tesourão
Coast Pereque/Parati/Ubatuba (max 100+)

Cocoi Heron – Ardea coco - Socó-grande
Araras (1), Pantanal (seen daily), Ubatuba (max 2)

Great Egret – Casmerodius Albus - Garça-branca-grande
Sao Paulo (2), Araras (seen daily), Pantanal (common), driving days, Ubatuba (many)

Snowy Egret – Egretta thula - Garça-branca-pequena
Btw Boracéia/Sao Paulo (1), Araras (max 5), Pantanal (common), btw Canastra/Cipó (2), Pereque (1), Ubatuba (many)

Little Blue Heron - Egretta caerulea - Garça-azul
Pantanal-near Porto Joffre (29/7 1 amongst Snowy Egrets), Parati (27/9, 3 white, 4 blue, 2 grey)

Cattle Egret – Bubulcus ibis - Garça-vaqueira
Araras (seen daily), Pantanal (common), Guimarães, often seen in Southeast Brazil

Striated Heron – Butorides striatus - Socozinho
Araras-water basins (max 3), Pantanal (seen daily), btw Venda Nova/Itatiaia (1)

Agami Heron – Agamia agami - Garça-da-mata
Pantanal - Fazenda Sta Teresa (1 juv on 2/9). During boat trip on river, watched well ! Crouched underneath overhanging vegetation.

Whistling Heron - Syrigma sibilatrix - Maria-faceira
Pantanal (max 5 daily), Pereque (2)

Capped Heron – Pilherodius pileatus - Garça-real
Araras (3 on the way to Cuiabá), Pantanal (ones or twos almost daily)

Black crowned Night-heron - Nycticorax nycticorax - Savacu
Pantanal (common), Ubatuba-river (5 ad)

Yellow-crowned Night-heron - Nyctanassa violacea - Savacu-de-coroa
Ubatuba-river (2 ad)

Rufescent Tiger-heron – Tigrisoma lineatum - Socó-boi
Araras-water basins (2), Pantanal (fairly common), btw Venda Nova/Itatiaia (1)

Boat-billed Heron - Cochlearius cochlearius - Arapapá
Pantanal only. Transpantaneira (1/9 2 ad, 2 imm while spotlighting), Fazenda Sta Teresa (3/9 1 ad and 1 juv during boat trip)

Plumbeous Ibis – Theristicus caerulescens - Maçarico-real
Pantanal (seen daily)

Buff-necked Ibis – Theristicus caudatus - Curicaca
Araras (2), Pantanal (low numbers almost daily), Canastra - lower parts (3)

Green Ibis - Mesembrinibis cayennensis - Coró-coró
Araras-water basins (29/8 2, 30/8 2), Pantanal (low numbers daily)

Bare-faced Ibis – Phimosus infuscatus - Tapicuru-de-cara-pelada
Transpantaneira (1/9 2 right at the start of the Transpantaneira), Pantanal-Porto Joffre (4/9 2)

Roseate Spoonbill-Platalea ajaja - Colhereiro
Pantanal (1/9 3, 3/9 30, 4/9 6, 5/9 4)

American Woodstork - Mycteria Americana - Cabeça-seca
Araras (40 on the way to Cuiabá), Pantanal (common)

Maguari Stork – Ciconia maguari - Maguari
Pantanal-near Porto Joffre (3/9 10, 4/9 4)

Jabiru – Jabiru mycteria - Tuiuiú
Pantanal (seen daily in varying numbers: 30, 25, 14 and 28 respectively)

King Vulture - Sarcoramphus papa - Urubu-rei
Canastra-lower parts (14/9 6 adults and 1 imm circling over Casca d’Anta carpark)

Black Vulture – Coragyps atratus - Urubu-de-cabeça-preta
Common at all sites visited

Turkey Vulture – Cathartes aura - Urubu-de-cabeça-vermelha
Boracéia (1 on the way to Sao Paulo), Araras (2), Pantanal (some on 1/9 and 2/9), Guimarães (low numbers), Intervales (max 2), Canastra-higher parts (5), Cipó (10), btw Venda Nova/Itatiaia (seen), Itatiaia (seen), Pereque (1), Ubatuba (max 3)

Lesser Yellow-headed Vulture - Cathartes burrovianus- Urubu-de-cabeça-amarela
Pantanal (low numers daily)

White-faced Whistling-duck - Dendrocygna viduata - Irerê
Araras-water basins (group of 40 present daily), Transpantaneira (2)

Black-bellied Whistling-duck - Dendrocygna autumnalis-Asa-branca
Araras-water basins (29-30/8 1)

Brazilian Teal-Amazonetta brasiliensis - Pé-vermelho
Sao Paulo (20 on the way to Boracéia), Araras-water basins (about 60 daily), Transpantaneira (3 days, max 10), Canastra-Buteco Ra (1m)

Muscovy Duck-Cairina moschata - Pato-do-mato
Araras-water basins (the same 4 seen daily), Pantanal (3 days, max 6), Canastra-Buteco Ra (1)

Brazilian Merganser-Mergus octosetaceus - Pato-mergulhão CR
Canastra-lower parts: 14/9 pair seen very well (and photographed) on the river Sao Francisco, around 500m walking east from the campsite at Buteco Ra

Masked Duck-Oxyura dominica - Marreca-de-bico-roxo
Araras-water basins (30/8 1f)

Southern Screamer-Chauna torquata - Tachã
Araras-water basins (1 on 29/8 and 31/8). Apparently it had been around at Araras for a while. Pantanal (1/9 2, 3/9 7, 4/9 18, 5/9 2)

White-tailed Kite-Elanus leucurus - Gavião-peneira
Intervales (1), btw Sao Paulo/Boracéia both days (1), btw Intervales/Itirapina (3), btw Itirapina/Canastra (3)

Swallow-tailed Kite-Elanoides forficatus - Gavião-tesoura
Guimarães-cerrado (1), Guimarães-village and pousada (max 14), Intervales (max 20), Pindobas IV (max 2), Pereque (1)

Gray-headed Kite-Leptodon cayanensis - Gavião-de-cabeça-cinza
Pindobas IV (19/9 pair)

Rufous-thighed Kite-Harpagus diodon - Gavião-bombachinha
Caetes (20/9 1 perched)

Double-toothed Kite - Harpagus bidentatus - Gavião-ripina
Araras-clearing (31/8 1 perched in tree)

Plumbeous Kite-Ictinia plumbea - Sovi
Araras (max 3), Pantanal (3 days, max 4), Guimarães (max 8), Canastra-lower parts (3), btw  Canastra/Cipó (4), Carmo (pair)

Snail Kite-Rostrhamus sociabilis - Gavião-caramujeiru
Araras (1 btw Cuiabá and Araras both ways), Pantanal (varying numbers seen daily)

Sharp-shinned Hawk-Accipiter striatus - Gavião-miúdo
Intervales (2)

Black-chested Buzzard-eagle - Geranoaetus melanoleucus - Águia-chilena
Guimarães (1 along the road to Cuiabá), Canastra-lower part of Casca D’Anta (pair on 14/9), Canastra-higher parts (15/9 Casca D’Anta pair), presumably same pair on both days. Pair comprised of 1 adult and 1 subadult.

White-tailed Hawk-Buteo albicaudatus - Gavião-de-rabo-branco
Guimarães - cerrado (1 dark phase, which is rare), Canastra (max 8), Cipó (1), Pindobas IV (1), Caetes (max 6+), Algulhas Negras (1)

Short-tailed Hawk-Buteo brachyurus - Gavião-de-cauda-curta
Intervales (10/9 1)

Gray Hawk-Asturina nitida - Gavião-pedrês
Araras-water basins (2 on 31/9)

Road-side Hawk-Rupornis magnirostris - Gavião-carijó
Small numbers seen at nearly all places visited

Black-collared Hawk-Busarellus nigricollis - Gavião-belo
Pantanal, low numbers observed daily

Savanna Hawk-Buteogallus meridionalis - Gavião-caboclo
Araras (3), Pantanal (low numbers observed daily), Canastra (2), Cipó (1), Caetes (2)

Great Black Hawk-Buteogallus urubitinga - Gavião-preto
Pantanal (seen on most days, 15 on 1/9), btw Intervales/Itirapina (1), btw Itirapina/Canastra (1)

Harpy Eagle-Harpia harpyja - Gavião-real NT
Araras-clearing (same adult-sized juv-thus lacking a dark breastband - on 29/8 and 31/8)

Black Hawk-Eagle-Spizaetus tyrannus - Gavião-pega-macaco
Intervales (11/9 2)

Crane Hawk-Geranospiza caerulescens - Gavião-pernilongo
Singles as follows: Pantanal (1/7, 3/7, 4/7 and 5/7), Pereque

[Barred Forest-Falcon-Micrastur ruficollis - Gavião-caburé HO]
Caetes (20/9 1 HO)

Lauging Falcon-Herpetotheres cachinnans - Acauã
Transpantaneira (1/9 2, 3/9 1), Guimarães (1)

Yellow-headed Caracara - Milvago chimachima - Carrapateiro
Low numbers seen at most sites visited, higher numbers at Canastra.

Southern Crested Caracara-Caracara plancus - Caracará
Seen at most sites visited

Bat Falcon-Falco rufigularis - Cauré
Guimarães-Veu da Noiva: 1 seen very well, hunting for bats and eating them on an exposed branch next to the top of the waterfall

Aplomado Falcon-Falco femoralis - Falcão-de-coleira
Itirapina (1), Canastra-higher parts (1). Remarkable low number of records.

American Kestrel-Falco sparverius - Quiriquiri
Araras (max 4), Guimarães (1), btw Intervales/Itirapina (2), btw Itirapina/Canastra (at least 5), Canastra - lower parts (1m), btw Canastra/Cipó (1), Cipó (2m), btw Venda Nova/Itatiaia (4), Ubatuba (2)

Chaco Chachalaca-Ortalis canicollis - Aracuã-do-pantanal
Pantanal, fairly common, seen daily. The most common cracid in the Pantanal.

Dusky-legged Guan-Penelope obscura - Jacuguaçu
Intervales (max 5), Caraça (16), Caetes (HO), Itatiaia - Simon (max 4), Ypê (max 10), Algulhas Negras (2)

Spix’s Guan-Penelope jacquacu - Jacucaca
Araras-forest (29/8 2, 31/8 6)

Chestnut-bellied Guan-Penelope ochrogaster – Jacu-de-barriga-castanha VU
Pantanal (1/9 8, 5/9 3) along the Transpantaneira

Red-throated Piping-guan-Pipile cujub - Cujubi
Pantanal (2/9 1). Only one, found by scanning and trying to identify all the piping-guans encountered.

Blue-throated Piping-guan - Pipile cumanensis - Jacutinga-de-garganta-azul
Pantanal (1/9 1 seen very well, 2/9 2, 3/9 6, 4/9 3)

Bare-faced Curassow-Crax fasciolata - Mutum-de-penacho
Pantanal (1/9 a pair, 2/9 a pair, 3/9 23, 4/9 4 incl a tame male in Porto Joffre accommodation grounds)

Spot-winged Wood-Quail - Odontophorus capueira - Uru
Intervales (10/9 2+ HO and vaguely seen); Itatiaia - Tres Picos trail (25/9 6 seen on lower trail by Remco only)

Limpkin-Aramus guarauna - Carão
Pantanal, seen daily in low numbers

Gray-necked Wood-rail-Aramides cajanea - Saracura-três-potes
Btw Sao Paulo/Boracéia (2), Pantanal (fairly common, seen daily), Itirapina-Pousada grounds (3), btw Itatiaia/Parati (1), Pereque (2), Ubatuba (1)

Slaty-breasted Wood-rail-Aramides saracura - Saracura-do-mato
Intervales (9/9 2, 12/9 2), Caraça (1), Algulhas Negras (1)

[Rufous-sided Crake - Laterallus melanophaius-Sanã-parda HO]
Intervales (11/9 1 HO)

Common Moorhen-Gallinula choloropus - Frango-d’água
Btw São Paulo/Boracéia (10), Pereque (1 ad and 2 pulli)

American Purple Gallinule - Porphyrula martinica – Frango-d’água-azul
Transpantaneira (1/9 1, 5/9 1), possibly the same bird, as we saw it in approximately the same area both days. Not a common bird in the Pantanal. Btw Itirapina/Canastra (1)

Sungrebe – Heliornis fulica - Picaparra
Pantanal-Sta Teresa (3/9 1 during a boat trip). Found after scanning all suitable places along the river. Transpantaneira (3/9 1) at a regular site on a pool on the west side of the Transpantaneira (see list of GPS waypoints). Seen better than the one on the river the same morning, but caused a lot less excitement.

Sunbittern-Eurypyga helias - Pavãozinho-do-pará
Pantanal (max 4 daily, mainly near bridges)

Red-legged Seriema-Cariama cristata - Seriema
Guimarães-cerrado (1) found by our eagle-eyed driver Claudio, Itirapina (1 HO), btw Itirapina/Canastra (1 near Canastra, walking across the road), Canastra-Vargem Bonita (2), Canastra-Buteco Ra (1 seen very well, 1 HO), Canastra-higher parts (2 HO), btw Canastra/Cipó (6: 4 close to Canastra, 2 further along the way - all very close to or even on the road)

Wattled Jacana-Jacana jacana - Jaçanã
Boracéia (2 ad, 3 juv), Araras-water basins (seen daily), Pantanal (fairly common, seen on all days), Pereque (2)

Southern Lapwing-Vanellus chilensis - Quero-quero
Seen at most of the visited sites

Collared Plover-Charadrius collaris - Batuíra-de-coleira
Pantanal-Porto Joffre, a pair at the marsh bordering the fishing hotel

Semipalmated Plover-Charadrius semipalmatus - Batuíra-de-bando
Parati-mud flats (12+)

American Golden Plover-Pluvialis dominica - Batuiruçi
Parati-mud flats (1)

Ruddy Turnstone-Arenaria interpres - Vira-pedras
Parati-mudflats (3)

Solitary Sandpiper-Tringa solitaria - Maçarico-solitário
Araras-water basins (1), Pantanal (seen daily, numbers varying 1-20, the first-arriving migrants)

Spotted Sandpiper-Actitis macularius - Maçarico-pintado
Parati-mud flats (1)

Greater Yellowlegs-Tringa melanoleuca - Maçarico-grande-de-perna-amarela
Parati-mud flats (1 flying off, Johan only)

Paraguayan Snipe-Gallinago paraguaiae - Narceja
Pantanal-Porto Joffre (4/9 2 seen well) at the marsh bordering the grounds of the hotel.

Kelp Gull-Larus dominicanus - Gaivotão
Coast Pereque/Parati/Ubatuba (seen daily)

Large-billed Tern-Phaetusa simplex - Trinta-réis-grande
Btw Cuiabá/Araras (1), Pantanal (1/9 3, 2/9 1, 3/9 3, 4/9 4). Beautiful terns, some seen along the Transpantaneira, some on the river Pixaim near Fazenda Sta Teresa

South American Tern-Sterna hirundinacea - Trinta-réis-de-bico-vermelho
Parati harbour (1)

Royal Tern-Sterna maxima - Trinta-réis-real
Parati harbour (4)

Yellow-billed Tern-Sterna superciliaris - Trinta-réis-anão
Pantanal-Porto Joffre (4), above the river and the marsh

Black Skimmer-Rynchops niger - Talha-mar
Parati mudflats (1 perched)

Scaled Pigeon-Columba speciosa - Pomba-trocal
Araras-main road (30/8 1, 31/8 1), Guimarães (some seen on both days)

Picazuro Pigeon-Columba picazuro - Pombão
Fairly common at all sites visited.

