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A Report from

North-east Brazil, February 12-March 11, 2009,

Marlene and Gary Babic

General Information

The most important comment to make about this trip is that the birding was fantastic. In 27 days we saw 475 species, and nearly every one very well. Of these, 98 were Brazilian endemics, many found only in Northeast Brazil. In addition, there were also quite a few endemic subspecies. Sadly, 53 of the species seen are now listed as being critical, endangered, threatened, or near-threatened by Birdlife International, primarily reflecting the severe loss of habitat. Several of the species seen have been documented only within the last few years. The Araripe Manakin is perhaps the best-known of these, but is only one of many. 


Male Araripe Manakin                    Female Araripe Manakin on nest 

The impetus for this trip came from a comment made by a fellow birder on another trip who commented that Northeast Brazil was a critical birding region under heavy threat of development. Our experience confirmed this. Birding sites are widely separated, and in-between lie large areas of agricultural development (sugar cane in the north, soy beans farther south). It appears that every easily-accessible flat piece of land has been cleared of forest and farmed until it has lost productivity. At that point a few cattle roam the areas. The only undeveloped lowland areas are in hilly, difficult-to-access areas; other key sites are on the various plateaus (chapadas). Nowhere, even designated national parks, seems to have real protection. Our message is the same as we received – now is the time to visit Northeast Brazil.

The trip was organized by Ciro Albano, who is based in Fortaleza and who was our guide for the first two-thirds of the trip. Rio de Janeiro-based Ricardo Parrini was our guide for the final one-third of the trip. We highly recommend them both. They know the locations and the birds, and we were so successful in seeing the key birds with them that we changed our planned itinerary part-way through the trip because we were ahead of schedule and were able to visit some additional sites. Contact information for Ciro and Ricardo is given in the Other Details section. 

Our trip visited four main habitats: caatinga, cerrado, low Atlantic forest, and high Atlantic forest. The forest areas in particular were isolated patches. The birdlife was very habitat-specific. For example in one area, near Mucuje, there is sandy and rocky cerrado, and many of the birds were unique to each. As a result, Northeast Brazil is filled with endemic species, and there are several subspecies which may also be valid full species. Our trip was very successful with regard to seeing endemic species and subspecies. The only Northeast Brazil endemic we did not see was the Alagoas Antwren, which we missed because we could not access the Murici reserve due to an impassable road. 

Ciro adjusted his usual itinerary because we were visiting during Carnaval time, and lodging in some of the routine locations was either difficult to secure or required multi-day reservations. This meant we drove more than normal, even though any comprehensive trip to Northeast Brazil means traveling long distances. We ended up covering 6700 kilometers (4200 miles). Carnaval was very early this year, so a trip at the same time another year would probably not have any overlap.

Lodging ranged from good to very good. Hotels in warmer locations had air-conditioning; most had mini-refrigerators. Food was very good but Brazil is no place for a vegetarian – most meals were meat-based, with beef prominent and delicious. Roadside restaurants called churrascarias operated with various formats but in general featured a buffet and barbecued meats. The roads we used for our longer distance trips ranged from very good to excellent, although we did see quite a bit of dodgy driving. Some of the local roads were terrible. Signage was non-existent, and both Ciro and Ricardo had to ask for directions a few times. Other than the main roads, most roads leading to birding sites were dirt and some became very slippery after rain. We were unable to reach Murici because our 4WD truck could not stay on the road, and we had to walk up part of the road at Serra Bonita II because the 4WD truck there could not make it up with us on board.

Most gas stations took either Visa or MasterCard, but usually not both. Only the larger hotels took any credit cards. Most of the larger towns had automatic teller or instant cash machines (ATMs) which dispensed Brazilian currency. However, the ATMs were not consistent – we had two ATM cards, and some ATMs accepted one and others accepted the other. Only the airport in Sao Paulo had any currency exchange facilities.

At the time of our trip, the USD was equivalent to 2.35 Brazilian Reai. At that rate our average daily cost for hotel rooms and meals for both of us plus the guide was approximately USD 160. Ciro rented a modest VW Gol. Cars in Brazil run on gasoline, alcohol derived from sugar cane, or both (flex-fuel). Adjusted for fuel economy, gasoline and alcohol had similar pricing equal to approximately USD 4.00 per gallon.  Because of our long drive, we spent more than USD 500 on fuel.

There are two airports in Sao Paulo. This is important because one only handles domestic flights while the other handles international flights as well. So if you are arriving in Brazil in Sao Paulo on an international flight and have an ongoing domestic flight, as we did, it is important to check that the domestic flight leaves from the international airport. The main domestic airlines are TAM and GOL. Our domestic flights were on TAM and were uneventful (and on time).    

The weather was warm throughout, usually in the high 30s C (80-90s F). We normally did our birding in the morning and afternoon, with a break at mid-day. A few days we used mid-day to drive to our next stop. We had rain almost every day during the first part of the trip, but usually at night or only for a few daylight hours. It is difficult to say whether an earlier or later date would be better birding-wise. We did see essentially every bird very well, and picked up a few migrants that would not be there during other months. Although most birds were not calling much, they seemed to respond well to being taped-in or “pished”, and we had a lot of mixed flocks. We did have good luck in that the rain in most cases did not interfere with our birding time. Our opinion may be more negative if we had lost a full day or two to rain. 

We normally write a trip report with an eye to assisting birders in arranging their own independent trips. However, we believe an independent trip to Northeast Brazil would be very difficult. One key reason is that very few people speak English. According to Ciro, the Portuguese-speaking Brazilians even have trouble understanding Spanish and we noticed quite a few key Portuguese words were completely different from Spanish. Another reason is that, even with the most detailed road map available, we still had problems reaching some places. Some roads marked as paved were not and in some cases we were advised by locals to avoid some roads altogether. It would be critical to be able to ask and understand directions. Also, birding at several locations requires local assistance, either with logistics (e.g., finding a driver with a 4WD at Murici), or for basic access. Where feasible, we have included directions and information about reaching sites in the Birding Sites section, but for some we simply do not know how to do so.  Hotel details, where available, are also in the Birding Sites section.         

Detailed Itinerary

Instead of distances, we have included time to travel between birding sites because travel time depends on road quality. For trips of three hours or more, we usually took a rest break every few hours. Most of the Petrobras service stations had clean rest room facilities as well as a convenience store. Lunch breaks were usually 30 minutes at a churrascaria. More information on lodging is given in the Birding Sites sections. Note: The first few days of our trip closely match those of a 2007 trip reported by Moira and Graeme Wallace at:

Day 1, Feb 12, Thursday. We arrived in Fortaleza at 9PM, and were met by Ciro. We then made the two-hour drive south to the higher-elevation Serra de Baturité. We stayed at the Alto da Serra Hotel, with individual, small but clean and comfortable rooms. General information about birding in this region can be found at:

Day 2, Feb 13, Friday. On our first day of birding, we started out around the Alto da Serra Hotel at 5AM until breakfast at 7AM. The grounds of the Alto da Serra were very birdy, and we soon picked up Pectoral Sparrow, Rufous Gnateater, Red-necked Tanager, large flocks of Yellow-chevroned Parakeet, and a surprise Pearly-breasted Cuckoo in migration, in addition to the more common species. After breakfast we drove to the nearby Remanso Hotel. This hotel is a standard resort with pool and other amenities and is certainly an alternative to the more basic Alto da Serra, but Ciro said it is often crowded and noisy. However, it does have an excellent trail we used this morning and afternoon, and the road to the hotel itself was also productive. We had  rain for a few hours in the morning and again in the early afternoon. Among key birds around the Remanso Hotel were Gould’s Toucanet, Buff-breasted Tody-tyrant, Short-tailed Antthrush, Ochraceous Piculet, Sooty Grassquit, Rufous-bellied Leaftosser, and Orange-headed Tanager. After lunch, a break, and a short time at Remanso Hotel we saw Rufous-sided Crake (at a site where I ended up with 200+ fire ant bites) and Campo Troupial. We then went to a location closer to the city for an unsuccessful try for Yellow-faced Siskin, followed by a visit to a roosting site known to Ciro for Gray-breasted Parakeet. After a short wait, they came in at dusk and gave a fine show.  Other birds seen in this area included Black-capped Antwren, Slender-footed and Planalto Tyrannulet, Violaceous Euphonia and Spot-backed Puffbird. Overnight at Alto da Serra Hotel.