Pale-vented Pigeon-Columba cayennensis - Pomba-galega
Pantanal (max 10), Guimarães (max 4), Intervales (2 seen and others HO), Canastra - lower parts (2)

Plumbeous Pigeon – Columa plumbea- Pomba-amargosa
Btw Cipó/Venda Nova (2 and some HO), Pindobas IV/Caetes (HO), Itatiaia (seen or HO on all days), Ubatuba - Capricornio (1)

Eared Dove-Zenaida auriculata - Pomba-de Bando
Pantanal (2 days, max 4), Pantanal (70), a large flock, on the way to Chapada. Apparently this is the only dove appearing in large flocks around here (except for ground-doves of course). Intervales (max 10+), Canastra-upper parts (seen)

Plain-breasted Ground-dove - Columbina minuta - Rolinha-de-asa-canela
Btw Intervales/Itirapina (pair), btw Itirapina/Canastra (6), btw Canastra/Cipó (2), Itatiaia - Simon (pair)

Ruddy Ground-dove-Columbina talpacoti Rolinha-roxa
Btw São Paulo/Boracéia (1), Araras (seen daily), Pantanal (seen daily, max 30), Guimarães (max 2), driving days, Venda Nova (max 2), Pereque (1)

Picui Ground-dove-Columbina picu - Rolinha-picui
Btw Cuiabá/Araras (2), Pantanal (seen daily)

Long-tailed Ground-dove-Uropelia campestris - Rolinha-vaqueira
Pantanal (1/9 7, 2/9 and 3/9 seen)

Scaled Dove-Scardafella squammata - Fogo-apagou
Pantanal (seen on 3 days, max 10), btw Itirapina/Canastra (4), Canastra (max 10)

White-tipped Dove - Leptotila verreauxi - Juriti-pupu
Pantanal (fairly common)

Gray-fronted Dove-Leptotila rufiaxilla - Juriti-gemedeira
Araras (max 15), Guimarães-gallery forest (HO), Intervales (2), Caraça (1), Pindobas IV/Caetes (2 seen, more HO), Carmo (HO), Itaitaia (HO)

Ruddy Quail-dove-Geotrygon montana - Pariri
Intervales (1), Itatiaia - Tres Picos trail (1), Pereque (1)

Hyacinth Macaw-Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus  - Arara-azul-grande EN
Pantanal (1/9 4 along the Transpantaneira, 3/9 20 at dusk roost at Porto Joffre, but already too dark to see well, 4/9 10 seen and photographed very well, mainly on the hotel grounds at Porto Joffre). A parrot even Remco liked !

Red-and-Green Macaw - Ara chloroptera - Arara-vermelha-grande
Araras-circular trail (2 flying over the forest), Guimarães-cerrado (two pairs, quite distant), Guimarães (1 on the return journey to Cuiabá)

Blue-winged Macaw-Propyrrhura maracana - Maracanã-du-buriti NT
Guimarães-Véu da Noiva (6), 4 seen very well near the entrance of the park and 2 later near the waterfall. Beautiful macaws! Guimarães (5 on the way back to Cuiabá), Carmo (2 pairs)

Golden-collared Macaw - Propyrrhura auricollis - Maracanã-de-colar
Transpantaneira (3/9 4, perched in top of tree, 4/9 2)

Red-shouldered Macaw-Diopsittaca nobilis - Marcanã-pequena
Araras-Pousada (max 50 daily), Guimarães - Véu da Noiva (50 coming in to roost near the waterfall)

White-eyed Parakeet-Aratinga leucophthalmus - Periquitão maracanã
Guimarães-Véu da Noiva (100+ coming in to roost near the waterfall), Guimarães (10 on the return journey to Cuiabá), Canastra (max 20+), Carmo (1), btw Ubatuba/São Paulo (10+)

Dusky-headed Parakeet-Aratinga weddellii - Periquito-de-cabeça-suja
Araras-entry road (8), Araras-open forest (4)

Peach-fronted Parakeet-Aratinga aurea - Periquito-rei
Pantanal (max 10), Guimarães (seen), Canastra-higher parts (8), btw Canastra/Cipó (2 pairs), Cipó (6 pairs)

Maroon-bellied Parakeet-Pyrrhura frontalis - Tiriba-de-testa-vermelha
Boracéia (10), Intervales (seen daily), Pindobas IV (4), Caetes (4), Ypê (mainly) (9), Pereque (20)

Nanday Parakeet-Nandayus nenday - Periquito-de-cabeça-preta
Transpantaneira (1/9 4 flying by at our first, Streamer-tailed Tyrant-stop-see GPS). Not seen very well.

Monk Parakeet-Myiopsitta monachus - Caturrita
Pantanal, common, seen daily

Blue-winged Parrotlet-Forpus xanthopterygius - Tuim
Boracéia (6), Intervales (1 HO), Canastra-Vargem Bonita (2 in flight); Itatiaia - Simon (max 10), Tres Picos (2 pairs), Pereque (6), Ubatuba-Capricornio (6)

[Brown-backed Parrotlet Touit melanonota - Apuim-de-costas-pretas HO]
HO at Pindobas IV, 20/9 (Ana only)

Plain Parakeet-Brotogeris tirica - Periquito-rico
Intervales (11/9, 4), Pereque (pair), Ubatuba (max 30+ daily)

Yellow-chevroned Parakeet-Brotogeris chiriri - Periquito-de-encontro-amarelo
Araras (common), Pantanal (seen daily), Guimarães (4), Canastra, Cipó

Red-capped Parrot-Pionopsita pileata - Cuiú-cuiú
Intervales (9/9 1m, 11/9 2 in flight), Itatiaia - Maromba (22/9 pair)

Blue-headed Parrot – Pionus menstruus - Maitaca-de-cabeça-azul
Araras (2), Guimarães-Véu da Noiva (5), Guimarães (5 on the return journey to Cuiabá)

Scaly-headed Parrot-Pionus maximiliani - Maitaca-verde
Boracéia (10), Pantanal (seen daily, max 20), Intervales (max 6), Canastra-Vargem Bonita (5), Canastra-lower parts (2), Cipó (pair), Carmo (3), Itatiaia (max 4), Pereque (5), Ubatuba - Capricornio (18), Folha Seca (few)

Turquoise-fronted Amazon-Amazona aestiva - Papagaio-verdadeiro
Pantanal (2/9 8, 3/9 6, 5/9 6)

Orange-winged Amazon-Amazona amazonica - Curica
Araras-open forest (31/8 12)

Squirrel Cuckoo-Piaya cayana – Alma-de-gato
Boracéia (1), Araras (max 6), Pantanal - Sta Teresa (3), Guimarães (3), Intervales (1 HO), Canastra - lower parts (2), Cipó (1), Carmo (2), Itatiaia - Maromba trail (1), Ubatuba-Angelim (2+)

Little Cuckoo-Piaya minuta – Chincoã-pequeno
Pantana – Sta Tereza (2/9 1 during boat trip on river Pixaim)

Smooth-billed Ani-Crotophaga ani – Anu-preto
Seen at Boracéia, Araras, Pantanal, Guimarães, Pereque, Ubatuba and on travelling days

Guira Cuckoo-Guira guira – Anu-branco
Seen at Araras, Pantanal, Guimarães, most travelling days, Canastra-lower parts

Striped Cuckoo-Tapera naevia - Saci
Pantanal - Transpantaneira (3/9 1 crossing the road and perched in a roadside bush for a while)

[Pheasant Cuckoo-Dromococcyx phasianellus - Eixe-frito-verdadeiro HO]
Guimarães-pousada (7/9 1 HO)

Barn Owl Tyto alba Coruja-da-igreja
Btw Cipó/Venda Nova (18/9 1 seen hunting along the road after dusk)

Tropical Screech-owl Otus choliba - Corujinha-do-mato
Guimarães-pousada (6/9 4 HO), Intervales (pair at daytime roost 9/9 and 12/9, 1 hunting at night 10/9)

[Southern Tawny-bellied Screech-owl - Otus watsonii - Corujinha-orelhuda HO]
Araras-main road (30/9 1 HO)

Great Horned Owl Bubo virginianus - Jacurutu
Transpantaneira (3/9 1 ad, 2 juv on nest near Port Joffre), Pantanal-Fazenda Sta Teresa (4/9 1)

Tawny-browed Owl Pulsatrix koeniswaldiana - Murcututu-de-barriga-amarela
Caetes (19/9 1 calling, spotlit), Itatiaia - Maromba (22/9 3 HO), Ypê (23/9 1 seen well in car headlights)

Ferruginous Pygmy-owl - Glaucidium brasilianum - Caburé
Araras-main road (30/9 1 immediately flew in after random taping at dusk), Araras-circular trail (31/9 2 during daytime, 1 HO), Pantanal (1/9 1 HO, 2/9 1 HO, 3/9 1 HO, 5/9 1 seen), Intervales (1 HO), Cipó (1 HO), Itatiaia - Tres Picos (25/9 2 HO)

Burrowing Owl Athene cunicularia - Coruja-buraqueira
Boracéia (2 in a ‘groundhog’ field along the ‘entrance road’), Transpantaneira (2), Guimarães (max 3 pairs), btw Itirapina/Canastra (1), Canastra-higher parts (2), btw Itatiaia/Parati (1)

[Mottled Owl Strix virgata - Coruja-do-mato HO]
Intervales (2 HO). Unfortunately the sound on our cd turned out to be different from the sound in Intervales (according to Luiz), so the birds did not respond and we could not find them in the spotlight.

Short-tailed Nighthawk - Lurocalis semitorquatus - Tuju
Itatiaia-Hotel do Ypê (23/9 3 hunting at dusk)

Least Nighthawk Chordeiles pusillus - Bacurauzinho
Canastra-Capão Forro (15/9 1) Showing very well in broad daylight hawking at the end of the afternoon, making it very hard to choose btw watching the nighthawk or the Collared Crescentchest showing simultaneously. Serra do Cipó (1).

Lesser Nighthawk Chordeiles acutipennis - Bacurau-de-asa-fina
Pantanal (5/9 1 flying in the daytime on the way to Chapada dos Guimarães)

Band-tailed Nighthawk Nyctiprogne leucopyga - Bacurau-de-cauda-barrada
Pantanal (1/9 1, 2/9 6, 3/9 6, 4/9 10)

Nacunda Nighthawk Podager nacunda - Corucão
Pantanal (2/9 1, 4/9 2, 5/9 1 in flight and later perched in the daytime on the way to Guimarães), Guimarães (6/9 1 HO)

Pauraque Nyctidromus albicollis Bacurau
Araras-main road (31/9 1 and 3 HO), Pantanal (2/9 2 on boat trip, 3/9 1 HO Porto Joffre, 4/9 1, 5/9 1), Canastra-lower parts (14/9 1 on the road), Canastra-Capão Forro (15/9 1f and 1 HO)

Spot-tailed Nightjar Caprimulgus maculicaudatus - Bacurau-de-rabo-maculado
Pantanal-Fazenda Sta Teresa (4/9 at least 2 seen, 10 HO). Mainly hawking over water at dusk.

[Little Nightjar - Caprimulgus parvulus - Bacurau-chintã HO]
Pantanal-Fazenda Sta Teresa (4/9 3 HO)

Scissor-tailed Nightjar Hydropsalis torquata - Bacurau-tesoura
Pantanal-Fazenda Sta Teresa (4/9 1). Seen very well perched, also flying around in the spotlight. Juan almost caught it by hand-that would have been great-but it flew off just in time.

Long-trained Nightjar Macropsalis creagra - Bacurau-tesoura-gigante
Intervales (9/9 1f, 10/9 pair). Male showing very well alternately sitting on the road and flying off when it got tired of the spotlight. Those tail-streamers!

White-collared Swift Streptoprocne zonaris - Taperuçu-de-coleira-branca
Guimarães-Véu da Noiva (4/9 50, some roosting behind the waterfall), Intervales, common (9-11/9), Canastra, fairly common (13-15/9, for instance at Casca D’Anta waterfall), Cipó (17/9 50+), also recorded daily at Caraça, Itatiaia and Pereque

Biscutate Swift Streptoprocne biscutata - Taperuçu-de-coleira-falha
Guimarães-Véu da Noiva (4/9 1-2 in a flock of White-collareds)

Great Dusky Swift Cypseloides senex - Taperuçu-velhu
Guimarães-Véu da Noiva (4/9 20 roosting behing the waterfall), Canastra-lower parts (14/9 seen)

Gray-rumped Swift Chaetura cinereiventris - Andorinhão-de-sobre-cinzento
and/or Sick’s Swift Chaetura meridionalis - Andorinhão-do-temporal
Boracéia (28/8 30), Intervales (1-2 daily), btw Itirapina/Canastra (13/9 3+), Cipó (10+ daily), Pindobas IV/Caetes (19/9 2), Itatiaia (seen almost daily), Pereque (26/9), Ubatuba (27-30/9)

Band-rumped Swift-Chaetura spinicaudus  
Ubatuba-Fazenda Capricornio (30/9 1, possibly 2, amongst Blue-and-white Swallows feeding low over fast-flowing stream prior to dusk). According to literature this is far south of its normal range.

Fork-tailed Palm-Swift Tachornis squamata - Tesourinha
Itatiaia-Tres Picos trail (25/9 5, Remco only)

Saw-billed Hermit - Ramphodon naevius - Beija-flor-rajado NT
Intervales (11/9 1), Pereque (26/9 1), Ubatuba-Capricornio (27/9 3), Corcovado, Folha Seca (28/9 12+, 30/9 8), Angelim (29/9 1)

Hairy Hermit Glaucis hirsute - Balança-rabo-de-bico-torto
Guimarães-Gallery forest (7/9 1)

Scale-throated Hermit Phaethornis eurynome - Rabo-branco-de-garganta-rajada
Intervales (9/9 1m and 1 other, 10/9 2, 11/9 3+), Itatiaia - Ypê (22/9 1, 23/9 1, 25/9 1), Algulhas Negras (24/9 3)

Dusky-throated Hermit Phaetornis squalidus - Rabo-branco-pequeno
Intervales (10/9 1), Pindobas IV/Caetes (19/9 2), Itatiaia-Simon (22/9 1, 23/9 1)

Planalto Hermit Phaetornis pretre - Rabo-branco-acanelado
Btw Sao Paulo/Boracéia (27/8 1), Canastra-Pousada feeders (13/9 2, 14/9 pair, 15/9 3, 16/9 2), Itatiaia-Maromba (22/9 1)

Buff-bellied Hermit Phaetornis subochraceus - Rabo-branco-de-barriga-fulva
Pantanal - Fazenda Sta Teresa (2/9 3, 3/9 1 HO, 5/9 2)

[Cinnamon-throated Hermit - Phaetornis nattereri - Besourão-de-sobre-amarelo]
Guimarães-gallery forest (7/9 1 probable, but we didn’t see it well enough for definite ID)

Reddish Hermit Phaetornis rubber - Rabo-branco-rubro
Pereque (26/9 3), Ubatuba-Folha Seca (28/9 1)

Swallow-tailed Hummingbird - Campylopterus macrourus Beija-flor-tesoura
Btw São Paulo/Boracéia (27/8 1), Itirapina (12/9 1), Canastra (13/9 1, 14/9 2, 16/9 1), Carmo (21/9 2), Itatiaia-Simon (22/9 1, 25/9 1), Ypê (22/9 1, 23/9 1), Ubatuba-Folha Seca (28/9 1, 30/9 1)

Black Jacobin Melanotrochilus fuscus - Beija-flor-preto
Mogi das Cruzes-Marsh Antwren site (27/8 3), Itatiaia (22/9 20+, 25/9 12+), Ubatuba - Folha Seca (28/9 1, 30/9 1)

White-vented Violetear Colibri serrirostris - Beija-flor-de-orelha-violeta
Guimarães-cerrado (6/9 2), Guimarães-Gallery forest (7/9 1 HO near the edge of the forest); Canastra (14/9 1m, 1f, 15/9 4 and 10 HO, 16/9 2), Cipó (17/9 6+), Algulhas Negras (24/9 1 seen, 1 HO)

Black-throated Mango - Anthracothorax nigricollis - Beija-flor-de-veste-preta
Pereque (26/9 1m), Ubatuba-Folha Seca (30/9 1f)

Plovercrest Stephanoxis l. lalandi - Beija-flor-de-topete
Algulhas Negras (24/9 5m and 10 HO). At the lek at the far side of the marsh. This was the northern, green-crested nominate lalandi; the southern, blue-crested subspecies occurs in Intervales but is scarce.