Day 3, Feb 14, Saturday. Overnight rains stopped at 5AM and we went to the Remanso Hotel at 5:30AM for a quick look on the trail, where we had great views of Spot-winged Wood-Quail, White-throated Spadebill and Blond-crested Woodpecker before rain started again. After breakfast we revisited the site for Yellow-faced Siskin, where we eventually saw three high in the conifers. We then drove five hours east to the small lobster-fishing village of Icapui, about an hour east of Aracati, arriving in time for lunch. En route we saw a single White-naped Jay and the first of many Caatinga (Cactus) Parakeets – this sighting  being our favorite because the parakeets were appropriately sitting atop a cactus. We checked into the delightful Oh!Linda Hotel, featuring great oceanside views. Mid-afternoon we headed to the mangroves near Icapui, where we had good views of Bicolored Conebill and Clapper Rail. Eventually we managed views of our main target, Little Wood-Rail; its bright pink legs helped to identify it as it snuck through the roots of the mangroves. Overnight at Oh!Linda.

Day 4, Feb 15, Sunday. Before breakfast a short trip around the grounds gave us White-throated Seedeater and Great Antshrike. After breakfast we drove eight hours west to Campo and checked into the Encosta da Serra Hotel at about 3PM. En route we saw two White-throated Nothura running along the road. At 4PM we made the short trip to the base of the Chapada Araripe. Here, within a few hundred yards of a main road, we saw our first Araripe Manakin. As Ciro tells it, ornithologists had exhaustively studied the top of the Chapada Araripe for many years due to several endemics found there, but no one had looked around the base of the plateau. Therefore, the birding community was incredulous when a new species, the Araripe Manakin, was reported from these very accessible locations only a few years ago. Further research, in which Ciro is involved, shows that the manakin lives at the base of the plateau near small streams. However, there are not many birds and the locations are vulnerable. In fact, one of the breeding locations we visited on Day 5 is in the middle of a popular water park. We ended up seeing one male and several females on Day 4, all within a mile of our hotel. We also saw the first of many Euler’s Flycatcher and Tawny Piculet. Overnight at Encosta da Serra Hotel.

Day 5, Feb 16, Monday. 5AM start to be at the top of the Chapada Araripe for dawn chorus under perfect cool, slightly overcast conditions, and where we were greeted by almost all of the endemics and specialties vying for our attention in the caatinga area. We quickly saw Great Xenops, Silvery-cheeked and Caatinga Antshrikes, Stripe-backed Antbird, Ochre-cheeked and Red-shouldered Spinetail, Spotted Piculet, Long-billed Wren, Grey-eyed Greenlet, Black-bellied and Caatinga Antwrens, Flavescent Warbler, and a Tataupu Tinamou crossing the path, in addition to quite a few of the more widespread species. After having great views of these birds, we began our quest for White-browed Antpitta, which had been calling all around us. We positioned ourselves in the woods, and Ciro played his tape. After ten+ minutes, the bird crept close to us, wiggling side-to-side as he would take a few steps, look around, and continue. Not only did we get great views, but the behavior of the bird itself was highly entertaining. We later spent some time in the nearby forest, where we saw Pearly-vented Tody-Tyrant before returning to the hotel. After a mid-day break, we went to the Ajara water park. The previous day had been Sunday, and the park was likely crowded. But today, on Monday, it was officially closed so we were able to walk around by ourselves. Ciro soon found a location where a male and female Araripe Manakin were staying quite near the paved path. We soon found out why. Ciro located a nest, overhanging a stream, with two eggs inside, only a few feet from the path! The female soon returned and settled onto the nest, and we and Ciro took what he believes are the first photos ever taken of a female Araripe Manakin on the nest. Our photo is shown in the first part of this report. Overnight at Encosta da Serra Hotel.   

Day 6, Feb 17, Tuesday. We departed Campo at 6AM and made the nine hours drive to Tamandaré on the eastern coast. Nothing new seen until we were near Tamandaré, where we saw a small flock of Forbes’s Blackbirds. The roads around Tamandaré were very confusing and we had to ask for directions twice even though we had our detailed map. Our original plan had been to come here a few days later, but because of the pending Carnaval holiday all hotels were fully-reserved then. We arrived late afternoon and enjoyed sunset on the beach and a Plain-bellied Emerald feeding on nearby flowers. Excellent supper at O Pescadore restaurant. Overnight at the modest Pousada Maracul, Tamandaré.

Day 7, Feb 18, Wednesday. We left at 5AM as our target location was a small patch of forest called the Cachoeira Linda Private Forest, amidst fields of sugar cane a few kilometers outside of Tamandaré. Overnight rain made the roads through the cane fields very slippery; after about two kilometers we had to leave our car behind and walk a further three kilometers to the forest area. Ciro had previously seen White-collared Kite in this area, but we did not have any sightings. Perhaps the large amount of noise from the cane workers and machinery may have contributed to this. However, while looking for the kite we had great views of several other key species such as Seven-colored and Brazilian Tanagers, Solitary Cacique, Chestnut-bellied Euphonia, Grassland Yellow-finch, and Wedge-tailed Grassfinch. In the afternoon, we went to another sugar cane area with even less forest. Once again, no kite but success with Pinto’s Spinetail, Willis’s Antbird, Forbes’s Blackbird and Ash-throated Crake. Other birds seen this day included Red-shouldered Macaw, Blue-winged Parrotlet, White-bellied Tody-tyrant and Red-headed Manakin. Overnight at Pousada Maracul.

Day 8, Feb 19, Thursday. We returned to the site we had visited the previous afternoon. We had nice views of Black Hawk-Eagle, Smoky-fronted Tody-flycatcher, and Donacobius before Ciro spotted a single White-collared Kite over the forest. Although still at a distance, we had good views and saw the kite do several distinctive “hoverings”.  We then made the three hours drive to Murici, arriving at our hotel at about 4PM. We did some late afternoon birding around the hotel grounds and saw various tanagers and hummingbirds.  Excellent supper. Overnight at the Quilombo Park Hotel, near Murici.

Day 9, Feb 20, Friday.  Early morning 3:30AM departure for the two-hour drive north to Jaqueira – Frei Caneca Private Reserve, a protected area once again inside a sugar cane plantation. Ciro had arranged for a local with a full-sized 4WD truck to pick us up. We then picked up our guide at the reserve entrance and started to the site; the road was very slippery due to overnight rain but we did make it (barely). We walked along the main trail which went along a high ridge. The highlights were Alagoas Foliage-gleaner (great views of it foraging at mid-canopy), Alagoas Tyrannulet, and Orange-breasted Antwren. We also had a delightful view of a male Long-tailed Woodnymph taking a bath, Plain Parakeet, Blue-chinned Sapphire, Golden-spangled Piculet, White-lored Tyrannulet, Green-backed and Crested Becard, White-shouldered Antshrike, Black-cheeked Gnateater, and many others. We headed back down after eating the box lunch prepared by the hotel, arriving 3PM. We had a glimpse of Blackish Rail near the hotel and several Bay-winged Cowbirds in the hotel grounds. Overnight at the Quilombo Park Hotel.

Day 10, Feb 21, Saturday. Our driver again arrived at 3:30AM for our drive east to the Murici Reserve, which is actually about two hours’ drive over poor roads from Murici. However, it had again rained overnight and the roads were even more treacherous than the previous day. We made it partway and then the truck started to lose traction and slide off the road. It was even difficult to stand up on the slippery clay. We had a long way to go and it was apparent we could not even stay on the road, much less make the remaining climb. Ciro walked back to a farmhouse and managed to have the farmer drive over on his tractor and pull us out. Even with the tractor it was not easy, as the truck still slipped sideways. We carefully walked ahead as the farmer slowly pulled the truck, and were rewarded with an unexpected view of 10-12 Jandaya Parakeets in a tree right next to the farmer’s house. We then went to a nearby research station where experimental strains of sugar cane are being developed. In order to isolate these crops from other commercial crops, a swath of forest has been maintained and we explored this for a few hours. After a bit of a chase we  had excellent views of Scalloped Antbird, White-backed Fire-eye, Blue-headed Parrot, Rufous-winged Antwren, and some Red-rumped Caciques overhead. A Maned Sloth lazed in a tree. We had a better view of the Blackish Rail near the hotel upon our return. This was the Saturday of Carnaval and there were more guests at the hotel, but not a lot of noise – once again, great food. Overnight at the Quilombo Park Hotel.   