Frilled Coquette Lophornis magnificus - Topetinho-vermelho
Pindobas IV (20/9 1m, Remco only), Itatiaia-Simon (22/9 1m at yellow flowers in front of hotel), Ypê (22/9 1m), Ubatuba-Folha Seca (28/9 1m)

Festive Coquette Lophornis chalybea - Topetinho-verde
Intervales-Restaurant at Sede (9/9 1f), Pereque (26/9 1f), Ubatuba-Capricornio (27/9 1f), Folha Seca (28/9 3m, 3f, 30/9 3m, 2f)

Glittering-bellied Emerald Chlorostilbon aureoventris Besourinho-de-bico-vermelho
Mogi das Cruzes-Marsh Antwren site (27/9 2), Guimarães (6/9 2), Intervales (9/9 1m, 2f, 11/9 1m), Canastra (15/9 1), Cipó (17/9 2), Caraça (18/9 1), Caetes (19/9 1m), Pindobas IV (20/9 2), Carmo (21/9 2), Ubatuba (28/9 1, 30/9 1)

Fork-tailed Woodnymph Thalurania furcata - Beija-flor-tesoura-verde
Araras-circular trail (31/8 1), Pantanal (1/9 1m, 4/9 1m, 5/9 1f), Guimarães-Gallery forest (7/9 2f, 1m), btw Intervales/Itirapina (12/9 1), Canastra - Casca D’Anta (2m, 1f)

Violet-capped Woodnymph-Thalurania glaucopis Tesoura-de-fronte-violeta
Intervales (9/9 20+, 10/9 20, 11/9 6+), Pindobas IV (19/9 1m, 2f, 20/9 1f), Caetes (19/9 1f), Itatiaia (22/9 20+, 23/9 15+, 25/9 10+), Pereque (26/9 5), Ubatuba-Capricornio (27/9 1m, 2f), Folha Seca (28/9 15, 30/9 12+), Angelim (29/9 1)

White-chinned Sapphire Hylocharis cyanus - Beija-flor-roxo
Pereque (26/9 1m), Ubatuba-Folha Seca (28/9 1f, 30/9 1m, 1f)

Gilded Sapphire Hylocharis chrysura - Beija-flor-dourado
Patanal-Porto Joffre (4/9 1)

White-throated Hummingbird-Leucochloris albicollis – Beija-flor-de-papo-branco
Mogi das Cruzes (27/8 4, 28/8 1), Intervales (9/9 5+, 10/9 4, 11/9 2), Itatiaia (22/9 10-15, 23/9 10-15, 25/9 10+), Algulhas Negras (24/9 2)

Versicolored Emerald Agyrtria versicolor - Beija-flor-de-banda-branca
Itatiaia-Ypê (22/9 8, 23/9 5+)

Glittering-throated Emerald - Polyerata fimbriata - Beija-flor-de-garganta-verde
Pantanal (1/9 1m, 1f, 3/9 2, 4/9 1m, 5/9 1m), Intervales (9/9 5+, 1m), btw Itirapina/Canastra (13/9 1 1st year m), Itatiaia-Simon (25/9 1), Ubatuba-Capricornio (27/9 1), Folha Seca (28/9 1m, 1f)

Sapphire-spangled Emerald Plyerata lacteal - Beija-flor-de-peito-azul
Intervales-Restaurant (9/9 2m, 11/9 2m, 1f), Canastra-lower parts (14/9 1m), Carmo (21/9 pair)

Sombre Hummingbird - Aphantochroa cirrhochloris - Beija-flor-cinza
Canastra-lower parts (14/9 1), Ubatuba-Folha Seca (28/9 2, 30/9 2)

White-tailed Goldenthroat Polytmus guainumb - Beija-flor-de-bico-curvo
Pantanal-Fazenda Sta Teresa (5/9 1f), Cipó (17/9 3)

Brazilian Ruby Clytolaema rubricauda - Beija-flor-rubi
Boracéia (6), Caetes (20/9 1f), Itatiaia-Ypê (22/9 10, 23/9 6, 25/9 10+), Simon (22/9 6, 23/9 2), Algulhas Negras (24/9 1), Ubatuba-Folha Seca (28/9 5+, 30/9 5+)

Hyacinth Visorbearer Augastes scutatus - Beija-flor-de-gravata-verde NT
Cipó (17/9 3m, 2f). Maybe due to bad light conditions, we found this one a bit disappointing. We expected it to be the most beautiful hummer of the trip, but alas.

Stripe-breasted Starthroat Heliomaster squamosus Bico-reto-de-banda-branca
Canastra - Vargem Bonita (13/9 1m), Itatiaia-Ypê (22/9 1f)

Amethyst Woodstar Calliphlox amethystine - Estrelinha-ametista
Guimarães-gallery forest (7/9 1m, 1f), Canastra-Casca D’Anta (14/9 1m), Pereque (26/9 1m), Ubatuba-Angelim (29/9 1)

Black-tailed Trogon Trogon melanurus - Surucuá-de-cauda-preta
Araras-small stream trail (31/8 1 immature)

White-tailed Trogon Trogon viridis - Surucuá-grande-de-barriga-amarela
Boracéia (28/8 1m, 1f, 2 HO), Araras-circular trail (31/8 1m), Intervales (11/9 1), Itatiaia-Tres Picos (23/9 1f), Maromba (23/9 HO)

Collared Trogon Trogon collaris - Surucuá-de-coleira
Araras-forest (30/8 1m, 31/8 1 imm)

Black-throated Trogon Trogon rufus - Surucuá-de-barriga-amarela
Intervales (9/9 1m), Itatiaia-Tres Picos (23/9 2 HO, 25/9 pair)

Surucua Trogon - Trogon surrucura aurantius - Surucuá-variado
Intervales (9/9 1m, 10/9 1 HO, 11/9 3 pairs, 1m, 1f), Canastra-lower parts (14/9 2m, 1 HO), Pindobas IV (19/9 pair), Carmo (21/9 pair). This subspecies has a yellow belly.

Surucua Trogon - Trogon surrucura surrucura - Surucuá-variado
Itatiaia-main road (22/9 1m). This subspecies has a red belly.

Blue-crowed Trogon Trogon curucui - Surucuá-de-barriga-vermelha
Araras-Pousada grounds (29/8 1, 30/8 4, 31/8 1 imm), Pantanal (3/9 1m, 4/9 pair)

Ringed Kingfisher Ceryle torquata - Martim-pescador-grande
Araras-water basins (31/8 1), Pantanal (daily 1-5/9), Itirapina-Pousada (12/8 2), Pereque (26/9 1 flying over sea), Ubatuba (27/9 1, 28/9 1, 30/9 1)

Amazon Kingfisher Chloroceryle amazona - Martim-pescador-verde
Araras-water basins (29/8 2, 30/8 1, 31/8 1), Pantanal (daily 1-5/9), Intervales (9/9 1), Canastra-lower parts (14/9 1), Carmo (21/9 1), Ubatuba (28/9 1)

Green Kingfisher Chloroceryle Americana - Martim-pescador-pequeno
Pantanal (daily, except 1/9), Canastra-lower parts (14/9 1)

Green-and-Rufous Kingfisher - Chloroceryle inda - Martim-pescador-da-mata
Pantanal (3/9 2)

American Pygmy Kingfisher - Chloroceryle aenea - Martinho
Pantanal (2/9 1, 3/9 2m, 1f, 4/9 1f)

Rufous-capped Motmot - Baryphthengus ruficapillus – Juruva-verde
Intervales (9/9 1 HO), Itatiaia-Maromba (22/9 2)

Blue-crowned Motmot-Momotus momota - Udu-de-coroa-azul
Araras-circular trail (29/8 1, 31/8 4), Guimarães-gallery forest (7/9 2 pairs and 1 HO)

Brown Jacamar Brachygalba lugubris - Ariramba-preta
Araras-clearing (31/8 pair). Very unexpected and showing very well.

Three-toed Jacamar Jacamaralcyon tridactyla - Cuitelão VU
Carmo (21/9 pair)

Rufous-tailed Jacamar Galbula ruficauda - Ariramba-de-cauda-ruiva
Pantanal (2/9 pair, 3/9 1, 4/9 1, 5/9 pair plus 1), Guimarães (7/9 1), btw Sao Roque de Minas-Piumhi (16/9 1), Pereque (26/9 3)

White-necked Puffbird - Notharchus macrorhynchus – Macuru-de-testa-branca
Araras-circular trail (30/8 1)

Buff-bellied Puffbird Notharchus swainsoni - Macuru-de-barriga-castanha
Ubatuba-Angelim (29/9 1)

Pied Puffbird Notharchus tectus - Macuru-pintado
Araras-clearing (31/8 1 at the far edge of the clearing)

White-eared Puffbird Nystalus chacuru - João-bobo
Guimarães-Cerrado (6/9 6), Canastra-lower parts (14/9 1)

Black-fronted Nunbird Monasa nigrifrons-Chora-chuva-preto
Araras (29/8 2, 30/8 10, 31/8 10, Pousada grounds and circular trail). A pair constantly present in the trees just behind the pousada. Pantanal (2/9 3, 3/9 4, 4/9 2, 5/9 1), Guimarães (7/9 3)

Swallow-wing Chelidoptera tenebrosa - Urubuzinho
Araras-entrance road (29/8 7, 31/8 2), Araras-pousada grounds (30/8 5 along soccer pitch)

Chestnut-eared Aracari - Pteroglossus castanotis - Araçari-castanho
Araras (30/8 6, 31/8 2), Pantanal (3/9 4, 5/9 2), Guimarães (6/9 1, 7/9 10)

Black-necked Aracari Pteroglossus aracari - Araçari-de-bico-branco
Carmo (21/9 6)

Lettered Aracari Pteroglossus inscriptus - Araçari-miudinho-de-bico-riscado
Araras (29/8 1, 30/8 6, 31/8 3)

Spot-billed Toucanet Selenidera maculirostris - Araçari-poca
Pindobas IV (19/9 HO), Itatiaia-Tres Picos (25/9 pair, Johan only)

Saffron Toucanet Baillonius bailloni - Araçari-banana NT
Itatiaia-Maromba (22/9 8), Tres Picos (25/9 2)

Channel-billed Toucan Ramphastos vitellinus - Tucano-de-bico-preto
Pindobas IV (19/9 1, 20/9 5), Pereque (26/9 pair and 1 HO), Ubatuba-Capricornio (27/9 1)

Yellow-ridged Toucan Ramphastos culminates
Guimarães-Gallery forest (7/9 3)

Red-breasted Toucan Ramphastos dicolorus - Tucano-de-bico-verde
Intervales (9/9 2, 10/9 1, 12/9 2), Canastra-lower parts (14/9 3 from Restaurant Buteco Ra), Pindobas IV (20/9 1), Itatiaia (22/9 pair and 1, 23/9 pair, 25/9 6), Algulhas Negras (24/9 1)

Cuvier’s Toucan Ramphastos (tucanus) cuvieri - Tucano-grande-de-papo-branco
Araras-circular trail (29/8 1)

Toco Toucan Ramphastos toco - Tucanuçu
Araras (29/8 1, 30/8 1, 31/8 2), Pantanal (1/9 20, 3/9 8, 4/9 3, 5/9 3), Guimarães (6/9 2), Canastra - lower parts (13/9 3, 14/9 6, 16/9 2), Cipó (17/9 1)

White-barred Piculet Picumnus cirratus - Pica-pau-anão-barrado
Caraça (18/9 1-2), Itatiaia-Maromba (22/9 1), Itatiaia-Tres Picos (25/9 2), Pereque (26/9 1m),
Ubatuba-Corcovado (28/9 1f), Angelim (29/9 2, incl 1m)

Ochre-collared Piculet Picumnus temminckii - Pica-pau-anão-de-coleira
Intervales (singles on 9-11/9)

White-wedged Piculet Picumnus albosquamatus - Pica-pau-anão-escamado
Bbtw Cuiabá/Araras (29/8 1), Araras-circular trail (30/8 1, 31/8 2), Pantanal (3/9 1, 4/9 1), Guimarães-Gallery forest (7/9 5)

Campo Flicker Colaptes campestris - Pica-pau-do-campo
Btw Sao Paulo/Boracéia (27/8 5, 28/8 common), Araras (30/8 2), Pantanal (1/9 3, 2/9 1, 5/9 2), Guimarães (6/9 3, 7/9 1), Intervales (9/9 5, 11/9 3, 13/8 1), Canastra (14/9 3, 15/9 4, 16/9 3), Cipó (17/9 2), Caetes (19/9 2), Algulhas Negras (24/9 2), Itatiaia (25/9 1)

Green-barred Woodpecker-Colaptes melanochloros – Pica-pau-verde-barrado
Araras (29/8 2), Intervales (9/9 2, 10/9 1 HO), Caraça (18/9 1)

Yellow-browed Woodpecker Piculus aurulentus - Pica-pau-dourado NT
Intervales (9/9 1 HO), Pindobas IV (19/9 1m), Caetes (19/9 1 HO), Itatiaia-Maromba (22/9 1m), Tres Picos (23/9 1m, 25/9 1m), Simon (23/9 1)

Golden-green Woodpecker Piculus chrysochloros - Pica-pau-dourado-escuro
Pantanal (2/9 1m, 1f, 5/9 pair)

Blond-crested Woodpecker Celeus flavescens - Pica-pau-de-cabeça-amarela
Intervales (12/9 1 HO), Pereque (26/9 2), Ubatuba-Corcovado (28/9 2)

Pale-crested Woodpecker Celeus lugubris - Pica-pau-louro
Pantanal-Fazenda Sta Teresa (5/9 1m)

Lineated Woodpecker Dryocopus lineatus - Pica-pau-de-banda-branca
Boracéia (27/8 1), Araras-open forest (31/9 1), Araras-water basis (31/9 1), Pantanal-Porto Joffre (4/9 1), Intervales (11/9 2 HO), Canastra-lower parts (14/9 1 probable, near river down from Restaurant Buteco Ra), Itatiaia-Maromba (23/9 pair)

Yellow-tufted Woodpecker Melanerpes cruentatus - Benedito-de-testa-vermelha
Araras (29/8 5, 30/8 16, 31/8 few). Often in the pousada grounds. Guimarães-Gallery Forest (7/7 2)

Yellow-fronted Woodpecker Melanerpes flavifrons - Benedito-de-testa-amarela
Intervales (9/9 1, 10/9 2, 11/9 3). Often visiting the feeders at the Restaurant. Itatiaia-Ypê (22/9 2, 23/9 1, 25/9 1), Simon (22/9 1), Pereque (26/9 1), Ubatuba-Capricornio (27/9 2)

White Woodpecker Melanerpes candidus - Pica-pau-branco
Araras (29/8 1-2, 30/8 4, 31/8 2). Often in the pousada grounds. Pantanal (1/9 2, 4/9 5), btw Venda Nova/Itatiaia (21/9 3)

White-spotted Woodpecker Veniliornis spilogaster - Picapauzinho-verde-carijó
Intervales (10/9 2, 11/9 1), Itatiaia-Maromba (22/9 1), Tres Picos (25/9 1f)

Little Woodpecker Veniliornis passerinus - Picapauzinho-anão
Araras (29/8 1, 31/8 1), Pantanal (2/9 1f, 3/9 1m, 4/9 2 pairs), Canastra-lower parts (14/9 pair near river down from Restaurant Buteco Ra), Canastra-higher parts (15/9 1)

Yellow-eared Woodpecker Veniliornis maculifrons - Picapauzinho-de-teste-pintada
Pindobas IV (19/9 pair), Itatiaia-Maromba (22/9 1)

Checkered Woodpecker Picoides mixtus - Pica-pau-chorão
Guimarães-Cerrado (6/9 1 juv)

Red-necked Woodpecker Campephilus rubricollis - Pica-pau-de-barriga-vermelha
Araras-forest behind pousada (29/8 pair, 30/8 1), Guimarães-Gallery forest (7/9 pair excavating nest hole)

Robust Woodpecker Campephilus robustus - Pica-pau-rei
Caetes (19/9 1), Pindobas IV (20/9 1 HO), Itatiaia-Ypê (25/9 1m excavating nest hole)

Collared Crescentchest Melanopareia torquata - Tapaculo-de-colarinho
Guimarães-Cerrado (6/9 1 seen reasonably well after taping, unfortunately only creeping on ground, so difficult to see well). Canastra-Capão Forro (15/9 1 singing in top of bush after taping). Showed very well for a long time.

Spotted Bamboowren Psilorhamphus guttatus - Tapaculo-pintado NT
Intervales (11/9 2 HO), Caetes (20/9 1 and 1 HO)

Slaty Bristlefront Merulaxis ater - Entufado
Intervales (10/9 1 HO), Itatiaia-Tres Picos (23/9 1 taped in and seen very well near 2nd stream)

Notorious Tapaculo - Scytalopus notorious [– Tapaculo-notorico (?)]
Caetes (19/9 1, 20/9 1 and 2 HO), Algulhas Negras (24/9 2 and 13 HO), Itatiaia-Tres Picos (25/9 6 HO)

This species was described in 2007 by Guy Kirwan. The Mouse-coloured Tapaculo Scytalopus speluncae - Tapaculo-preto, which this species resembles, only occurs in Minais Gerais state from where it was described. Notorious Tapaculos occur in areas where most birders go, like Itatiaia or Intervales (Guy Kirwan pers.comm.).

Brasilia Tapaculo Scytalopus novacapitalis - Tapaculo-de-brasília NT
Canastra-upper parts (15/9 1 showing well after taping). Not at ‘Forrester’s G’, but at a dry side-stream of the river São Francisco close to the upper side of Casca D’Anta. Thanks to Juan!

White-breasted Tapaculo - Scytalopus indigoticus - Macuquinho NT
Intervales (9/9 2 HO, 10/9 1 HO, 11/9 2 HO). The little buggers didn’t show. Itatiaia-Tres Picos (23/9 1 HO, 25/9 1 taped in and 1 HO).
Apparently, in Intervales a different (sub)species occurs: it resembles White-breasted very closely but has an entirely different sound (Guy Kirwan pers.comm.).

Spot-backed Antshrike Hypoedaleus guttatus - Chocão-carijó
Boracéia (28/8 1 showing well in the canopy after taping). Despite Johan spending lots of time learning the songs of the antbirds by listening to the discman on the way to work, it proved hard to recognize them at first instance. Nevertheless, his second guess was right with this one-first guess being Rufous-capped Antthrush (which has a similar sound to its song, although the melody of it is completely different). Ubatuba-Folha Seca (30/9 1 HO).

Giant Antshrike Batara cinerea - Matracão
Boracéia-‘entrance road’ (27/8 1f, 1 HO). We simply stumbled into this female while walking a trail at the property of some people who invited us to come birdwatching there. Boracéia (28/8 1f, Remco only, after chasing it through some bushes), Intervales (9/9 1 HO), Pindobas IV (20/9 1 HO), Algulhas Negras (24/9 1 HO), Itatiaia - Tres Picos (25/9 1 HO).

Large-tailed Antshrike Mackenziaena leachii - Borralhara-assobiadora
Intervales (10/9 1m taped in on top of the scrubby hillside behind the house opposite the Restaurant), Algulhas Negras (24/9 1m)

Tufted Anshrike Mackenziaena severa - Borralhara
Intervales (9/9 pair seen well, 10/9 2 HO, 11/9 2 HO), Itatiaia - Tres Picos (25/9 1m)

Great Antshrike Taraba major - Choró-boi
Araras-clearing (31/8 3 pairs). Most Great Antshrikes seen during this trip showed very well. A beautiful antshrike and fairly common in the right habitat. Pantanal (2/9 pair, 1m, 1 HO, 3/9 2m, 1f, 5/9 pair, 1 HO), Canastra-upper parts (15/9 1 HO)

White-bearded Antshrike Biatas nigropectus - Papo-branco VU
Intervales (10/9, 1m showing well after Luiz whistled it in)

Barred Antshrike Thamnophilus doliatus - Choca-barrada
Canastra-clearing (31/9 a pair showing very well), Canastra-entrance road (31/9 1 HO), Pantanal (1/9 1f, 2/9 1m, 3 HO, 3/9 2 pairs, 4/9 pair, 1 HO, 5/9 pair, 1 HO)

Chestnut-backed Antshrike - Thamnophilus palliatus – Choca listrada
Pereque (26/9 1m, 1f)

[Planalto Slaty-Antshrike - Thamnophilus pelzelni - Choca-do-planalto]
Biritiba-Mirim-Marsh Antwren site (27/8 1m), Canastra-lower parts (14/9 1m, 1f)

In retrospect, we are not completely sure about these birds, not having heard them sing. All resembling antshrikes that we did hear singing were Variable Antshrikes. The ones in Canastra were in the lower parts, while the Variable Antshrikes were in the higher parts. Almost all Variables seen didn’t have any rufous on the underside. Confusing!

Variable Antshrike Thamnophilus caerulescens - Choca-da-mata
Intervales (9/9 2 pairs and some HO, 10/9 1 HO, 11/9 1 HO), Canastra-upper parts (pair at Brasilia Tapaculo site), Caraça (18/9 1 HO), btw Caraça/Venda Nova (18/9 pair), Pindobas IV (19/9 1m), Itatiaia-Tres Picos (23/9 pair and 2 HO, 25/9 1m), Algulhas Negras (24/9 pair, 1m, 1f and 2 HO)

Rufous-winged Antshrike - Thamnophilus torquatus - Choca-de-asa-vermelha
Guimarães-Cerrado (6/9 2m, 1f), Canastra-Vargem Bonita (13/9 1 HO), Canastra-higher parts (15/9 1m), Cipó (17/9 1 HO)

Rufous-capped Antshrike Thamnophilus ruficapillus Choca-de-chapéu-vermelho
Biritiba-Mirim (27/8 1m, showing very well after taping)

Spot-breasted Antvireo Dysithamnus stictothorax - Choquinha-de-peito-pintado NT
Boracéia (28/8 3+ HO), Intervales (11/9 5), Pindobas IV (19/9 pair)

Plain Antvireo Dysithamnus mentalis - Choquinha-lisa
Guimarães-Pousada (7/9 1f), Intervales (10/9 2m, 1f), Itatiaia-Maromba (22/9 10+), Tres Picos (23/9 10+, 25/9 1 HO), Pereque (26/9 1m and 1 HO), Ubatuba-Angelim (29/9 1 HO)

Rufous-backed Antvireo Dysithamnus xanthopterus Choquinha-de-asa-ferrugem
Algulhas Negras (24/9 1m and 3 HO)

Star-throated Antwren Myrmotherula gularis - Choquinha-de-garganta-pintada
Intervales (10/9 2 and some HO), Itatiaia-Tres Picos (23/9 2, 25/9 pair), Itatiaia-Maromba (23/9 1)

Salvadori’s Antwren Myrmotherula minor - Choquinha-do-oeste VU
Ubatuba-Angelim (29/9 pair)

Unicolored Antwren Myrmotherula unicolor - Choquinha-cinzenta NT
Ubatuba-Corcovado (28/9 1m)

Rufous-winged Antwren Herpsilochmus rufimarginatus Chorozinho-de-asa-vermelha
Ubatuba-Angelim (29/9 1 HO), Ubatuba-road to Pica Pau (29/9 pair)

Large-billed Antwren Herpsilochmus longirostris - Chorozinho-de-bico-comprido
Pantanal-Fazenda Sta Teresa (2/9 pair, 5/9 pair), Guimarães-Gallery forest (79 1)

Rusty-backed Antwren Formicivora rufa - Papa-formiga-vermelho
Araras-clearing (31/9 1m showing well), Pantanal (1/9 1m, 1f, 4/9 pair), Guimarães-cerrado (6/9 6, probably a family group)

Serra Antwren Formicivora serrana - Formigueiro-da-serra
Caraça (18/9 1m along Tanque Grande trail, responded to random taping)

Black-hooded Antwren Formicivora erythronotos - Formigueiro-de-cabeça-negra EN
Pereque (26/9 4 pairs and 1m, of which 2m with colour rings, 1 with combination right yellow, left white (or aluminium)

‘new’ Marsh Antwren-Stymphaloris (Formicivora) novum-Bicudinho-do-brejo EN
A newly discovered bird when we went, closely related and resembling Parana Antwren-Stymphaloris acutirostris
Biritiba-Mirim-Marsh Antwren site (27/9 pair showing very well after random playing the tape; another HO). This is supposed to be a different species from the one further south in Brasil, mainly because it occurs on a different elevation. This one occurs at around 750 asl, whereas the other is found more or less at sealevel. We haven’t seen the other one, but from photos they appear very similar. It responded very well to the sound of the original Parana Antwren. We were very happy to see this one on our first day in Brasil. It could have been our first antbird of the trip (and Remco’s first-ever) but we saw two antshrike species (possible Planalto Slaty-Antshrike and Rufous-capped Antshrike) in the 30-m stretch of scrub btw the road and the cattail marsh……

Ferruginous Antbird Drymophila ferruginea - Trovoada
Boracéia (28/8 2 HO), Intervales (9/9 3 and 5 HO, 10/9 HO, 11/9 2), Caetes (20/9 1 HO), Itatiaia-Maromba (22/9 5 HO), Tres Picos (23/9 6+, 25/9 6-some not heard, so might have been Bertoni’s - and sev HO), Ubatuba-Capricornio (27/9 1 HO), Angelim (29/9 2 pairs and 5 HO)

Bertoni’s Antbird Drymophila rubricollis - Trovoada-de-bertoni
Intervales (9/9 1 and 2 HO), Itatiaia-Tres Picos (23/9 6, 25/9 3 HO)

Scaled Antbird Drymophila squamata - Pintadinho
Pereque (26/9 1f and 3 HO), Ubatuba - Capricornio (27/9 3 HO), Corcovado (28/9 pair), Angelim (29/9 1 HO)

Rufous-tailed Antbird Drymophila genei - Choquinha-da-serra NT
Algulhas Negras (24/9 6 and 5 HO), Itatiaia-Tres Picos (25/9 2 HO)

Ochre-rumped Antbird Drymophila ochropyga - Choquinha-de-dorso-vermelho NT
Intervales (9/9 1 HO, 10/9 pair, 11/9 2 HO), Pindobas IV (20/9 1 and 4 HO), Itatiaia-Maromba (22/9 1 HO)

Dusky-tailed Antbird Drymophila malura - Choquinha-carijó
Intervales (9/9 3 HO, 12/9 1m)

Streak-capped Antwren Terenura maculate - Zidedê
Intervales (10/9 pair, 11/9 2), Itatiaia-Tres Picos (25/9 pair), Pereque (26/9 3)

Mato Grosso Antbird Cercomacra melanaria - Chororó-do-pantanal
Pantanal (2/9 1 and 1 HO, 3/9 1m, 2f, 5/9 1f, mainly forest along river Pixaim)

White-backed Fire-eye Pyriglena leuconota - Papa-taoca
Araras-circular trail (31/8 1f seen well), Araras-clearing (31/8 a probable pair, but seen just too briefly, no reaction after playing the cd)

White-shouldered Fire-eye - Pyriglena leucoptera-Papa-taoca-do-sul
Intervales (9/9 1 HO, 10/9 1, 11/9 1 HO, 12/9 1 HO), Caraça (18/9 pair), Pindobas IV (20/9 pair), Caetes (21/9 pair), Itatiaia-Maromba (pair), Tres Picos (23/9 pair and 10 HO, 25/9 1 HO), Paratí - Trindade (26/9 1 HO), Ubatuba-Angelim (29/9 1m and 2 HO)

Spix’s Warbling Antbird Hypocnemis striata - Papa-formiga-cantador
Araras-circular trail (31/8 pair showing extremely well after taping). ID’d as Spix’s on occurrence as per AG’s. The Warbling Antbird is split by Isler in 2007, with other species occurring in Brazil being Imeri Warbling Antbird H. cantator and Peruvian Warbling Antbird H. peruviana.

Band-tailed Antbird - Hypocnemoides maculicauda - Solta-asa
Pantanal (2/9 1m, 2f, 3/9 1f mainly forests along river Pixaim)

White-bibbed Antbird Myrmeciza loricata - Formigueiro-assobiador
Pindobas IV (19/9 2 pairs, 1m, 1f)

Squamate Antbird Myrmeciza squamosa - Papa-formiga-da-grota
Intervales (9/9 pair)

Black-throated Antbird Myrmeciza atrothorax - Formigueiro-de-peito-preto
Araras-circular trail (29/8 1f, 30/8 1m, 31/8 1f)

[Short-tailed Antthrush - Chamaeza campanisona-Tovaca-campainha HO]
Intervales (9/9 2 HO), Pindobas IV (20/9 1 HO)

Cryptic (formerly called Such’s) Antthrush Chamaeza meruloides - Tovaca-cantadora
Boracéia (27/8 1 HO, 28/8 1 and 1 HO), Intervales (9/9 3 HO, 10/9 1 HO, 11/9 2 HO, 12/9 1 HO), Pindobas IV (19/9 1 and some HO, 20/9 2 HO), Itatiaia-Maromba (22/9 1 HO), Tres Picos (23/9 6+ HO, 25/9 1 and 3 HO)

Rufous-tailed Antthrush - Chamaeza ruficauda - Tovaca-de-rabo-vermelho
Itatiaia-Tres Picos (23/9 5 HO, 25/9 3 and 12 HO), Algulhas Negras (24/9 2 and 5 HO)

[Rufous-capped Antthrush-Formicarius colma - Glinha-do-mato HO]
Itatiaia-Tres Picos (23/9 1 HO)

Variegated Antpitta Grallaria varia - Tovacuçu
Intervales (10/9 3 HO, 11/9 1 seen twice and 3 HO, 12/9 1 HO). Early morning we set out to try and see the bird we had heard on 10/9. It kept calling, but for almost an hour we could not locate it. Luiz decided to go into the patch of forest and after a long time he found it sitting in a tree about 4m high. There it showed very well for a long period of time-it did not call while we were watching each other though. At the end of the afternoon we flushed presumably the same bird - it briefly perched on a branch before disappearing. Pindobas IV (19-20/9 1 HO), Itatiaia-Ypê (23/9 1 HO), Tres Picos (25/9 8 HO), Paratí - Trindade (26/9 1 HO)

Speckle-breasted Antpitta Hylopezus nattereri - Pinto-do-mato
Algulhas Negras (24/9 1 and 1 HO), Itatiaia-Tres Picos (25/9 2 HO)

Black-cheeked Gnateater Conopophaga melanops - Cuspidor-de-máscara-preta
Intervales (11/9 pair and 1m), Ubatuba-Corcovado (28/9 1m), Angelim (29/9 1 HO)

Rufous Gnateater Conopophaga lineate - Chupa-dente
Intervales (9/9 2 HO, 10/9 2 and 1 HO), Pindobas IV (19/9 2), Itatiaia-Maromba (22/9 3 HO), Algulhas Negras (24/9 1), Itatiaia-Tres Picos (25/9 2)

Rufous Hornero-Furnarius rufus - João-de-barro
Boracéia (27/8 1, 28/8 2), Araras (daily 29-31/8), Pantanal (common 1-5/9), Intervales (9-12/9 2, 2, 2 and 1 respectively), Canastra - lower parts (13/9 4+, 14/9 2+), Cipó-pousada (16/9 1 HO), Caraça (18/9 2), Caetes (20/9 2 HO), btw Venda Nova/Itatiaia (21/9). One of Remco’s favourites, always entertaining.