  Stuck at Murici – it was so slippery that in the right photo Ciro is almost falling while walking

Day 11, Feb 22, Sunday. 6AM departure to Jeremoabo, arriving at noon. It was quite warm, so we took a break until 3PM when we headed west towards Canudos. Stops on the very rough dirt road gave us easy views of Pectoral Antwren, Ash-throated Casiornis, Caatinga Cachalote, White Monjita, and Red-legged Seriema. We arrived at a pasture in an area called Raso de Catarina which is a good viewpoint for Lear’s Macaw and waited. After about an hour, Ciro spotted two distant macaws, barely identifiable. Several Least Nighthawks were already around us when Ciro again heard macaws coming towards us. We were then treated to the breath-taking sight of 14 Lear’s Macaws flying almost directly over us at about 20 feet height and no more than 50 feet away, with the sun at our back and reflecting off the birds beautifully. Elated, we carefully made the drive back to Jemeroaba in the dark, and enjoyed excellent food prepared by the owners of our hotel, who were disappointed we could not eat even more. Overnight at Hotel Senhor Do Bomfim.   

Day 12, Feb 23, Monday. Because of our success with the macaws the previous day, we decided to move along to Estancia, four hours east. We arrived at 11AM, and took a short break until birding in light rain at 3PM. We had success with White-fringed Antwren, Golden-capped Parakeet, Sooretema Slaty-Antshrike, Whiskered Flycatcher, Pernambuco Foliage-gleaner, and Stripe-necked Tody-tyrant, among others. A treat was a White-tailed Goldenthroat among the flowers at our hotel. This was the Monday of Carnaval, with a lot of singing and dancing. Overnight at Magnus Hotel.

Day 13, Feb 24, Tuesday. 6:30AM departure for the long drive to Lençois, in the Chapada Diamantina (Diamond Plateau). Lençois is a popular tourist destination and was packed as this was the final day of Carnaval. The manager of our small hotel is a birder and had a few hummingbird feeders up, although there was not much activity. One surprising visitor was a Brown Violetear, part of a very small and disjunct population – this bird is widespread in the Andes, thousands of kilometers west, but nowhere between there and here. Another treat was a flock of Scarlet-throated Tanagers feasting on jackfruit in the yard of the pousada. We took a short walk along a dirt road north of town, seeing another surprise - Rusty-breasted Nunlet, along with Surucua Trogon, Chestnut-backed Becard and White-backed Fire-eye. Delicious pizza in town and overnight at Casa da Geléia.

Day 14, Feb 25, Wednesday. We had a 5:30AM start to Palmieras, where we saw the very handsome Saõ Francisco Sparrow, Ultramarine Grosbeak, White-banded Tanager, and Green-winged and Black-throated Saltators. We then made a stop at a mesa named Morro do Pai Ignacio and walked partway to the top. We were greeted by five male Hooded Visorbearers, apparently much more interested in female visorbearers than us since we were able to approach within a few feet of them. We also saw Velvety Black-Tyrant and Stripe-tailed Yellow-Finch at this site, and several Pale-throated Serra-Finch on the road down. We then relocated to the town of Mucuje, in the southern part of the chapada. An afternoon trip to sandy and rocky cerrado sites gave us point-blank views of Sincora Antwren, plus Collared Crescentchest, Cinnamon Tanager, Ruby-topaz Hummingbird, and Plumbeous Seedeater.

               Horned Sungem                 Hooded Visorbearer      Scarlet-throated Tanager

Day 15, Feb 26, Thursday. We spent the first few hours back in the cerrado, where we located Diamantina Tapaculo and Gray-backed Tachuri. We also saw two male  Horned Sungems plus many of the birds seen the previous day. At mid-morning we made the drive from Mucuje to Itubera, where the large Michelin plantation is located. A nice find en route was Capped Seedeater. Once again, the trip was more interesting than planned when the roads were not quite where they were supposed to be according to the map. Not much birding en route, although near Itubera we did see a large road-killed bushmaster snake, one of the most venomous snakes in the world. Nice dinner in Itubera before picking up our keys for our overnight stay at the Michelin plantation. 

Day 16, Feb 27, Friday. A bit of overnight rain made the dirt roads through the plantation very slippery. Ciro used his GPS to make sure we did not make any wrong turns – this plantation contains over 200 kilometers of roads so a wrong turn can be disastrous. We eventually picked up a guide and left the plantation area and into the lowland Atlantic forest within the Michelin property. This is one of the few known locations for the critically endangered Bahia Tapaculo, our primary target, and one we expected to spend a long time locating (if at all). However….at our very first stop, we took a few steps into the forest and Ciro played his tape of Bahia Tapaculo. Within a minute, I spotted a movement almost at our feet – a Bahia Tapaculo, which made a circle around us at a distance of about ten feet. Great views and great luck! With relief we then took a long walk along a forest trail, picking up Riverbank Warbler, Broad-tipped Hermit, Cinereous-breasted Spinetail, Scaled Antbird, Thrush-like Schiffornis plus a special treat when our guide pointed out a Violaceous Quail-dove on its nest!

Violaceous Quail-dove on nest   Green-headed Tanager       Marlene at Michelin

After a late breakfast at the lodge, we left for Camacan. After some mis-communication we eventually connected with Victor, the owner of Serra Bonita II, a research station / tourist lodge atop a mountain near Camacan. This is one of the few remaining highland Atlantic forest sites and he is trying to preserve it by buying it and operating the lodge for eco-tourists. We transferred to his 4WD truck for the ride up the road to the lodge, which is not good. At one point, we had to get out of the truck so he could make it up the muddy road with less weight – of course, this meant we had to walk up! The advantage of Serra Bonita II is that it is in the middle of the forest, with roads and trails outside the door. This afternoon we walked along the road. The next day, Day 17, we walked along the road in the morning and along a trail from the top near the antennas down to the lodge. Among birds seen on Days 16 and 17 at Serra Bonita II were Pink-legged Gravaterio, Plumbeous Antvireo, Sombre Hummingbird, Brazilian Ruby, Violet-capped Woodnymph, Band-tailed Antwren, White-bibbed and Ferruginous Antbirds, White-throated Woodcreeper, Pale-browed Treehunter, Gray-hooded Attila, Sharpbill, Eared Pygmy-tyrant, Striated Softtail, Pin-tailed and Blue Manakins, Rufous-headed Tanager, and Yellow-legged and White-throated Thrush. We also saw an as-yet-undescribed Helibletos treeehunter that Ciro said had previously only been seen by two other non-Brazilian birders – we’ll be waiting for that one to be added to the Clements list! Amazingly enough, we saw most of these birds on Day 17, because rain interrupted our birding at 7AM on Day 18. We were also entertained by a Tayra, a ferret-like mammal that ran all around the lodge. Days 16 and 17, overnight at Serra Bonita II.   

Day 18, Mar 1, Sunday. After early birding and breakfast, we made the three hour drive to Ilheus. Here we said good-bye to Ciro and met our guide for the remainder of the trip, Ricardo Parrini. Ricardo is based in Rio and proved equally adept as Ciro in locating the specialty and endemic species. After a quick lunch we made the six hours’ drive south to Porto Seguro. This is a popular beach-side resort town, with many hotels and restaurants. Just before reaching Porto Seguro we made a quick stop at the birding site we would use the following day, called Estação Veracel. Nothing exciting seen but we did locate some flowering and fruiting plants we would check out the following day. Overnight at Locadora Liz.

Day 19, Mar 2, Monday. 4:45AM departure for Estação Veracel, arriving a bit before dawn. We saw a flock of Rusty-margined Guan on the way in – they are common here. We stayed most of the morning walking several kilometers on the sandy roads until it became quite warm at 11AM. Among birds seen were Golden-tailed Parrotlet, Red-browed Parrot, Hook-billed Hermit, Bahia Antwren, Racket-tailed Coquette, and Rufous-throated and White-chinned Sapphires. We returned at about 4PM but did not see anything new except many Pauraque on the road at dusk. Overnight at Locadora Liz. 