Pale-legged Hornero Furnarius leucopus - Casaca-de-couro-amarelo
Pantanal (2/9 12, 3/9 seen, 4/9 2). Seen on waterbodies’ banks, incl those of river Pixaim.

Tail-banded Hornero Furnarius figulus - Casaca-de-couro-da-lama
Carmo (21/9 5). Formerly called Wing-banded Hornero. Neither are very obvious fieldmarks :-)

Araucaria Tit-Spinetail Leptasthenura setaria - Grimpeiro NT
Algulhas Negras (24/9 3 and 1 HO). Seen at eyelevel in first araucarias encountered!

Itatiaia Spinetail Schizoeaca moreirae - Garrincha-chorona
Algulhas Negras (24/9 2 and 3 HO)

Chotoy Spinetail – Schoniophylax phryganophila - Bichoita
Pantanal-Fazenda Sta Teresa (1/9 1, 2/9 3, 4/9 1 HO)

Spix’s Spinetail Synallaxis spixi - João-teneném
Mogi das Cruzes area (27/8 5), Intervales (9/9 1 and 2 HO), Canastra-higher parts (15/9 1), Pindobas IV (19/9 HO)

Rufous-capped Spinetail Synallaxis ruficapilla - Pichororé
Boracéia (27/8 1), Intervales (10/9 1 HO, 11/9 1, 12/1 1 HO), Pindobas IV (19/9 2), Caetes (20/9 1), Itatiaia-Tres Picos (23/9 1), Algulhas Negras (24/9 1), Pereque (26/9 2, one without a tail)

Pale-breasted Spinetail Synallaxis albescens - Uí-pi
Guimarães-cerrado (6/9 2), Canastra-higher parts (15/9 1), Cipó (17/9 1)

Gray-bellied Spinetail Synallaxis cinerascens - Pi-puí
Intervales (10/9 1, 11/9 2)

White-lored Spinetail Synallaxis albilora - João-do-pantanal

Pantanal (2/9 4, 3/9 1, 4/9 3, 5/9 2)

Yellow-chinned Spinetail - Certhiaxis cinnomomea - Curutié
Pantanal (1/9 1, 3/9 1, 4/9 1, 5/9 1)

Rusty-backed Spinetail Cranioleuca vulpine - Arredio-do-rio

Pantanal-river Pixaim (2/9 2 during boat trip)

Pallid Spinetail Cranioleuca pallida - Arredio-pálido
Intervales (1 on 10-11/9), Caraça (18/9 2+), Pindobas IV (19/9 HO), Itatiaia-Tres Picos (25/9 2)

Common Thornbird Phacellodomus rufifrons - João-de-pau
Pantanal (1/9 4, 2/9 6, 3/9 2, 5/9 1 HO, mainly near Fazenda Sta Teresa), Canastra-lower parts (14/9 pair), Canastra-higher parts (15/9 pair), Caetes (20/9 2), Carmo (21/9 2 pairs)

(Southern) Red-eyed Thornbird Phacellodomus (ferrugineigula) ferrugineigula Joãjo-botina-do-brejo
Intervales (11/9 pair at Sede)

(Northern) Red-eyed Thornbird - Phacellodomus (ferrugineigula) erythrophthalmus - João-botina-da-mata
Pereque-Black-hooded Antwren site (25/9 1 skulky individual)

Greater Thornbird Phacellodomus rubber - Graveteiro
Pantanal (1/9 2, 2/9 4, 4/9 2). Mainly in scrub near Fazenda Sta Teresa.

Firewood-gatherer Anumbius annumb - Cochicho
Canastra - higher parts (15/9 1 at Curral das Pedras, 1 HO)

Gray-crested Cachalote Pseudoseisura unirufa - Casaca-de-couro-de-cista-cinza
Pantanal (1/9 2, 2/9 2 pairs, 3/9 3, 4/9 2). Mainly Fazenda Sta Teresa.

White-collared Foliage-gleaner - Anabazenops fuscus – Trepador-coleira
Intervales (9/9 1 and 2 HO, 10/9 pair, 11/9 1), Caetes (20/9 2), Itatiaia-Maromba (22/9 1), Tres Picos (23/9 1, 25/9 1)

Buff-browed Foliage-gleaner - Syndactyla rufosuperciliata - Trepador-quiete
Boracéia (28/8 1), Intervales (9/9 1), Itatiaia-Maromba (22/9 1-2), Tres Picos (23/9 1, 25/9 1), Algulhas Negras (24/9 1)

White-browed Foliage-gleaner - Anabacerthia amaurotis - Limpa-folha-miúdo NT
Intervales (10/9 1, Remco only), Itatiaia-Tres Picos (24/9 3 probably this species)

Black-capped Foliage-gleaner - Philydor atricapillus - Limpa-folha-coroado
Itatiaia-Maromba (22/9 1), Pereque (26/9 1), Ubatuba-Angelim (29/9 1), Folha Seca (30/9 2+)

Planalto (formerly Russet-mantled) Foliage-gleaner Philydor dimidiatus Limpa-folha-do-brejo
Canastra-Buteco Ra (14/9 1 in mixed feeding flock near river)

Ochre-breasted Foliage-gleaner - Philydor lichtensteini-Limpa-folha-ocráceo
Caraça (18/9 1-2), Pindobas IV (19/9 1, 20/9 1), Itatiaia-Maromba (22/9 2, of which one without tail), Tres Picos (23/9 1, 25/9 1), Ubatuba-Capricornio (27/9 1), Angelim (29/9 2)

Buff-fronted Foliage-gleaner Philydor rufum - Limpa-folha-testa-baia
Intervales (10/9 4, 11/9 1), Pindobas IV (19/9 1), Caetes (20/9 1), Algulhas Negras (24/9 1)

White-eyed Foliage-gleaner - Automolus leucophthalmus Barranqueiro-de-olho-branco
Intervales (9/9 1 HO), Ubatuba-Corcovado (28/8 prolonged views of 1, taped in)

Pale-browed Treehunter - Cichlocolaptes leucophrus - Trepador-sobrancelha
Boracéia (28/8 1), Intervales (9/9 1 HO). Both treehunters as well as Buff-browed and White-browed Foliage-Gleaner turned out to be hard to identify, expecially with Souza. Once we had seen the Pale-browed Treehunter we knew how strikingly different is was from the others in size and shape. This is a large, mean-looking MF.

Sharp-billed Treehunter - Heliobletus contaminatus – Trepadorzinho
Boracéia (27/8 1), Itatiaia-Tres Picos (25/9 1)

Streaked Xenops Xenops rutilans - Bico-virado-carijó
Pantanal-Fazenda Sta Teresa (5/9 1), Guimarães-Gallery forest (7/9 1), Intervales (9/9 3, 11/9 2), Caraça (18/9 5-10), Algulhas Negras (24/9 1)

Rufous-breasted Leaftosser Sclerurus scansor - Vira-folha
Intervales (9/9 2 HO, 10/9 1 and 2 HO, 12/9 1 and 1 HO), Ubatuba-Corcovado (28/9 1 showing very well)

Sharp-tailed Streamcreeper - Lochmias nematura - João porca
Caetes (19/9 1 and 3 HO, 20/9 4 HO), Algulhas Negras (24/9 1), Itatiaia-Tres Picos (25/9 1 HO). Attempts at finding it at Intervales failed, though Luiz apparently has a good site for it.

Thrush-like Woodcreeper Dendrocincla turdina - Arapaçu-liso
Itatiaia-Maromba (22/9 2)

Olivaceous Woodcreeper - Sittasomus griseicapillus - Arapaçu-verde
Boracéia (28/8 3), Intervales (9/9 3, 10/9 3 & 5 HO, 11/9 2, 12/9 1), Canastra-lower parts (14/9 1), Caraça (18/9 2), Pindobas IV/Caetes (19/9 5, 20/9 3), Itatiaia-Maromba (22/9 6+), Itatiaia-Tres Picos (23/9 4, 25/9 3), Algulhas Negras (24/9 2), Pereque (26/9 2), Ubatuba-Corcovado (28/9 1-2), Ubatuba-Folha Seca (30/9 1-2)

White-throated Woodcreeper Xiphocolaptes albicollis - Arapaçu-de-garganta-branca
Intervales (9/9 HO, 10/9 pair), Caraça (18/9 1), Caetes (19/9 1 HO), Ubatuba-Angelim (29/9 1)

Great Rufous Woodcreeper - Xiphocolaptes major - Arapaçu-do-campo
Transpantaneira (3/9 1)

Planalto Woodcreeper - Dendrocolaptes platyrostris - Arapaçu-grande
Guimarães - Gallery forest (7/9 1), Intervales (9/9 1, 10/9 1, 11/9 5, 12/9 1), Itatiaia-Maromba (22/9 pair and 1), Itatiaia-Tres Picos (23/9 3, 25/9 5+)

Straight-billed Woodcreeper-Xiphorhynchus picus - Arapaçu-de-bico-branco
Pantanal (2/9 1, 4/9 2), Itatiaia-Maromba (22/9 1)

Buff-throated Woodcreeper-Xiphorhynchus guttatus – Arapaçu-de-garganta-amarela
Araras (29/8 1, 30/8 10, 31/8 seen), Transpantaneira (4/9 1), Guimarães (7/9 1)

Narrow-billed Woodcreeper-Lepidocolaptes angustirostris-arapaçu-de-cerrado
Btw Mogi/Boracéia (27/8 1), Pantanal (2/9 1, 5/9 1), Guimarães (6/9 1)

Scaled Woodcreeper – Lepidocolaptes squamatus - Arapaçu-escamado
Boracéia (28/8 1), Pindobas IV (19/9 3), Caetes (20/9 1), Itatiaia-Maromba (22/9 5), Itatiaia-Tres Picos (23/9 2, of which 1 without tail; 25/9 2), Algulhas Negras (24/9 2), Pereque (26/9 3)

Scalloped Woodcreeper-Lepidocolaptes falcinellus - Arapaçu-escamado-do-sul
Intervales (9/9 3, 11/9 2)

Lesser Woodcreeper-Lepidocolaptes fuscus - Arapaçu-rajado
Intervales (10/9 1, 11/9 1), Pereque (26/9 1)

Black-billed Scythebill – Campylorhamphus falcularius – Arapaçu-de-bico-torto
Caetes (20/9 1 HO), Itatiaia-Tres Picos (23/9 1, 25/9 1)

Red-billed Scythebill-Campylorhamphus trochilirostris-Arapaçu-beija-flor
Pantanal-Fazenda Sta Teresa (3/9 1), Transpantaneira (4/9 1)

Planalto Tyrannulet - Phyllomias fasciatus Piolhinho
Boracéia (28/8 1), Guimarães-Gallery forest (7/9 3), Intervales (9/9 6, 10/9 4, 11/9 3+), btw Canastra/Cipó (16/9 2), Caraça (18/9 seen). We probably didn’t identify all Phyllomias tyrannulets right. We might have missed some Gray-capped or Rough-legged.

[Rough-legged Tyrannulet - Phyllomias burmeisteri-Piolhinho-chiador]
Carmo (21/9 1 possible)

[Gray-capped Tyrannulet-Phyllomias griseocapilla-Piolhinho-serrano NT]
Ubatuba-Angelim (29/9 1-2 possibles)

Southern Beardless Tyrannulet - Camptostoma obsoletus Risadinha
Pantanal (1/9 1, 4/9 1), Intervales (10/9 1, 11/9 2), Canastra-lower parts (14/9 1), Caetes (20/9 1), Algulhas Negras (24/9 1)

Campos Flycatcher-Suiriri affinis Suiriri cinzento
Guimarães-Cerrado (6/9 1)

Chapada Flycatcher Suiriri islerorum Suiriri-da-chapada
Guimarães-Cerrado (6/9 a pair, displaying). Weird display for a flycatcher !

Forest Elaenia-Myiopagis gaimardi Maria-pechim
Pantanal (2/9 2, 4/9 1 HO, 5/9 1, 1 HO, mainly Fazenda Sta Teresa), Guimarães-Gallery forest (7/9 2 HO)

Gray Elaenia Myiopagis caniceps Guaracava-cinzenta
Canastra - lower parts (14/9 2)

Yellow-bellied Elaenia - Elaenia flavogaster Guaracava-de-barriga-amarela
Pantanal (4/9 1), Guimarães-Cerrado (6/9 1), Intervales (11/9 1), Cipó (17/9 15+)

Plain-crested Elaenia-Elaenia cristata Guaracava-de-topete-uniforme
Cipó (17/9 6)

Highland Elaenia-Elaenia obscura-Tucão
Intervales (9/9 2), Canastra-lower parts (14/9 3+), Caraça (18/9 seen)

Lesser Elaenia-Elaenia chiriquensis - Chibum
Guimaràes-Cerrado (6/9 3)

Sooty Tyrannulet-Serpophaga nigricans-João-pobre
Canastra-lower parts (14/9 3 at river down from Restaurant Buteco Ra), Canastra-higher parts (15/9 1 at little stream near the source of river São Francisco), Caraça (18/9 1)

White-crested Tyrannulet - Serpophaga subcristata – Alegrinho
Itatiaia-Simon (22/9 1, 23/9 1, 25/9 1), Algulhas Negras (24/9 1)

Plain Tyrannulet – Inezia inornata – Alegrinho-do-chaco
Pantanal (2/9 1, 1 HO, 3/9 1 and 2 HO, 4/9 2 HO, 5/9 2 HO)

Sharp-tailed Tyrant Culicivora caudacuta-Papa-moscas-do-campo VU
Canastra-higher parts (15/9 2-3 close to Casca D’Anta)

Gray-backed Tachuri Polystictus pectoralis-Papa-moscas-canela NT
Cipó (17/9 1)

Tawny-crowned Pygmy-tyrant Euscarthmus meloryphus - Barulhento
Pantanal- Porto Joffre (4/9 1, 2 HO), Guimarães-Cerrado (6/9 1), Guimarães (7/9 1)

Rufous-sided Pygmy-tyrant Euscarthmus rufomarginatus – Maria-corruíra NT
Guimarães-Cerrado (6/9 2)

Gray-hooded Flycatcher - Mionectes rufiventris Abre-asa-de-cabeça-cinza
Boracéia (2), Intervales (4), Canastra-lower parts (1), Tres Picos (1), Algulhas Negras (3), Corcovado (1), Angelim (2)

Sepia-capped Flycatcher - Leptopogon amaurocephalus-Cabeçudu
Pantanal (H), Intervales (3+ on 11/9), Canastra (3), Tres Picos (1), Pereque (1), Ubatuba - Angelim (1)

Southern Bristle-Tyrant - Phylloscartes eximius Barbudinho NT
Itatiaia-Maromba (22/9 4)

Mottle-cheeked Tyrannulet - Phylloscartes ventralis Borboletinha-do-mato
Intervales (2), Pindobas IV (1), Algulhas Negras (probable pair)

Oustalet’s Tyrannulet-Phylloscartes oustaleti-Papa-moscas-de-olheiras
Boracéia (common), Intervales (max 6+ on 11/9), Pindobas IV (1)

Serra do Mar Tyrannulet – Phylloscartes difficilis Estalinho NT
Algulhas Negras (2), Corcovado (2)

Sao Paulo Tyrannulet-Phylloscartes paulista-Não-pode-parar NT
Intervales (2), Carmo (1), Pereque (2), Capricornio (2)

Yellow Tyrannulet-Campsiempis flaveola Marianhinha-amarela
Carmo (2)

Southern Antpipit-Corythopis delalandi - Estalador
Araras-circular trail, 1 very confiding, walking on the trail, very close to our feet. One eye blind.

Eared Pygmy-tyrant - Myiornis auricularis-Miudinho
Boracéia (1), Intervales (daily, max 3), Caraça (1), Pindobas IV (1 HO), Caetes (2), Maromba (3)

Short-tailed Pygmy-tyrant-Myiornis ecaudatus-Caçula
Canastra-circular trail (30/8 3-4)

Drab-breasted Bamboo-Tyrant - Hemitriccus diops-Olho-falso
Caraça (1-2), Pindobas IV (2), Caetes (1, 2 HO), Tres Picos (max 2), Algulhas Negras (3)

Brown-breasted Bamboo-Tyrant-Hemitriccus obsoletus - Catraca
Algulhas Negras (1), at the Speckle-breasted Antpitta site-see GPS waypoints.