Day 20, Mar 3, Tuesday. 4:45AM departure back to Estação Veracel. Another morning of walking, with only Ringed Woodpecker new until about 10AM. Finally, after diligently looking at every tall tree, Ricardo spotted a female Banded Cotinga which stayed in place as we approached closely. About 30 minutes later he found a beautiful male White-winged Cotinga, the last of our target birds here. After lunch we began the long drive to Boa Nova. This turned out to be longer than expected, seven and a half hours, so we arrived after dark. Overnight at Pousada Solar in Boa Nova.

Day 21, Mar 4, Wednesday. 5AM start to a forest about 30 minutes from Boa Nova. A short walk along a dirt road produced Golden-chevroned and Gilt-edged Tanagers, Bahia Spinetail, Rio de Janeiro Antbird, and Blue-winged Macaw. A longer walk along a forest path produced excellent views of a Black-billed Scythebill probing with its long, thin bill; Uniform Finch, Black-capped Foliage-gleaner, and the tail-wagging Oustalet’s Tyrannulet. We stopped birding at about 10:30AM as it was getting warm, and returned to Boa Nova for a delicious empanada-like pastry for lunch. We went back out at 3PM, to a small patch of caatinga surrounded by fields. Here we found our targets, Slender Antbird and Narrow-billed Antwren, both showing remarkably well. Shortly before dusk we went to a site Ricardo knew and were able to obtain excellent views of Pygmy Nightjar, even though it was so well-camouflaged it was difficult to see it even when we were a few feet away.  


Pygmy Nightjar, nearly impossible to see           A bit easier to see, after moving  

Supper arrangements are a bit tricky in Boa Nova as there are no restaurants open. We ate in a small home in Boa Nova where a woman prepared nice local food; this was arranged by Ricardo. Overnight at Pousada Solar in Boa Nova.

Day 22, Mar 5, Thursday. We returned to the forest at Boa Nova, walking the forest trail quite a bit further than the previous day. We saw most of the birds seen previously, but also picked up White-collared Foliage-gleaner, Striated and Plain Xenops, Rufous-headed Tanager, Greenish Schiffornis, Ochre-breasted Foliage-gleaner, and Fork-tailed Tody-tyrant. A highlight was that we located a pair of highly ventriloquial Black-headed Berryeaters. On our way into and back from the forest we had been watching tops of trees, and Ricardo often played tapes, trying to lure in a Buff-throated Purpletuft. Almost as we reached the end of the area two came in and ended up perched atop a tree only about 50 feet from us, and due to the terrain they were at eye level despite being atop a tree!  After returning to town for lunch and a break during the mid-day heat, at mid-afternoon we walked the road. Our quest was a bird we had heard often but not sighted. Eventually, we had our hoped-for views of Tufted Antbird. Overnight at Pousada Solar in Boa Nova.

This evening we had a decision to make. Our original plan was to head west towards Januaria, where we would try for a few regional endemics such as Bahia Nightjar before going south to Belo Horizonte for our flight to Sao Paulo and onwards home. However, due to our successes in finding the endemic birds so far in the trip, we were now a full day ahead of schedule. Ricardo suggested we head south to two sites close to Belo Horizonte. This meant we would miss the birds found near Januaria but allow us to see many others in southern Minas Gerais state. It would also put us closer to Belo Horizonte, so we would not have to worry about last-minute problems as we were heading to our departure flight. The only catch was that this would be a long drive. Ricardo estimated 10 hours. We decided to head south. 

Day 23, Mar 6, Friday. We left Boa Nova at 5:30AM and drove and drove south. By our lunch break it was evident the trip would be longer than expected. By 4PM it was evident we would not make it to our planned destination of Caraça, and even worse there was rain was coming in. To make a very long story short, after fourteen hours and 900 kilometers, the last two hours in the rain and dark, we pulled into the town of Santa Barbara, where we stayed overnight. I doubt Ricardo will ever make this suggestion again!    

           Monastery at Caraça           Burnished-buff Tanager     Glittering-bellied Emerald and Yellow-bellied Elaenia 

Day 24, Mar 7, Saturday.  We left Santa Barbara at 6AM and drove to Caraça. This is a reserve surrounding a monastery set high in the hills. It is still the home to a few monks, but most of the former monastery has been converted into very nice hotel rooms. It hosts religious retreats and has a beautiful church where religious services are held. From our perspective, it was a good place to stay because it has several trails that go through forests and grasslands and which held quite a few birds we had not seen farther north.

On the road into Caraça, we saw Streamer-tailed Tyrant, Spix’s Spinetail and Dusky-legged Guan. Intermittent rain shortened our birding time, but even so the trails around the monastery produced Rufous-crowned Greenlet, White-vented Violetear, Hangnest Tody-tyrant, White-bellied Warbler, Ruby-crowned Tanager, Large-tailed Antshrike, Rufous-capped Spinetail, Shear-tailed Gray-tyrant, Gray-capped Tyrannulet, White-eyed Foliage-gleaner, and an entertaining Masked Titi Monkey on a telephone wire. Overnight at Sanctuário do Caraça.   

Day 25, Mar 8, Sunday. We started out at 5AM and saw several Slaty-breasted Wood-rails along the road. This was a Sunday, and a lot of people were streaming into the church for services by 8AM so we moved into the forest trails where we saw Olivaceous Elaenia, Cinnamon-vented Piha, Brassy-breasted Tanager, Red-breasted Toucan, Rough-legged Tyrannulet, Crested Oropendola, Plumbeous Pigeon, Red-rumped Cacique, Boat-billed Flycatcher, Magpie Tanager, Ochre-rumped Antbird, White-barred Piculet, and a Red-ruffed Fruitcrow flying through the forest – good enough for a positive ID but a better view would have been desired. 


          Dusky-legged Guan             Masked Titi Monkey         Streamer-tailed Tyrant

After lunch, we made the five-hour drive around Belo Horizonte to a small but luxurious hotel near Cipó National Park. A quick excursion before supper produced Whistling Heron, Campo Flicker, Gray-headed Tanager (in a tree filled with other tanagers as well) and a surprise Saffron-billed Sparrow – which, according to Ricardo, has not been recorded anywhere previously in southern Minas Gerais state. Overnight at Pousada Monjolos. 

Day 26, Mar 9, Monday. A 5AM start to Cipó National Park. It is at about kilometer 110 of the main road, but there are few markers and no indication at all that you are in a national park. We went to an area with some cliffs and scampered carefully up slippery rocks to the flat area on the top. Almost immediately we saw several male Hyacinth Visorbearers. However, while searching the rocky scrubland over the next two hours, we saw little else until Marlene heard a faint call – Cipó Canestero! We soon had excellent views of this energetic, tail-cocking bird hopping about stones and shrubs. Faced with going back down the steep and slippery slope, we opted to take the long way around back to the car. Unfortunately, the topography was not with us and by the time we found an alternate route we were several miles from the car. A friendly farmer with not-so-friendly dogs allowed us to use his property to get back to the road. On the long, uphill return walk to the car we were rewarded with views of Checkered Woodpecker, Yellow-rumped Marshbird, White-rumped Tanager, Horned Sungem, and Campo Suiriri. A nice surprise at lunch was a Toco Toucan in a tree on the hotel grounds. A return visit after lunch to Cipó National Park, on a dirt road about 1.5 kilometers past Chapeu do Sol lodge, gave us Crested Black-tyrant, White Woodpecker, Firewood-gatherer, White-eared Puffbird, female Yellow-billed Blue Finch, Yellow-browed Tyrant, Cinereous Warbling-finch, Hepatic Tanager, Peach-fronted Parakeet, plus other cerrado birds such as Cinnamon Tanager. We also had a nice view of a Ferruginous Pygmy-owl, whose call we had been hearing (and imitating) for several days. Overnight at Pousada Monjolos.   

Day 27, Mar 10, Tuesday. We had a few hours before we had to leave for the Belo Horizonte airport, so we returned to the dirt road we had visited the previous afternoon. It was surprisingly quiet, but we did get a flight view of a male Yellow-billed Blue Finch. We had one final target bird, and Ricardo was checking every suitable piece of habitat. At the last possible spot, near our hotel and on a main road, we made one last and desperate try, and – lo and behold - out popped a male Helmeted Manakin. A wonderful way to end our trip and a nice complement to the Araripe Manakin seen at the start.  We had a two hour drive to the airport, and then off to Sao Paulo and then home. 

Birding Sites (in order visited)

Note: We have made suggestions as to which sites might and might not be accessible to an independent birder (* means possibly accessible). This assumes the person speaks no Portuguese. Some who can speak the language would find more, but not all, of the sites accessible. The info below is from our observations, but much more detail about some sites is at this website:

* The general area of Serra de Baturité is about three hours, or 180 km, south of Fortaleza. We stayed in a lodge / hotel called Alto da Serra. No one spoke English there so it would be tricky to make arrangements. The grounds of the hotel were very birdy in the early morning. The other hotel in the area, only 10 minutes from Alto da Serra, is the Remanso Hotel. It is a standard hotel and I expect someone there would be able to speak some English. This hotel also has an excellent trail. There is a contact number in Fortaleza: 85-3231-7988. This area is on a plateau, which has isolated it from the  surrounding caatinga, therefore it is rich in endemics and probable splits.

Icapui is west of Aracati, via BR 304 on the coast, and off the typical birding route. We went there to see Little Wood-rail, but mostly because the normal itinerary was complicated by Carnaval. It is quite a bit out of the way, and I think it would be difficult to get there and do much birding without local assistance. We stayed at the Oh!Linda resort, but no contact info available and definitely no English-speakers.  

* The Chapada de Araripe is only 25 km from the major city of Crato. It should not be too difficult to get to Crato, but the city itself is a maze and it was tricky to get from our hotel to the chapada and also to the manakin sites. However, with perseverance and some good local directions (perhaps a local guide) this is another place that could be navigated by the independent birder. A real attraction is that the Araripe Manakin is easy to find at the Ajara water park.  We stayed at the Encosta de Serra Hotel, Crato, CE, tel: 88-3523-6515. This is a very nice hotel, with dining facilities.

Tamandaré is very complicated to reach, and once there the logistics to reach any of the birding sites would be a challenge. We cannot offer much help, because even Ciro had to use his GPS to make sure we took the right roads through the cane fields. We also got lost just trying to find the city itself. We stayed at Pousada Maracul, Tamandaré, which was basic but clean. Excellent food nearby at O Pescadore restaurant.

The description of the general area known as Murici is not quite accurate. The two key sites are in fact about two hours from the town of Murici, and the main hotel is in Uniao de Palmares. Jaqueira – Frei Private Reserve is north and the Murici Ecological Station is east. Both require finding a local 4WD with driver, and then arranging local guides at each site. As noted in the report, access to the sites may be impossible in wet weather. Many of the birds at each site are very rare, so even if you get there you would need to know exactly where to look to find the birds. We suggest these sites are also beyond the range of the independent birder. We stayed at the Quilombo Park Hotel, a large resort-type hotel with a nice restaurant on the grounds.

* Canudos is the Lear’s Macaw site, and is about two hours west of Jeremoaba via poor dirt road in an area called “Raso de Catarine”. The macaw is well-known – murals of it adorn the walls of the town – and it should be possible to secure local help to get to the general area from Jeremoaba. Canudos / Jeremoaba are in fact due south of Crato (Chapada Araripe) so it should be possible to go there directly from Crato. However, we did not do it so we cannot be certain. We stayed at the Hotel Senhor Do Bomfim, Jeremoaba, BA, tel: 75-3203-2134. The women who run the place make great food, and lots of it.  

The birding area near Estancia is east of town, in a forested area on a road heading towards the coast. Some local help would be required to get on the right road. We stayed at the Magnus Hotel, Estancia, tel 15- 2104-8586.

 * The town of Lençois is a popular tourist area as it is high on the Chapada Diamantina (therefore, cool) and not far from the major city of Salvador. Therefore it could be a side trip if you happened to be in Salvador. The manager of our hotel spoke excellent English and could point you to the right places for the local birds. The town of Palmieras is an hour west of Lençois. In Lençois we stayed at the Casa da Geléia (house of jellies, and they make and sell a wide range of them)., tel 75-3334-1151. Mucuje is south and not far from Lençois but there is not a direct road so it takes three hours. Here we stayed at the very nice Pousada Mucuje (no contact info available).

The “Michelin site” , also known as Fazenda Michelin, is a few miles south of Itubera, and is an active rubber plantation. The company has set aside some of the lowland Atlantic forest, which is one of the last known sites of the Bahia Tapaculo. The company has built very nice lodges right inside the plantation for use of visiting company staff, and these are available to visitors. There are two complications. The first is that we have no idea how to arrange access. The second is that the place is huge, with over 200 km of roads inside the plantation, so getting lost is a real possibility and therefore a local guide would be required (and we have no idea how to arrange that either).      

* Serra Bonita II is a highland research center which has lodges available. The road requires a 4WD, and the manager, Victor Becker, provides transportation from the nearby town of Camacan. (Serra Bonita I is the name of his home and site close to town). Meals are included in the price, which we thought was expensive at 450 reais per night – this was the most expensive stop for us by far. But the birds – and there are many - are at your doorstep. Serra Bonita II, Camacan, Bam,

* Estação Veracel is at kilometer 37 on BR 367, west of Porto Seguro. Porto Seguro is a main resort town, with many hotel options, and is well-posted from the main road. It is about a five-hour drive from Ilheus. It is a realistic stop for the independent birder because the town is easy to find, it has a large US-chain hotel (the Marriott Costa Do Sauipe Rst Porto Seguro), which probably has English-speaking staff, and the single birding site is easy to bird from the main sandy road. We stayed at the Locadora Liz, which is probably a typical local establishment, inexpensive and clean.

Boa Nova is a great birding location, because there is both forest and caatinga within an hour of town. However, it must be a very tricky place for independent travel. We stayed at the Pousada Solar in Boa Nova, tel: 77-9995-1945. I believe this is the only hotel in town, and they definitely do not speak English. Although there are a few places open for lunch, there is no restaurant for supper so our guide made arrangements for our meals at a local woman’s home. As you might imagine, we have no idea how to do this. Great birds, though.

* The monastery at Caraça is south of Montovade, about an hour south from Santa Barbara. It is a well-known destination, and only about two hours’ drive east from the main city of Belo Horizonte. Therefore, it should be possible to go there and do some great birding on the grounds, along the trails, and along the access road. Definitely recommended, but advance reservations are suggested because it is a religious retreat and could easily be filled with church groups. Buffet-style meals (delicious) are included. Sanctuário do Caraça,

* Cipó National Park is north of Lagoa Santa, but very poorly marked. The dirt track we walked is about 5 km beyond Chapeu do Sol, at about km 110 but there are few km markers. It is close to Belo Horizonte airport, and a popular resort with many nice hotels and lodges. Our suggestion is to stay at the Pousada Monjolos, a top-quality lodge. Although they do not speak English, they are familiar with birders and could provide directions. Pousada Monjolos, km 25 Rodovia MG10, Serra do Cipó,; We highly recommend the hotel, and the proximity to the airport makes it easy to reach. 

Birds Seen

Unless noted otherwise, both male and females of sexually dimorphic species were seen. Refer to the Birding Sites section for details of locations. “Common” means the bird was seen several times in suitable habitat. Birds listed as Critical, Endangered, Vulnerable and Near-threatened are listed in Birdlife International’s “Threatened Birds of the World”, often referred to as the Red Book. Subspecies (ssp) are given when known and/or when they may be future possible splits.

Tataupa Tinamou (Crypturellus tataupa) – one bird crossing the trail at Chapada Araripe.

White-bellied Nothura (Nothura boraquira) – two birds along the road near Icapui.

Least Grebe (Tachybaptus dominicus) – common.

Pied-billed Grebe (Podilymbus podiceps) – common.

White-faced Whistling-Duck (Dendrocygna viduata) – common.

Muscovy Duck (Cairina moschata) – around Icapui.

Brazilian Teal (Amazonetta brasiliensis) – a few birds at various locations.

Whistling Heron (Syrigma sibilatrix) – two in a field near Cipó.

Little Blue Heron (Egretta caerulea) – common.

Snowy Egret (Egretta thula) – common.

Great Egret (Ardea alba) – common.

Cattle Egret (Bubulcus ibis) – common.

Striated Heron (Butorides striatus) – a few near Icapui.

Rufescent Tiger-Heron (Tigrisoma lineatum) – one at Murici.

Pinnated Bittern (Botaurus pinnatus) – one at Murici.

Black Vulture (Coragyps atratus) – common.

Turkey Vulture (Cathartes aura) – common.

Lesser Yellow-headed Vulture (Cathartes burrovianus) – a few.