Fork-tailed Tody-tyrant-Hemitriccus furcatus - Papa-moscas-estrela VU
Pereque (1)

Stripe-necked Tody-tyrant-Hemitriccus striaticollis Sebinho-rajado-amarelo
Pantanal (5/9 1)

Hangnest Tody-tyrant-Hemitriccus nidipendulus-Tachuri-campainha
Boracéia-‘entrance road’ (1), Intervales (3), Pereque (5), Capricornio (1)

Pearly-vented Tody-tyrant Hemitriccus margaritaceiventer Sebinho-de-olha-de-ouro
Araras-main road (1), Araras - clearing (2), Pantanal (max 2 on 1/9)

Eye-ringed Tody-tyrant - Hemitriccus orbitatus – Tiririzinho-do-mato NT
Pereque (2), Angelim (1)

Yellow-lored Tody-flycatcher - Todirostrum poliocephalum – Teque-teque
Caraça (1), Carmo (2), Itatiaia - Maromba (3), Itatiaia - Simon (max 1), Pereque (4), Ubatuba - Capricornio (6), Ubatuba - Corcovado (3), Ubatuba - Angelim (4)

Common Tody-flycatcher - Todirostrum cinereum – Ferreirinho relógio
Transpantaneira (max 2), Canastra-higher parts (1-2), Canastra-lower parts (1)

Ochre-faced Tody-flycatcher - Poecilotriccus plumbeiceps – Tororó
Intervales (2), Pereque (5)

Rusty-fronted Tody-flycatcher – Poecilotriccus latirostris – Ferreirinho-de-cara-parda
Pantanal (seen on 4 days, max 3, mainly Fazenda Sta Teresa)

[Large-headed Flatbill – Ramphotrigon megacephalum – Maria-cabeçuda HO]
According to Luiz, we HO 1 at Intervales on 11/9

Yellow-olive Flatbill - Tolmomyias sulphurescens – Bico-chato-de-orelha-preta
Pantanal-Fazenda Sta Teresa (max 3), Intervales (max 6), Canastra-lower parts (1), Caraça (2), Pindobas IV/Caetes (4), Itatiaia - Maromba (pair and 2), Ubatuba - Corcovado (seen), Ubatuba - Angelim (1)

White-throated Spadebill - Platyrinchus mystaceus – Patinho
Intervales (1 and 1 HO), Pindobas IV (2), Itatiaia - Maromba (1), Algulhas Negras (1), Itatiaia - Tres Picos (1)

Russet-winged Spadebill – Platyrinchus leucoryphus – Patinho-gigante VU
Boracéia (1), Pereque (1)

Fuscous Flycatcher – Cnemotriccus fuscatus – Maria-fibiu
Pantanal (2-5/9 1 each day)

Sulphur-rumped Flycatcher – Myiobius barbatus - Assanhadinho
Intervales (1), Tres Picos (1), Pereque (4), Ubatuba - Capricornio (2), Ubatuba - Pica Pau road (1)

Euler’s Flycatcher - Lathrotriccus euleri – Enferrujado
Intervales (max 1), Canastra-lower parts (1), Canastra-higher parts (2), Caetes (1), Pereque (1), Ubatuba -Capricornio (1), Ubatuba - Angelim (3)

Bran-coloured Flycatcher - Myiophobus fasciatus – Filipe
Boracéia (1), Intervales (1), Canastra-higher parts (2), Caraça (1), Pindobas IV (1), Maromba (1), Algulhas Negras (2)

Vermillion Flycatcher – Pyrocephalus rubinus - Príncipe
Araras-clearing (1m), Pantanal (seen daily), Intervales (1m)

Gray Monjita – Xolmis cinereus - Primavera
Araras-water basins (1), Guimarães (1 on the way back to Cuiabá), Canastra-higher parts (3), btw Canastra/Cipó (1), btw Itatiaia/Parati (2)

White-rumped Monjita – Xolmis velatus – Noivinha-branca
Pantanal (1/9 3, 2/9 2), Itirapina (4), btw Itirapina/Canastra (6+), Canastra-lower parts (2), Canastra-higher parts (12)

Crested Black-tyrant - Knipolegus lophotes – Maria-preta-de-penacho
Guimarães (1), btw Itirapina/Canastra (3), Canastra-lower parts (1), Canastra-higher parts (10), btw Canastra/Cipó (2), Cipó (1), Caraça (2), Ubatuba (1)

Velvety Black-tyrant – Knipolegus nigerrimus – Maria-preta-de-garganta-vermelha
Canastra-higher parts (pair on the rocks above Casca D’Anta), Itatiaia - Simon (max 2 pairs)

Blue-billed Black-tyrant – Knipolegus cyanirostris – Maria-preta-de-bico-azulado
Algulhas Negras (1m), Pereque (2f), Capricornio (1m)

Black-backed Water-tyrant – Fluvicola albiventer – Lavadeira-de-cara-branca
Pantanal (up to 5 daily)

Masked Water-tyrant - Fluvicola nengeta – Lavadeira-mascarada
Boracéia (max 2), Canastra-Vargem Bonita (3), Canastra-lower parts (3), btw Canastra/Cipó (1), Caetes (1), Itatiaia - Simon (max 2), Pereque (1), Capricornio (2)

White-headed Marsh-tyrant - Arundinicola leucocephala – Freirinha

Pantanal (1/9 5, 3/9 1, 5/9 1)

Long-tailed Tyrant - Colonia colonus – Viuvinha
Intervales (max 2), Canastra - lower parts - wp47 (pair), btw Canastra/Cipó (1), Caraça (4), Itatiaia - Simon (2), Maromba (2), Tres Picos (max 1), Pereque (1), Ubatuba - Angelim (3)

Cock-tailed Tyrant – Alectrurus tricolor – Galito VU
Canastra-higher parts (11m, 4f)

Streamer-tailed Tyrant – Gubernetes yetapa – Tesoura-do-brejo
Transpantaneira (1/9 pair)

Yellow-browed Tyrant - Satrapa icterophrys – Suiriri-pequeno
Transpantaneira (1), Intervales (1), btw Canastra/Cipó - wp48 (3), Caraça (1), Caetes (1), Carmo (1), Pereque (1), Ubatuba - Capricornio (1)

Cliff Flycatcher - Hirundinea ferruginea-Gibão-de-couro
Intervales (2), Canastra-lower parts (1), Canastra-higher parts (3), Itatiaia - Simon (max 6), Ubatuba -Capricornio (1)

Cattle Tyrant-Machetornis rixosa – Suiriri-cavaleiro
Btw Boracéia/São Paulo (1), Araras (2), Pantanal (seen on all days), Intervales (max 2), btw Itirapina/Canastra (1), Canastra-higher parts (1), btw Canastra/Cipó (1), Caraça (1), Pindobas IV (1), Pereque (1), Ubatuba (max 2)

Shear-tailed Gray Tyrant – Muscipipra vetula – Tesoura-cinzenta
Intervales (max 2), Caraça (pair), Pindobas IV (19/9 1, 20/9 2), Caetes (1), Algulhas Negras (1)

Gray-hooded Attila - Attila rufus – Capitão-de-saíra
Intervales (1), Itatiaia-main road (1), Pereque (1)

Sirystes – Sirystes sibilator - Gritador
Intervales (1 and 1 HO), Canastra-lower parts (1), Caraça (2), Pindobas IV (max 2), Caetes (max 2), Itatiaia - Simon (1), Maromba (2 HO), Tres Picos (1 seen, up to 3 HO), Pereque (1 HO)

Short-crested Flycatcher - Myiarchus ferox – Maria-cavaleira
Araras (max 2), Pantanal (2/9 2, 4/9 1), Intervales (1)

Brown-crested Flycatcher – Myiarchus tyrannulus – Maria-caveleira-de-rabo-enferrujado
Pantana (max 1, 1 HO), Canastra-lower parts (4), Canastra-higher parts (2), btw Canastra/Cipó (2), Caraça (1 HO)

Swainson’s Flycatcher - Myiarchus swainsoni-Irré
Guimarães-Gallery forest (1)

Great Kiskadee - Pitangus sulphuratus – Bem-te-vi
Common in all places visited.

Lesser Kiskadee – Philohydor lector – Bemtevizinho-do-brejo
Pantanal (1/9 4, 2/9 4, 3/9 seen), mainly on or near plants floating on watercourses

Boat-billed Flycatcher - Megarynchus pitangua – Neinei (Bem-te-vi-do-bico-chato)
Araras (max 6), Pantanal (seen on 3 days), Guimarães (max pair), btw Canastra/Cipó (1), Cipó (1 HO), Caraça (HO), Itatiaia - Simon (2), Pereque (1 HO), Ubatuba - Corcovado (1 HO), Angelim (1)

Rusty-margined Flycatcher – Myiozetetes cayanensis – Bemtevizinho-de-asa-ferrugínea
Boracéia (2), Pantanal (2/9 2, 3/9 1, 4/9 2), Guimarães-Pousada (pair), Intervales (1)

Social Flycatcher - Myiozetetes similis – Bem-te-vizinho-de-penacho-vermelho
Boracéia (2), Araras (2), Intervales (3), Canastra-higher parts (1), btw Canastra/Cipó (2), Caetes (1), Carmo (4), Itatiaia - Simon (seen), Pereque (5+), Ubatuba (seen daily)

Three-striped Flycatcher – Conopias trivirgatus – Bem-te-vi-pequeno
Intervales (9/9 4)

Streaked Flycatcher - Myiodynastes maculatus – Bem-te-vi-rajado
Araras (3), btw Canastra/Piumhi (2), Carmo (2), Itatiaia - Simon (2), Tres Picos (2), Ubatuba - Folha Seca (max 1), Angelim (1)

Piratic Flycatcher - Legatus leucophaius-Bem-te-vi-pirata
Araras (1), Canastra-Vargem Bonita (1), Cipó (2), Caraça (1), Carmo (1), Ubatuba - Angelim (1)

Crowned Slaty-flycatcher-Griseotyrannus aurantioatricristatus-Peitica-de-chapéu-preto
Gas station btw Canastra/Cipó-see GPS (2)

Fork-tailed Flycatcher Tyrannus savana - Tesourinha
Sao Paulo Guarulhos airport (1), Araras (max 6 on 29/8), Transpantaneira (1), Itirapina (4), driving days (13/9 20+, 16/9 26, 18/9 4, 21/9 4, 25/9 4, 30/9 4), Canastra (max 4), Cipó (4, probably migrating), Pereque (1), Ubatuba (28/9 2, 29/9 2)

Tropical Kingbird-Tyrannus melancholicus - Suiriri
Seen at most places.

White-throated Kingbird-Tyrannus albogularis-Suiriri-de-garganta-branca
Gas station btw Canastra/Cipó-see GPS (2)

Green-backed Becard-Pachyramphus viridis-Caneleiro-verde
Intervales (1 HO), Caraça (1m), Carmo (1f)

Chestnut-crowned Becard - Pachyramphus castaneus-Caneleiro
Boracéia (1), Intervales (max 3), Pindobas IV (2), Itatiaia - Simon (pair), Tres Picos (pair)

White-winged Becard - Pachyramphus polychopterus-Caneleiro-preto
Pantanal-Porto Joffre (1m)

Crested Becard - Pachyramphus validus-Caneleiro-de-chapéu-preto
Capricornio (2m, 1f)

Black-tailed Tityra - Tityra cayana – Anambé-branco-de-rabo-preto
Boracéia (1m, 1f), Araras (2), Guimarães-Gallery forest (10), Canastra-lower parts (pair), Pindobas IV (2m)

Masked Tityra – Tityra semifasciata - Anambé-branco-de-máscara-preta
Araras (pair)

Black-crowned Tityra – Tityra inquisitor - Anambé-branco-de-bochecha-parda
Araras (pair), Pindobas IV (pair)

Band-tailed Manakin – Pipra fasciicauda – Uirapuru-laranja
Araras (1m), Guimarães-Gallery forest (1f)

Helmeted Manakin – Antilophia galeata – Soldadinho
Araras-entrance road (31/8 1m and 2 HO), Pantanal (2/9 1m, 3/9 1m, 5/9 2m, mainly Fazenda Sta Teresa), Canastra-lower parts (14/9 4 ad m, 1 imm m, 2f, 4 HO)

Blue Manakin - Chiroxiphia caudata – Tangará
Boracéia (1f, 6m), Intervales (max 3m, 3f), Caraça (2m), Pindobas IV (5+), Caetes (2 HO), Itatiaia - Maromba (1 HO), Tres Picos (max 9), Algulhas Negras (HO), Ubatuba - Angelim (1 HO), Folha Seca (1 imm m, 4 HO)

Pin-tailed Manakin – Ilicura militaris - Tangarazinho
Intervales (1 HO), Canastra-lower parts (1f)

White-bearded Manakin – Manacus manacus - Rendeira
Canastra-Casca D’Anta (1m, 1f), Carmo (2f), Pereque (6m, 2f), Ubatuba - Capricornio (2f), Corcovado (1f), Angelim (2f), road to Pica Pau (2m), Folha Seca (1m)

Fiery-capped Manakin – Machaeropterus pyrocephalus – Uirapura-cigarra
Guimarães-Pousada trail (2m, 1 HO)

Serra do Mar Tyrant-Manakin - Neopelma chrysolophum – Fruxu
Intervales (1), Caraça (1), Algulhas Negras (1 HO)

Greenish Schiffornis - Schiffornis virescens – Flautim
Intervales (1), Pindobas IV (19/9 2 and 1 HO, 20/9 3 HO), Maromba (1 HO), Tres Picos (1, 1 HO)

Swallow-tailed Cotinga - Phibalura flavirostris – Tesourinha-da-mata NT
Intervales-Sede soccer field (3), Caraça (2 pairs and 1m), Itatiaia - Simon (pair on sev dates)

Black-and-Gold Cotinga Tijuca atra Saudade NT
Algulhas Negras (2m and 5 HO)

Hooded Berryeater - Carpornis cucullatus – Corocochó NT
Boracéia (1, 6 HO), Intervales (pair, 3 HO), Pindobas IV (3, 3 HO), Caetes (2+ HO)

Buff-throated Purpletuft – Iodopleura pipra – Anambezinho NT
Ubatuba-Capricornio (1)

Cinnamon-vented Piha – Lipaugus lanioides – Tropeiro-da-serra NT
Intervales (max 1 and 8 HO), Caraça (2+ HO), Pindobas IV (2 HO), Caetes (2 and 2 HO)

Red-ruffed Fruitcrow - Pyroderus scutatus – Pavó
Intervales (1), Canastra-lower parts (1 in mixed feeding flock), Caraça (3), Algulhas Negras (2)

Bare-throated Bellbird - Procnias nudicollis – Araponga VU
Boracéia (max 5 HO), Intervales (max 2 and 2 HO), Pindobas IV (2 HO), Caetes (19/9 1 seen, 20/9 2 HO), Itatiaia (max 3 HO), Pereque (1 HO), Folha Seca (max 4 HO)

Bare-necked Fruitcrow – Gymnoderus foetidus – Anambé-pombo
Araras-main road (30/8 1m), Araras-circular trail (31/8 1m)

Black-capped Piprites – Piprites pileata – Caneleirinho-de-chapéu-preto VU
Itatiaia - Tres Picos (1, Remco only)

Wing-barred Piprites – Piprites chloris-Papinho-amarelo
Caetes (20/9 1)

Sharpbill - Oxyruncus cristatus – Araponga-do-horto
Boracéia (1 and 1 HO), Intervales (max 11/9 7-9), Caraça (2-5), Pindobas IV (max 3-5), Caetes (1), Itatiaia - Tres Picos (1 and 3 HO), Ubatuba - Capricornio (1 HO)

White-winged Swallow-Tachycineta albiventer-Andorinha-do-rio
Canastra (2 daily) Pantanal (seen daily), Carmo (1)

White-rumped Swallow – Tachycineta leucorrhoa – Andorinha-de-sobre-branco
Btw Boracéia/São Paulo (2), btw Itirapina/Canastra, Canastra (max 2), btw Canastra/Cipó, Cipó

Brown-chested Martin - Progne tapera – Andorinha-do-campo
Pantanal (seen daily, except 2/9)

Gray-breasted Martin - Progne chalybea – Andorinha-doméstica-grande
Recorded Araras, Pantanal, Intervales, btw Cipó/Venda Nova (10+), Itatiaia, Pereque, Ubatuba

Blue-and-white Swallow - Pygochelidon cyanoleuca – Andorinha-pequena-de-casa
Seen at most places in Southeast Brazil.

Southern Rough-winged Swallow - Stelgidopteryx ruficollis – Andorinha-serradora
Fairly common at most sites, except Araras.

Tawny-headed Swallow – Alopochelidon fucata – Andorinha-morena
Canastra-higher parts (3), Cipó (3)

Purplish Jay – Cyanocorax cyanomelas – Gralha-do-pantanal
Araras (max 15), Pantanal (max 10), Guimarães (1)

Curl-crested Jay-Cyanocorax cristatellus – Gralha-do-campo
Guimarães - Cerrado (2), Itirapina (1), btw Itirapina/Canastra (1)

Plush-crested Jay-Cyanocorax chrysops – Gralha-picaça
Btw Sao Roque de Minas/Piumhi-see GPS (4)

Thrush-like Wren – Campylorhynchus turdinus - Catatau
Btw Cuiabá/Araras (seen), Araras (fairly common), Pantanal (seen daily, max 4), Guimarães (HO)

Black-capped Donacobius - Donacobius atricapillus – Japacanim
Pantanal (seen daily, max 5)

Sedge Wren – Cistothorus platensis polyglottus – Coccuíra-do-campo
Canastra-higher parts (at least 1)

Moustached Wren – Thryothorus genibarbis – Garrinchão-pai-avô
Pantanal (2/9 1, 3/9 1 and 1 HO, 4/9 2 HO, 5/9 1 and 1 HO)

Buff-breasted Wren – Thryothorus leucotis – Garrinchão-de-barriga-vermelha
Pantanal - river Pixaim (2/9 pair and 1 single during boat trip)

Fawn-breasted Wren – Thryothorus guarayanus – Garrinchão-do-oeste
Pantanal-Porto Joffre (1)

Long-billed Wren – Thryothorus longirostris – Garrinchão-de-bico-grande
Carmo (1)

Southern House Wren - Troglodytes musculus – Corruíra
Guimarães (1); seen at most places in Southeast Brazil

Long-billed Gnatwren – Ramphocaenus melanurus – Bico-assovelado
Intervales (max 2 and 1 HO), Ubatuba - Angelim (1-2)

Masked Gnatcatcher – Plioptila dumicola – Balança-rabo-de-máscara
Pantanal (max 4)

Yellow-legged Thrush - Platycichla flavipes – Sabiá-una
Boracéia (1), Intervales (1 HO), Caraça (2), Pindobas IV/Caetes (seen), Algulhas Negras (1), Itatiaia - Tres Picos (1), Pereque (6), Ubatuba - Capricornio (2m, 1f), Corcovado (3), Angelim (5+), Folha Seca (1m)

Eastern Slaty-Thrush – Turdus subalaris – Sabiá-ferreiro
Canastra-Casca d’Anta (1)

Rufous-bellied Thrush – Sabiá-laranjeira - Turdus rufiventris
Seen at all visited sites.

Pale-breasted Thrush - Turdus leucomelas – Sabiá-barranco
Araras (1), Guimarães (max 4), btw Itirapina/Canastra (1), Canastra-higher parts (2), Cipó (3), Caraça (seen), Pindobas IV/Caetes (1), Itatiaia - Simon (1), Ypê (1), Pereque (2), Ubatuba - Capricornio (1), Corcovado (some), Angelim (4)

Creamy-bellied Thrush – Turdus amaurochalinus – Sabiá-poca
Pantanal (every day, max 10), Intervales (max 3), Canastra (4), btw Canastra/Cipó (2), Caraça (1), Ubatuba - Capricornio (4)

White-necked Thrush – Turdus albicollis – Sabiá-coleira
Intervales (1), Caraça (2+), Pindobas IV (1), Caetes (1 HO)

Chalk-browed Mockingbird – Mimus saturninus – Sabiá-do-campo
Sev at most visited sites, though not in Itatiaia and Ubatuba area.

Yellowish Pipit - Anthus lutescens – Caminheiro-zumbidor
Parati harbour (27/9 1-2)

Hellmayr’s Pipit-Anthus hellmayri
Canastra-higher parts (15/9 1 and 4 HO), Cipó (17/9 3 and 1 HO)

Rufous-browed Peppershrike - Cyclarhis gujanensis – Bitiguari
Boracéia (4), Araras (max 2), Pantanal (1), Intervales (max 2), Pindobas IV (max 2), Carmo (pair), Algulhas Negras (2)

Chivi Vireo – Vireo olivaceus (chivi) – Juruviara
Araras (2), Guimarães (1), Tres Picos (5), Pereque (3), Ubatuba - Capricornio (4), Corcovado (3+), Angelim (5), Folha Seca (1 HO)

Rufous-crowned Greenlet - Hylophilus poicilotis – Verdinho-coroado
Boracéia (max 2), Intervales (max 2), Itatiaia - Maromba (3), Algulhas Negras (5)

Lemon-chested Greenlet – Hylophilus thoracicus – Vite-vite
Carmo (1), Ubatuba - Angelim (2)

Ashy-headed Greenlet – Hylophilus pectoralis – Vite-vite-de-cabeça-cinza
Pantanal-Fazenda Sta Teresa (2/9 10, 5/9 1)

Tropical Parula - Parula pitiayumi – Mariquita
Pantanal (1 on 4 days), Guimarães (1 HO), Intervales (max 3), Itirapina (1), Canastra-lower parts (2), Carmo (1), Ubatuba - Capricornio (3), Corcovado (2)

Flavescent Warbler – Basileuterus flaveolus – Canário-do-mato
Pantanal (2/9 1, 5/9 1 HO)

Golden-crowned Warbler - Basileuterus culicivorus – Pula-pula
Boracéia (5), Intervales (max 8+), Pindobas IV (max 6+), Carmo (pair), Itatiaia - Maromba (6+), Tres Picos (max 6+), Algulhas Negras (seen)

White-striped Warbler – Basileuterus leucophrys – Pula-pula-de-sobrancelha E
Serra da Canastra-higher parts (2)

White-rimmed Warbler - Basileuterus leucoblepharus – Pula-pula-assobiador
Intervales (HO daily, 2 seen), Canastra-lower parts (2 and 1 HO), Algulhas Negras (5 and more HO), Itatiaia - Tres Picos (pair)

White-bellied Warbler – Basileuterus hypoleucus – Pula-pula-de-barriga-branca
Guimarães-Pousada (2), Canastra-lower parts (3), btw Canastra/Cipó-see GPS (2), Caraça (4), Itatiaia - Tres Picos (2 possibles)

Neotropical River Warbler – Phaeothlypis rivularis – Pula-pula-ribeirinho
Ubatuba - Corcovado (pair, 1 and 1 HO), Folha Seca (1 HO)

Masked Yellowthroat - Geothlypis aequinoctialis – Pia-cobra
Mogi das Cruzes (10+), Itirapina (1)

Bananaquit - Coereba flaveola – Cambacica
Seen at most places, but not in large numbers

Brown Tanager - Orchesticus abeillei – Sanhaçu-pardo NT
Intervales (1), Itatiaia - Ypê (3), Tres Picos (23/9 2, 25/9 6)

Cinnamon Tanager – Schistochlamys ruficapillus – Bico-de-veludo
Canastra - Lower parts (1), Canastra-higher parts (4), Cipó (2)

Black-faced Tanager – Schistochlamys melanopis – Sanhaçu-de-coleira
Guimarães-Cerrado (3)

White-banded Tanager – Neothraupis fasciata – Cigarra-do-campo NT
Guimarães-Cerrado (8)

White-rumped Tanager – Cypsnagra hirundinacea - Bandoleta
Guimarães-Cerrado (8), Canastra-higher part: Curral de Pedras (3)

Magpie Tanager – Cissopis leveriana - Tietinga
Araras (max 8), Canastra (2), Caraça (3), Ypê (22/9 2, 25/9 1)

Orange-headed Tanager - Thlypopsis sordida – Saí-canário
Boracéia (3), Intervales (1)

Guira Tanager – Hemithraupis guira – Saíra-de-papo-preto
Guimarães-Gallery Forest (2m)

Rufous-headed Tanager - Hemithraupis ruficapilla – Saíra-ferrugem
Canastra-Buteco Ra (2m), Caraça (pair), Pindobas IV (pair), Itatiaia - Maromba (1f), Tres Picos (1m), Ubatuba - Capricornio (3f), Corcovado (1m), Angelim (pair)

Hooded Tanager – Nemosia pileata – Saíra-de-chapéu-preto
Araras-‘entrance road’ (pair and 1m), Pantanal-Sta Teresa (2/9 1m, 3/9 2m), btw Itirapina/Canastra (pair)

Cherry-throated Tanager – Nemosia rourei – Saíra-apunhalada CR
Caetes (4)

Gray-headed Tanager – Eucometis penicillata – Pipira-da-taoca
Guimarães-Pousada (3)

Flame-crested Tanager-Tachyphonus cristatus
Ubatuba-Capricorno (27/9 1m), Corcovado (28/9 3), Angelim (2m, 2f)

White-lined Tanager-Tachyphonus rufus
Araras (29/8 10, 30/8 1f, 31/8 2), Guimarães (7/9 6)

Ruby-crowned TanagerTachyphonus coronatus - Tiê-preto
Boracéia (28/8 2m), Intervales (9/9 6+, 10/9 seen, 11/9 seen), Canastra-lower parts (14/9 4), Caraça (18/9 1m), Pindobas IV (19/9 pair, 20/9 pair), Carmo (21/9 2), Itatiaia-Simon (22/9 3, 23/9 seen, 25/9 pair), Pereque (26/9 seen), Ubatuba-Capricornio (27/9 5), Folha Seca (28/9 5+, 30/9 2 pairs), Angelim (29/9 6)

White-shouldered Tanager-Tachyphonus luctuosus
Araras-pousada grounds (30/8 1f)

Black-goggled Tanager-Trichothraupis melanops - Tiê-de-topete
Boracéia (28/8 10), Intervales (9/9 3+, 10/9 seen, 11/9 seen, 12/9 2), Canastra-lower parts (14/9 pair), Caraça (18/9 5), Pindobas IV (19/9 10+, 20/9 1), Itatiaia-Maromba (22/9 pair), Tres Picos (25/9 4)

Red-crowned Ant-Tanager-Habia rubica
Intervales (11/9 pair, Remco only, and 1 HO)

Olive-green Tanager-Orthogonys chloricterus
Intervales (10/9 some at Restaurant feeder), Pindobas IV (19/9 2), Itatiaia-Ypê (22/9 2, 23/9 3), Simon (22/9 3, 23/9 3)

Lowland Hepatic Tanager-Piranga macconnelli
Araras-clearing (29/8 1m)

Silver-beaked Tanager-Ramphocelus carbo
Araras (30/8 20, 31/8 seen), Pantanal (fairly common, seen daily), (12/9 1f)

Brazilian Tanager-Ramphocelus bresilius
Btw São Paulo/Boracéia (27/8 1m, 1f), Carmo (21/9 pair), Pereque (26/9 6+), Ubatuba-Capricornio (27/9 20), Folha Seca (28/9 5, 30/9 2 pairs), Angelim (4f)

Sayaca Tanager-Thraupis sayaca
Seen at all sites visited.

Azure-shouldered Tanager-Thraupis cyanoptera - Sanhaço-de-encontro-azul NT
Boracéia (28/8 3), Intervales (9/9 6+, 10/9 4, 11/9 3), Carmo (21/9 1), Ubatuba-Corcovado (28/9 3)

Golden-chevroned Tanager-Thraupis ornate - Sanhaço-de-encontro
Boracéia (28/8 2), Intervales (9/9 4+, 11/9 5), Pindobas IV (19/9 4), Itatiaia-Ypê (22/9 5), Itatiaia-Simon (22/9 3, 23/9 3, 25/9 seen), Itatiaia-Tres Picos (25/9 seen), Algulhas Negras (24/9 5), Ubatuba-Capricornio (27/9 5), Folha Seca (28/9 5+, 30/9 3), Angelim (29/9 5)

Palm Tanager-Thraupis palmarum - Sanhaço-do-coqueiro
Btw São Paulo/Boracéia (27/8 2), Araras (29/8 1, 30/8 1, 31/8 seen), Pantanal (2/9 1, 4/9 1), Guimarães (6/9 1), Pereque (26/9 1), Ubatuba-Capricornio (27/9 3), Corcovado (28/9 3), Angelim (29/9 2)

Diademed Tanager-Stephanophorus diadematus
Intervales (9/9 6+, 10/9 1, 11/9 pair, 1), Algulhas Negras (24/9 10)

Fawn-breasted Tanager-Pipraeidea melanonota - Saíra-viúva
Boracéia (28/8 2), Intervales (9/9 1m, 10/9 1), Caraça (18/9 1m), Pindobas IV (20/9 pair), Algulhas Negras (24/9 1m). Remco’s favourite tanager.

Purple-throated Euphonia-Euphonia chlorotica - Vivi
Pantanal-Fazenda Sta Teresa (2/9 1m), Guimarães-Véu da Noiva (6/9 1m), Canastra-lower parts (14/9 1), Cipó (17/9 pair plus 2)

Violaceous Euphonia-Euphonia violacea - Gaturano-verdadeiro
Pereque (26/9 1m), Ubatuba-Capricornio (27/9 1m), Folha Seca (28/9 1m), Angelim (29/9 2m)

Thick-billed Euphonia-Euphonia laniirostris
Guimarães-Gallery forest (7/9 1 imm m and pair building nest)

Chestnut-bellied Euphonia-Euphonia rufiventris - Ferro-velho
Intervales (9/9 1), Pindobas IV (19/9 2), Itatiaia-Simon (22/9 2, 23/9 2, 25/9 pair), Ypê (22/9 2, 23/9 2, 25/9 pair and 1m), Maromba (23/9 1)

Blue-naped Chlorophonia-Chlorophonia cyanea - Bandeirinha
Itatiaia-Ypê (22/9 2 pairs, 25/9 pair)

Green-headed Tanager-Tangara seledon - Saíra-sete-cores
Boracéia (27/8 1, 28/8 5), Itatiaia (22/9 10, 23/9 10, 25/9 4), Ubatuba-Capricornio (27/9 50), Corcovado (28/9 30+), Folha Seca (30/9 5+), Angelim (29/9 15+)

Red-necked Tanager-Tangara cyanocephala
Boracéia (28/8 10), Intervales (11/9 2), Pereque (26/9 2), Paratí - Trindade (26/9 2), Ubatuba-Capricornio (27/9 20), Corcovado (28/9 20), Angelim (29/9 10+). Johan’s favourite tanager.