King Vulture (Sarcoramphus papa) – one at Porto Seguro.

White-collared Kite (Leptodon forbesi) – Critical – one seen at a distance, but clearly, near Tamandaré.

Hook-billed Kite (Chondrohierax uncinatus) – near Tamandaré.

White-tailed Kite (Elanus leucurus) – near Porto Seguro.

Snail Kite (Rostrhamus sociabilis) – several througout the trip.

Mantled Hawk (Leucopternis polionota) Near-threatened – one seen well, perched at a distance at Serra Bonita II. No idea how Marlene first saw it.

Savanna Hawk (Buteogallus meridionalis) – a few.

Harris's Hawk (Parabuteo unicinctus) – one near Serra Bonita II.

Gray Hawk (Asturina nitida) – near Serra Bonita II.

Roadside Hawk (Buteo magnirostris) – common.

White-tailed Hawk (Buteo albicaudatus) – one at Michelin.

Zone-tailed Hawk (Buteo albonotatus) – several near Tamandaré mixed in with vultures.

Black Hawk-Eagle (Spizaetus tyrannus) – nice flight views near Tamandaré.

Southern Caracara (Caracara plancus) - common.

Yellow-headed Caracara (Milvago chimachima) – common.

Laughing Falcon (Herpetotheres cachinnans) – heard several, saw one.

American Kestrel (Falco sparverius) – common.

Aplomado Falcon (Falco femoralis) – several along the trip.

Bat Falcon (Falco rufigularis) – one near Porto Seguro.

Peregrine Falcon (Falco peregrinus) – one at Michelin.

Speckled Chachalaca (Ortalis guttata) – a large flock of ssp araucuan near Mucuje.

Rusty-margined Guan (Penelope superciliaris) – common at Estação Veracel.

Dusky-legged Guan (Penelope obscura) – common at Caraça.

Spot-winged Wood-Quail (Odontophorus capueira) – two birds of ssp plumbeicollis eventually gave excellent views hopping around us at Remanso Hotel.

Rufous-sided Crake (Laterallus melanophaius) – eventually, near Alto da Serra.

Clapper Rail (Rallus longirostris) – several at Icapui.

Little Wood-Rail (Aramides mangle) – one skulking among mangroves at Icapui.

Slaty-breasted Wood-Rail (Aramides saracura) – several along the road at Caraça.

Ash-throated Crake (Porzana albicollis) – near Tamandaré.

Blackish Rail (Pardirallus nigricans) – near Murici.

Common Moorhen (Gallinula chloropus) – common.

Limpkin (Aramus guarauna) – a few near Tamandaré.

Red-legged Seriema (Cariama cristata) – several calling birds seen near Canudos.

Wattled Jacana (Jacana jacana) – common.

Whimbrel (Numenius phaeopus) – several at Icapui.

Greater Yellowlegs (Tringa melanoleuca) – several at Icapui.

Spotted Sandpiper (Actitis macularia) – several at Icapui.

Ruddy Turnstone (Arenaria interpres) – several at Icapui.

Semipalmated Sandpiper (Calidris pusilla) – several at Icapui.

Black-necked Stilt (Himantopus mexicanus) – several early in the trip.

Semipalmated Plover (Charadrius semipalmatus) – several at Icapui.

Southern Lapwing (Vanellus chilensis) – common near Canudos.

Rock Pigeon (Columba livia) – common.

Scaled Pigeon (Patagioenas speciosa) – at Serra Bonita II.

Picazuro Pigeon (Patagioenas picazuro) – near Canudos and Porto Seguro.

Pale-vented Pigeon (Patagioenas cayennensis) – near Boa Nova.

Plumbeous Pigeon (Patagioenas plumbea) – eye level views at Caraça.

Eared Dove (Zenaida auriculata) – at Serra Bonita II. 

Scaled Dove (Columbina squammata) – common in caatinga.

Common Ground-Dove (Columbina passerina) – common.

Ruddy Ground-Dove (Columbina talpacoti) – common.

Picui Ground-Dove (Columbina picui) – several at Oh! Linda hotel near Icapui.

Blue Ground-Dove (Claravis pretiosa) – a male seen at Boa Nova, heard often.

White-tipped Dove (Leptotila verreauxi) – common.

Ruddy Quail-Dove (Geotrygon montana) – one brief view at Boa Nova.

Violaceous Quail-Dove (Geotrygon violacea) – one incredibly-well camouflaged bird on a nest at Michelin.

Lear's Macaw (Anodorhynchus leari) – Critical – 14 in perfect low flight views near Canudos.

Blue-winged Macaw (Ara maracana) Vulnerable – several flyovers at Boa Nova.

Red-shouldered Macaw (Ara nobilis) – several good flight views plus a perched group near Tamandaré.

White-eyed Parakeet (Aratinga leucophthalmus) – several flights views at various locations but nesting birds at Caraça.

Jandaya Parakeet (Aratinga jandaya) – a flock near Murici.

Golden-capped Parakeet (Aratinga auricapilla) – Vulnerable – ssp auricapillus, several perched near Estancia.

Peach-fronted Parakeet (Aratinga aurea) – several, seen best at Cipó NP

Caatinga (Cactus) Parakeet (Aratinga cactorum) - common

Blue-throated Parakeet (Pyrrhura cruentata) – nice perched views at Estação Veracel.

Gray-breasted Parakeet (Pyrrhura griseipectus) Critical – a flock at a site nearAlto da Serra.

Blue-winged Parrotlet (Forpus xanthopterygius) – at many locations.

Plain Parakeet (Brotogeris tirica) – several perched at Jaqueira.

Yellow-chevroned Parakeet (Brotogeris chiriri) – several large flocks at Alto da Serra

Golden-tailed Parrotlet (Touit surda) – Endangered – several good flyovers at Estação Veracel.

Blue-headed Parrot (Pionus menstruus) – near Murici.

Red-browed Parrot (Amazona rhodocorytha) – Endangered – nice perched views at Estação Veracel.

Orange-winged Parrot (Amazona amazonica) – several flyovers near Estancia.

Pearly-breasted Cuckoo (Coccyzus euleri) – one at Alto da Serra.

Dark-billed Cuckoo (Coccyzus melanoryphus) – near Estancia.

Squirrel Cuckoo (Piaya cayana) – at several locations.

Smooth-billed Ani (Crotophaga ani) – common.

Guira Cuckoo (Guira guira) – common.

Ferruginous Pygmy-Owl (Glaucidium brasilianum) - at Cipó.

Burrowing Owl (Athene cunicularia) – near Murici.

Short-tailed Nighthawk (Lurocalis semitorquatus) – near Murici.

Least Nighthawk (Chordeiles pusillus) – several flying low while we waited for macaws at Canudos.

Lesser Nighthawk (Chordeiles acutipennis) – near Porto Seguro.

Pauraque (Nyctidromus albicollis) – common at at Estação Veracel near Porto Seguro.

Pygmy Nightjar (Caprimulgus hirundinaceus) – fantastic views of a single bird on the ground near Boa Nova.

Biscutate Swift (Strepnoprocne biscutatus) – many near Lençois.

Sick’s Swift (Chaetura meridionalis) – at Alto da Serra.

Fork-tailed Palm-swift (Tachornis squamata) - common.

Rufous-breasted Hermit (Glaucis hirsuta) – common in north.

Scale-throated Hermit (Phaethornis eurynome) – at Boa Nova.

Planalto Hermit (Phaethornis pretrei) – common around Chapada Diamantina.

Broad-tipped Hermit (Phaethornis gounellei) – at Michelin.

Reddish Hermit (Phaethornis ruber) – common.

Hook-billed Hermit (Ramphodon dohrnii) – Endangered – two seen at Estação Veracel.

Swallow-tailed Hummingbird (Eupetomena macroura) – common.

Brown Violet-ear (Colibri delphinae) – one male in Lençois from the disjunct NE Brazil population.

White-vented Violet-ear (Colibri serrirostris) - at Caraça.

Black-throated Mango (Anthracothorax nigricollis) – common in north.

Ruby-topaz Hummingbird (Chrysolampis mosquitus) – near Mucuje.

Racket-tailed Coquette (Discosura longicauda) – a female at Porto Seguro.

Blue-chinned Sapphire (Chlorestes notatus) – first seen at Jaqueira.

Glittering-bellied Emerald (Chlorostilbon aureoventris) – common.