Brassy-breasted Tanager-Tangara desmaresti - Saíra-lagarta
Boracéia (28/8 seen), Intervales (10/9 4, 11/9 1), Caraça (18/9 3), Pindobas IV (19/9 40+, 20/9 seen), Itatiaia-Tres Picos (23/9 6, 25/9 6+), Algulhas Negras (24/9 15+), Ubatuba-Capricornio (27/9 5)

Gilt-edged Tanager-Tangara cyanoventris - Saíra-douradinha
Boracéia (28/8 seen), Intervales (10/9 1), Caraça (18/9 3), Pindobas IV (20/9 1), Itatiaia-Maromba (23/9 2), Tres Picos (25/9 5)

Burnished-buff Tanager-Tangara cayana - Saíra-amarela
Boracéia (27/8 5), Guimarães (6/9 1, 7/9 pair), Canastra-lower parts (14/9 4), Canastra-higher parts (15/9 4), Cipó (17/9 4m, 3f), Caraça (18/9 20), Carmo (21/9 pair), Itatiaia-Simon (22/9 pair, 23/9 1m), btw Ubatuba/São Paulo (30/9 pair)

Chestnut-backed Tanager-Tangara preciosa - Saíra-de-cara-suja
Intervales (11/9 1)

Black-legged Dacnis-Dacnis nigripes NT
Itatiaia-Simon (22-23/9 pair in backyard)

Blue Dacnis-Dacnis cayana - Saí-azul
Guimarães-Véu da Noiva (6/9 1m). Seen at all sites in Southeast Brazil.

Green Honeycreeper-Chlorphanes spiza
Ubatuba - Capricornio (27/9 1), Folha Seca (28/9 3m, 2f, 30/9 2m), Angelim (29/9 1m)

Chestnut-vented Conebill-Conirostrum speciosum - Figuinha-de-rabo-castanho
Canastra-lower parts (1m near river down from restaurant Buteco Ra, Johan only)

Swallow Tanager-Tersina viridis - Saí-andorinha
Araras-clearing (30/8 6), Guimarães-Véu da Noiva (6/9 10), Guimarães (7/9 4), btw Itirapina/Canastra (13/9 5 f/imm), Canastra (14/9 1m, 1f, 15/9 2), btw Sao Roque/Piumhi-Plush-crested Jay-site (16/9 2m, 1f), Caraça (18/9 6+), Itatiaia-Simon (22/9 pair, 23/9 6+), Pereque (26/9 1 imm m)

Rufous-collared Sparrow-Zonotrichia capensis - Tico-tico
Fairly common on all visited sites, except in Mato Grosso, where none observed.

Grassland Sparrow-Ammodramus humeralis - Tico-tico-do-campo
Pantanal-Fazenda Sta Teresa (2/9 2), Guimarães - Cerrado (6/9 1), Itirapina (12/9 2), Canastra-lower parts (14/9 1m singing), Canastra-higher parts (15/9 seen), Cipó (17/9 3)

Uniform Finch-Haplospiza unicolor - Cigarra-bambu
Intervales (9/9 1 and 1 HO, 12/9 2), Itatiaia-Tres Picos (25/9 1 HO)

Bay-chested Warbling-finch-Poospiza thoracica
Algulhas Negras (24/9 20), Itatiaia-Tres Picos (25/9 2)

Red-rumped Warbling-finch-Poospiza lateralis
Intervales (9/9 4, 12/9 2)

Stripe-tailed Yellow-Finch-Sicalis citrina
Canastra-Vargem Bonita (13/9 2m, 1f)

Saffron Finch-Sicalis flaveola - Canário-da-terra
Pantanal, fairly common. A big flock always hung around Fazenda Sta Teresa feeders. Intervales (11/9 pair), Canastra-lower parts (14/9 10), Canastra-higher parts (15/9 pair), Caetes (19/9 5+, 20/9 seen), Pereque (26/9 1m), Ubatuba-Capricornio (27/9 2 pairs), Angelim (29/9 1f)

Grassland Yellow-Finch-Sicalis luteola
Cipó (17/9 1 singing m, Remco only)

Great Pampa-Finch-Embernagra platensis
Canastra-higher parts (15/9 2 pairs, 2m), Caraça (18/9 1 singing m)

Pale-throated Serra-Finch-Embernagra longicauda NT
Cipó (17/9 2)

Wedge-tailed Grass-Finch-Emberizoides herbicola - Canário-do-campo
Itirapina (12/9 6+), Canastra-lower parts (14/9 1)

Blue-black Grassquit-Volatinia jacarina - Tiziu
Recorded at Boracéia, Araras, Pantanal, Guimarães, Itirapina, Canastra, Caraça and Pindobas IV.

Plumbeous Seedeater-Sporophila plumbea
Guimarães-Cerrado (6/9 pair), Guimarães-Gallery forest (7/9 2), Canastra-higher parts (15/9 1m at Curral de Pedras)

Rusty-collared Seedeater-Sporophila collaris
Transpantaneira (1/9 pair, 5/9 1f)

Double-collared Seedeater-Sporophila caerulescens - Coleirinho
Btw Cuiabá/Araras (29/8 flock of 100+ feeding near and on the road), Pantanal (1/9 1m, 4/9 2m, 1f - Porto Joffre), Guimarães (6/9 1), Cipó (17/9 2m), Itatiaia-Simon (22/9 1m), Itatiaia (25/9 1m), Ubatuba-Capricornio (27/9 10), Angelim (29/9 2m, 1f)

White-bellied Seedeater-Sporophila leucoptera
Btw Cuiabá/Araras (29/8 1m, 1f), Pantanal (1/9 1m, 3/9 1m)

Tawny-bellied Seedeater-Sporophila hypoxantha
Pantanal (3/9 8, 4/9 20 at Porto Joffre)

Yellow-bellied Seedeater-Sporophila nigricollis
Canastra (13/9 5m, 8f), Cipó (17/9 5), Caraça (18/9 1m), Caetes (19/9 1)

Temminck’s Seedeater-Sporophila falcirostris VU
Intervales (9/9 1 HO, 10/9 pair, HO, 11/9 2f)

Lesser Seed-Finch-Oryzoborus angolensis
Transpantaneira (4/9 4), Guimarães (6/9 2, 7/9 seen), Carmo (21/9 1)

Pectoral Sparrow-Arremon taciturnus
Araras-Pousada grounds (29/8 1, Remco only)

Half-collared Sparrow-Arremon semitorquatus - Tico-tico-do-mato
Pereque (26/9 1)

Coal-crested Finch-Charitospiza eucosma NT
Guimarães-Cerrado (6/9 1f)

Red-pileated Finch-Coryphospingus cucullatus
Pantanal-Fazenda Sta Teresa (1/9 pair and 2), Guimarães (6/9 1m, 7/9 3 1m)

Grey-pileated Finch-Coryphospingus pileatus
Canastra-higher parts (15/9 1m at Capão Forro)

Red-crested Cardinal-Paroaria coronata - Cardeal
Pantanal-Fazenda Sta Teresa (2/9 4, 5/9 pair)

Yellow-billed Cardinal-Paroaria capitata
Btw Cuiabá/Araras (29/8 1), Pantanal (daily). A large flock always around Fazenda Sta Teresa.

Black-throated Grosbeak-Saltator fuliginosus - Bico-de-pimenta
Intervales (10/9 1 and 1 HO, 11/9 1 HO)

Buff-throated Saltator-Saltator maximus
Araras-pousada grounds (30/8 4), Guimarães (7/9 4)

Green-winged Saltator-Saltator similes - Trinca-ferro
Boracéia (27/8 1 probable), Intervales (9/9 3+, 10/9 2, 11/9 1), Canastra-lower parts (14/9 5), Canastra-higher parts (15/9 2), Caraça (18/9 seen)

Grayish Saltator-Saltator caerulescens
Araras (29/8 5, 30/8 3), Pantanal (1-5/9 4, 10, 10, 1 and 2 respectively)

Thick-billed Saltator-Saltator maxillosus
Algulhas Negras (24/9 8+), Itatiaia-Tres Picos (25/9 1)

Black-throated Saltator-Saltator atricollis
Guimarães-Cerrado (6/9 10), Itirapina (12/9 5), Cipó (17/9 5)

Ultramarine Grosbeak-Passerina brissonii
Caraça (18/9 1 Cascatingha trail)

Yellow-billed Blue Finch-Porphyrospiza caerulescens NT
Cipó (17/9 1m singing)

Crested Oropendola-Psarocolius decumanus
Pantanal (1/9 1, 2/9 2, 5/9 2), Guimarães (7/9 10), Canastra-lower parts (14/9 20, 15/9 1, 16/9 2), Pindobas IV (20/9 2), Carmo (21/9 2), Pereque (26/9 2), Ubatuba-Capricornio (27/9 3), Folha Seca (28/9 2, 30/9 1)

Yellow-rumped Cacique-Cacicus cela
Araras (29/8 10, 30/8 2, 31/8 seen), Pantanal (3/9 1, 4/9 10)

Red-rumped Cacique-Cacicus haemorrhous - Guaxe
Intervales (11/9 10+), Carmo (21/9 seen), Itatiaia-Simon (seen on 22, 23, 25/9), Pereque (26/9 some), Ubatuba-Folha Seca (28/9 1, 30/9 1), Angelim (29/9 1)

Golden-winged Cacique-Cacicus chrysopterus - Tecelão
Intervales (9/9 6+, 10/9 10, 11/9 4), Algulhas Negras (24/9 1), Itatiaia-Tres Picos (25/9 2)

Solitary Black Cacique-Cacicus solitarius
Pantanal-Fazenda Sta Teresa (2/9 2)

Epaulet Oriole-Icterius cayanensis - Encontro
Araras-pousada grounds (29/8 1, 30/8 2), Pantanal (1/9 3, 2/9 1, 3/9 3, 4/9 1). The epaulet is yellow at Araras and brown in the Pantanal.

Orange-backed Troupial-Icterius croconotus - João-pinto
Araras (29/8 3, 30/8 4, 31/8 2), Pantanal (1-5/9 1, 8, 6, 5 and 2 respectively)

Unicolored Blackbird Agelaius cyanopus
Pantanal (seen on 1-3/9)

Scarlet-headed Blackbird-Amblyramphus holosericeus
Transpantaneira (1/9 2-3, 3/9 2, 4/9 2 ad, 2 juv, 5/9 1)

Yellow-rumped Marshbird-Pseudoleistes guirahuro
Intervales (12/9 15), Canastra-lower parts (13/9 1, 14/9 6), Cipó (17/9 2)

Chopi Blackbird-Gnorimopsar chopi - Pássaro-preto
Araras (common 29-31/8), Pantanal (1/9 and 3/9), Guimarães (on both days), Canastra (13-16/9), Cipó (17/9)

Bay-winged Cowbird-Molothrus badius
Pantanal (1/9 20, 2/9 2, 3/9 10, 4/9 seen)

Shiny Cowbird-Molothrus bonariensis - Chopim
Btw Boracéia/São Paulo (28/8 6), Araras (recorded on 29-30/8), Pantanal (seen on 1-3 and 5/9), Intervales (9-11/9 few), Cipó (17/9 pair), Caraça (18/9 seen), btw Venda Nova/Itatiaia (21/9 1), Itatiaia-Simon (22-23/9 6+, 25/9 seen)

Giant Cowbird-Scaphidura oryzivora
Araras (29/8 1, 30/8 1), Pantanal (1/9 2, 3/9 1)

Hooded Siskin-Carduelis magellanica - Pintassilgo
Boracéia-entrance road (27/8 1m, 1f), Canastra-lower parts (14/9 2 pairs near river down from Restaurant Buteco Ra), Algulhas Negras (24/9 10)

Recorded feral species

House Sparrow-Passer domesticus - Pardal
Pantanal (some on 1/9 and 4/9)

Common Waxbill-Estrilda astrild - Bico-de-lacre
Btw Sao Paulo/Mogi das Cruzes (27/8 some), Pereque (26/9 2), Ubatuba (27/9 1)

Remco’s Top 15 consists of lifers that were either most-anticipated, very beautiful or just cute. Having a parrot in the top-10 is a first!

1.   Jabiru
2.   Swallow-tailed Cotinga
3.   Swallow-tailed Kite
4.   Collared Crescentchest
5.   Harpy Eagle
6.   Hyacinth Macaw
7.   Large-tailed Antshrike
8.   Variegated Antpitta
9.   Red-billed Scythebill
10.    Black-cheeked Gnateater
11.    Fawn-breasted Tanager
12.    Least Nighthawk
13.    Swallow-Tanager
14.    Black-hooded Antwren
15.    White-headed Marsh-Tyrant

Recorded mammals:

Brazilian (Lowland) Tapir Tapirus terrestris
1, Boraceia bridge, after dusk (on first evening!). According to Boraceias caretaker, it is common here.

Ocelot Felis pardalis
1, Transpantaneira, crossing road in daytime; 1, Fazenda Sta Teresa grounds at night

Marguay Felis wiedii (a.k.a. Tree Ocelot)
1, higher along Itatiaia access road at night

Crab-eating Fox / Common Zorro Cerdocyon thous
Sev, Transpantaneira; 2 confiding small grey foxes seen at Intervales’ Sede were probably this species or possibly Pampas Fox / Azara’s Zorro Pseudalopex gymnocercus as pics found through Wikipedia resemble this last species (but this is said two years hence). Crab-eating Fox has been photographed at Intervales by photographer Marcel Holyoak (see - a website that also holds great pics of Brazilian birds)

Giant Anteater Myrmecophaga tridactyla
3 distant ones, upper Serra da Canastra

Southern Tamandua Tamandua tetradactyla
1, Fazenda Sta Teresa grounds at night; 1, sleeping in tree along Transpantaneira in daytime

South American Coati Nasua nasua
Only 1, Transpantaneira

Capybara Hydrochoerus hydrocheiris
Abundant, Pantanal. One had a Yellow-headed Caracara on its back, that might have been feeding on ticks.

Orange-spined Hairy Dwarf-Porcupine Sphiggurus villosus
1, Itatiaia, Hotel Simon’s backyard at night. Confiding, photogenic and very cute!

Marsh Deer Blastocerus dichotomus
Sev, Pantanal

“Agouti” Agouti paca (?)
1, near Fazenda Sta Teresa; 2, Porto Joffre

Giant Otter Pteronura brasiliensis
2-3 family groups of about 6, Transpantaneira. Roadside and eating out of our hand on river Pixaim, Fazenda Sta Teresa.

Neotropical River Otter Lontra longicaudis
1, probably injured, Transpantaneira

(Brown?) Tufted-ear Marmoset Callithrix species
Small group, lower Serra da Canastra, along river Sao Fransisco near Buteco Ra (with next species); small group btw Vargem Bonita/Piumhi (see GPS waypoints)

Masked Titi Monkey Callicebus personatus ssp.
Small group, lower Serra da Canastra, along river Sao Fransisco near Buteco Ra

Black Howler Monkey Alouatta caraya
Sev along Transpantaneira

HareLepus species
1 with very large, round ears, Serra das Araras at night

ArmadilloDasypus species
Sev skeletons scattered underneath Harpy Eagle nest, Serra das Araras. Unfortunately no live one.

“fish-eating bat”
Sev at dusk, flying low over water surface near Fazenda Sta Teresa
“hummingbird bat”
1 repeatedly returning to hummer feeder at Golfinho Tropical, Ubatuba (even photographed!). Fed in a hummingbird-manner, taking sugarwater from the feeder while
“small bat”
Sev roosting under bark of a tree, flushed by Juan, along trail near Fazenda Sta Teresa

Recorded reptiles:

Abundant, Pantanal

1 large one, Serra das Araras, main track near water reservoirs at night

Black-and-yellow snake
1 large one, Serra das Araras, circular trail (wouldn’t have seen it if Johan, after almost stepping on it, hadn’t jumped high in the air……:-)

July 2007

Johan van ’t Bosch                                      Remco Hofland
Den Haag, The Netherlands                           Oegstgeest, The Netherlands                   

PS As I finally post this tripreport, Johan ‘bothers’ me with SMS from Brazil. From July-Oct 2007, he is guiding at Alta Floresta/Rio Cristalino, and has just seen Spangled and Pompadour Cotingas, Harpy Eagle, Black-spotted Bare-eye, adult Agami Heron, Hoatzin, Pavonine Quetzal, Pearl Kite and even heard a ground-cuckoo…..

PS 2 In due time, this tripreport will also be posted on, including some of Johan’s photographs.


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