Fork-tailed Woodnymph (Thalurania furcata) – several seen in north.

Long-tailed Woodnymph (Thalurania watertonii) – at Jaqueira.

Violet-capped Woodnymph (Thalurania glaucopis) – several at Serra Bonita II.

Rufous-throated Sapphire (Hylocharis sapphirina) – at Estação Veracel near Porto Seguro.

White-chinned Sapphire (Hylocharis cyanus) - at Estação Veracel near Porto Seguro.

White-tailed Goldenthroat (Polytmus guainumbi) – one at our hotel near Estacia.

Versicolored Emerald (Amazilia versicolor) – common.

Glittering-throated Emerald (Amazilia fimbriata) – several sightings.

Plain-bellied Emerald (Amazilia leucogaster) – nice views of ssp bahiae at Tamandaré.

Sombre Hummingbird (Aphantochroa cirrochloris) – common at Serra Bonita II.

Brazilian Ruby (Clytolaema rubricauda) - at Serra Bonita II.

Hooded Visorbearer (Augastes lumachellus) Near-threatened – at Morro do Pai Ignacio near Lençois.

Hyacinth Visorbearer (Augastes scutatus) Near-threatened – at Cipó NP.

Black-eared Fairy (Heliothryx aurita) – common in north.

Horned Sungem (Heliactin cornuta) – several males of this stunning species near Mucuje and also a single male at Cipó NP.

White-tailed Trogon (Trogon viridis) – at Boa Nova.

Surucua Trogon (Trogon surrucura) – several near Lençois.

Blue-crowned Trogon (Trogon curucui) – several sightings.

Ringed Kingfisher (Ceryle torquata) – near Tamandaré.

Amazon Kingfisher (Chloroceryle amazona) – a few in north.

Green Kingfisher (Chloroceryle americana) - near Tamandaré.

Rufous-tailed Jacamar (Galbula ruficauda) – a few sightings.

White-eared Puffbird (Nystalus chacuru) – at Cipó NP, not as common as expected.

Spot-backed Puffbird (Nystalus maculatus) – at Alto de Serra.

Crescent-chested Puffbird (Malacoptila striata) – three at Michelin.

Rusty-breasted Nunlet (Nonnula rubecula) – two near Lençois.

Swallow-wing (Chelidoptera tenebrosa) – common.

Lettered Aracari (Pteroglossus inscriptus) – several sightings.

Black-necked Aracari (Pteroglossus aracari) – near Murici.

Spot-billed Toucanet (Selenidera maculirostris) – at Serra Bonita II.

Gould's Toucanet (Selenidera gouldii) - at Remanso Hotel.

Red-breasted Toucan (Ramphastos dicolorus) - at Caraça.

Toco Toucan (Ramphastos toco) – one in Cipó.

Channel-billed Toucan (Ramphastos vitellinus) – common.

Golden-spangled Piculet (Picumnus exilis) – at Jaqueira.

Spotted Piculet (Picumnus pygmaeus) – nice views of several at Chapada Araripe.

White-barred Piculet (Picumnus cirratus) - at Caraça.

White-wedged Piculet (Picumnus albosquamatus) – at Serra Bonita II.

Tawny Piculet (Picumnus fulvescens) Vulnerable – at Chapada Araripe.

Ochraceous Piculet (Picumnus limae) Vulnerable – at Remanso Hotel.

White Woodpecker (Melanerpes candidus) - at Cipó.

Checkered Woodpecker (Picoides mixtus) - at Cipó.

Little Woodpecker (Veniliornis passerinus) – at Alto do Serra.

Red-stained Woodpecker (Veniliornis affinis) - at Estação Veracel near Porto Seguro.

Green-barred Woodpecker (Colaptes melanochloros) – several early.

Campo Flicker (Colaptes campestris) – common at Cipó.

Blond-crested Woodpecker (Celeus flavescens) – at Remanso Hotel.

Ringed Woodpecker (Celeus torquatus) - at Estação Veracel near Porto Seguro.

Plain-winged (Thrush-like) Woodcreeper ( Dendrocincia turdina) – at Boa Nova.  

Olivaceous Woodcreeper (Sittasomus griseicapillus) – views of ssp reiseri near Tamandaré.

White-throated Woodcreeper (Xiphocolaptes albicollis) - at Serra Bonita II.

Planalto Woodcreeper (Dendrocolaptes platyrostris) – ssp intermedius at Alto da Serra.

Straight-billed Woodcreeper (Dendroplex picus) – at Remanso Hotel.

Buff-throated Woodcreeper (Xiphorhynchus guttatus) – near Murici.

Narrow-billed Woodcreeper (Lepidocolaptes anustirostris) – ssp bahiae near Canudos.

Scaled Woodcreeper (Lepidocolaptes squamatus) – at Boa Nova.

Lesser Woodcreeper (Lepidocolaptes fuscus) – ssp atranticus at Alto da Serra and ssp tenuirostris at Serra Bonita II.

Red-billed Scythebill (Campylorhamphus trochilirostris) – ssp major at Mucuje.

Black-billed Scythebill (Campylorhamphus falcularius) – great views at Boa Nova.

Wing-banded Hornero (Furnarius figulus) – common.

Pale-legged Hornero (Furnarius leucopus) – common.

Rufous Hornero (Furnarius rufus) – common.

Rufous-capped Spinetail (Synallaxis ruficapilla) - at Caraça.

Bahia Spinetail (Synallaxis whitneyi) Endangered – at Boa Nova.

Sooty-fronted Spinetail (Synallaxis frontalis) – at Alto da Serra.

Pale-breasted Spinetail (Synallaxis albescens) – at Mucuje.

Spix's Spinetail (Synallaxis spixi) – several in fields near Caraça.

Cinereous-breasted Spinetail (Synallaxis hypospodia) – one at Michelin.

Pinto's Spinetail (Synallaxis infuscata) – two seen well near Tamandaré

Red-shouldered Spinetail (Synallaxis hellmayri) Near-threatened – several seen (surprisingly) well at Chapada Araripe.

Ochre-cheeked Spinetail (Synallaxis scutata) – at Chapada Araripe.

Pallid Spinetail (Cranioleuca pallida) – at Boa Nova.

Gray-headed Spinetail (Cranioleuca semicinerea) – at Alto da Serra.

Yellow-chinned Spinetail (Certhiaxis cinnamomea) - common

Pink-legged Graveteiro (Acrobatornis fonsecai) Vulnerable – two at Serra Bonita II

Cipó Canastero (Asthenes luizae) Endangered – one at Cipó NP

Striated Softtail (Thripophaga macroura) Endangered – one at Serra Bonita

Rufous-fronted (Common) Thornbird (Phacellodomus rufifrons) – at Cipó.

Firewood-gatherer (Anumbius annumbi) – one calling atop a bush at Cipó NP

Caatinga Cacholote (Pseudoseisura cristata) – several birds perched alongside the road to Canudos.

Ochre-breasted Foliage-gleaner (Philydor lichtensteini) – at Boa Nova.

Buff-fronted Foliage-gleaner (Philydor rufus) – at Serra Bonita II.

Black-capped Foliage-gleaner (Philydor atricapillus) – at Boa Nova.

Alagoas Foliage-gleaner (Philydor novaesi) Critical – one seen well at Jaqueira.

White-collared Foliage-gleaner (Anabazenops fuscus) – great views at Boa Nova.

Pale-browed Treehunter (Cichlocolaptes leucophrus) - at Serra Bonita II.

Pernambuco Foliage-gleaner (Automolus lammi) – near Estancia.

Buff-throated Foliage-gleaner (Automolus ochrolaemus) - at Caraça.

White-eyed Foliage-gleaner (Automolus leucophthalmus) - at Caraça.

Rufous-breasted Leaftosser (Sclerurus scansor) – two seen well at Remanso Hotel, ssp caerensis.

Plain Xenops (Xenops minutus) – at Boa Nova among other places.

Streaked Xenops (Xenops rutilans) – at Boa Nova.

Great Xenops (Megaxenops parnaguae) Near-threatened – several seen singing atop trees at Chapada Araripe.

Spot-backed Antshrike (Hypoedaleus guttatus) – aty Serra Bonita II.

Tufted Antshrike (Mackenziaena severa) – we eventually had great views of several birds showing off their crests at Boa Nova.

Large-tailed Antshrike (Mackenziaena leachii) - at Caraça.

Great Antshrike (Taraba major) –at Chapada Araripe.

Silvery-cheeked Antshrike (Sakesphorus cristatus) – at Chapada Araripe.

Caatinga Antshrike ( Thamnophilus capistratus) – at Oh!Linda Hotel, Icapui.

Planalto Slaty-Antshrike (Thamnophilus pelzelni) – firsdt at Chapada de Araripe but also at several other sites.

Sooretama Slaty-Antshrike (Thamnophilus ambiguus) – seen near Estancia as well as other locations.

Chestnut-backed Antshrike (Thamnophilus palliatus) – at Estação Veracel near Porto Seguro.

White-shouldered Antshrike (Thamnophilus aethiops) – ssp distans at Jaqueira.

Variable Antshrike (Thamnophilus caerulescens) – at Boa Nova; ssp caerensis, sometimes split as Ceara Variable Antshrike, at Remanso Hotel.

Rufous-winged Antshrike (Thamnophilus torquatus) – near Mucuje.

Spot-breasted Antvireo (Dysithamnus stictothorax) Near-threatened – at Serra Bonita II.

Plumbeous Antvireo (Dysithamnus plumbeus) Vulnerable – at Serra Bonita II.

Plain Antvireo (Dysithamnus mentalis) – multiple locations.

Cinereous Antshrike (Thamnomanes caesius) – at Boa Nova.

White-flanked Antwren (Myrmotherula axillaris) – ssp luctuosa, sometimes split as Silvery-flanked Antwren, at Jaqueira.

Band-tailed Antwren (Myrmotherula urosticta) Endangered - at Serra Bonita II and at Estação Veracel near Porto Seguro.

Stripe-backed Antbird (Myrmorchilus strigilatus) – tough to see but evenutally got a good view at Chapada Araripe.

Black-capped Antwren (Herpsilochmus atricapillus) – at Alto de Serra.

Caatinga Antwren (Herpsilochmus sellowi) Near-threatened – at Chapada Araripe.

Bahia Antwren (Herpsilochmus pileatus) – at Estação Veracel.

Pectoral Antwren (Herpsilochmus pectoralis) Vulnerable – two near Canudos.

Rufous-winged Antwren (Herpsilochmus rufimarginatus) – near Murici.

Narrow-billed Antwren (Formicivora iheringi) Vulnerable – great views of a singing male at Boa Nova.

White-fringed Antwren (Formicivora grisea) – near Estancia.

Black-bellied Antwren (Formicivora melanogaster) – ssp bahiae at Chapada Araripe.

Rusty-backed Antwren (Formicivora rufa) - near Mucuje.

Sincora Antwren (Formicivora grantsaui) – near Mucuje.

Ferruginous Antbird (Drymophila ferruginea) – at Serra Bonita II.

Ochre-rumped Antbird (Drymophila ochropyga) – Near-threatened - at Caraça.

Scaled Antbird (Drymophila squamata) – at Boa Nova.

Streak-capped Antwren (Terenura maculata) – at Michelin.

Orange-bellied Antwren (Terenura sicki) Endangered – good views high in the canopy at Jaqueira.

Rio de Janeiro Antbird (Cercomacra brasiliana) Near-threatened – at Boa Nova

Willis’s Antbird (Cercomacra laeta) – several seen well near Tamandaré

White-backed Fire-eye (Pyriglena leuconota) – near Murici and at Lençois.

White-shouldered Fire-eye (Pyriglena leucoptera) – near Lençois.

Fringe-backed Fire-eye (Pyriglena atra) Critical – near Estancia.

Slender Antbird (Rhopornis ardesiaca) Endangered – at Boa Nova.

Scalloped Antbird (Myrmeciza ruficauda) Endangered – it took a while to get good views of this skulker, ssp soror, but eventually we did, near Murici. Ssp ruficauda was easier to see at Serra Bonita II.

White-bibbed Antbird (Myrmeciza loricata) - at Serra Bonita II.

Short-tailed Antthrush (Chamaeza campanisona) – a single bird gave great views as it circled around us and eventually hopped across the trail at Remanso Hotel.

White-browed Antpitta (Hylopezus ochroleucus) Near-threatened – one bird put on a great show at Chapada Araripe.

Rufous Gnateater (Conopophaga lineata) – several birds of ssp caerae at Alto de Sraa and one of ssp lineata at Caraça.

Black-cheeked Gnateater (Conopophaga melanops) – ssp nigrifrons at Jaqueira.

Collared Crescent-chest (Melanopareia torquata) – excellent views of several birds near Mucuje.

Diamantina Tapaculo (Scytlopus indigoticus) – close-ups of two birds near Mucuje.

Bahia Tapaculo (Eleoscytalopus psychopompos) Critical – point-blank views of a single bird at Michelin

Sharpbill (Oxyruncus cristatus) – nice views at Serra Bonita II.

Cinereous Mourner (Laniocera hypopyrra) – at Palmieras near Lençois.

Black-headed Berryeater (Carpornis melanocephalus) Vulnerable – a pair at Boa Nova, difficult to locate despite their loud call.

Buff-throated Purpletuft (Iodopleura pipra) Endangered – a pair at Boa Nova.

Screaming Piha (Lipaugus vociferans) – excellent perched views of this bird at Estação Veracel near Porto Seguro.

Cinnamon-vented Piha (Lipaugus lanioides) Vulnerable – one at Caraça.

Banded Cotinga (Cotinga maculata) Endangered – sadly, only a female at Estação Veracel near Porto Seguro.

White-winged Cotinga (Xipholena atropurpurea) Endangered – a beautiful male at at Estação Veracel near Porto Seguro.

Red-ruffed Fruitcrow (Pyroderus scutatus) – flight views through trees and overhead at Caraça.

Band-tailed Manakin (Pipra fasciicauda) – at Remanso Hotel.

Red-headed Manakin (Pipra rubrocapilla) – near Tamandaré.

White-bearded Manakin (Manacus manacus) – seen at Tamandaré and Serra Bonita II, heard several other places.

Helmeted Manakin (Antilophia galeata) – a single male at Cipó

Araripe Manakin (Antilophia bokermanni) Critical – seen at two sites at Chapada Araripe, near Campo and at the Araja water park

Blue-backed Manakin (Chiroxiphia pareola) – seen several times at Boa Nova, often heard.

Swallow-tailed (Blue) Manakin (Chiroxiphia caudata) - at Serra Bonita II.

Pin-tailed Manakin (Ilicura militaris) - at Serra Bonita II.

(Eastern) Striped Manakin (Machaeropterus regulus) – at Serra Bonita II.

Pale-bellied Tyrant-Manakin (Neopelma pallescens) – common at Chapada Araripe.

Sepia-capped Flycatcher (Leptopogon amaurocephalus) – near Lençois.

Drab-breasted Bamboo-Tyrant (Hemitriccus diops) – common in southern part of trip.

White-bellied Tody-Tyrant (Hemitriccus griseipectus) – near Tamandaré.

Stripe-necked Tody-Tyrant (Hemitriccus striaticollis) – near Estacia.

Hangnest Tody-Tyrant (Hemitriccus nidipendulus) – at Caraça.

Pearly-vented Tody-Tyrant (Hemitriccus margaritaceiventer) – at Chapada Araripe.

Buff-breasted Tody-Tyrant (Hemitriccus mirandae) Vulnerable – at Remanso Hotel.

Fork-tailed Tody-Tyrant (Hemitriccus furcatus) Endangered – one seen well after a lot of work, at Boa Nova.

Ochre-faced Tody-Flycatcher (Todirostrum plumbeiceps) – at Boa Nova.

Smoky-fronted Tody-flycatcher (Todirostrum fumifrons) – one at Tamandaré.

Gray-headed (Yellow-lored) Tody-Flycatcher (Todirostrum poliocephalum) – at Serra Bonita II.

Common Tody-Flycatcher (Todirostrum cinereum) – common.

Planalto Tyrannulet (Phyllomyias fasciatus) – at Alto de Serra.

Rough-legged Tyrannulet (Phyllomyias burmeisteri) - at Caraça.

Gray-capped Tyrannulet (Phyllomyias griseocapilla ) Near-threatened - at Caraça.

Slender-footed Tyrannulet (Zimmerius gracilipes) - at Alto de Serra.

Southern Beardless-Tyrannulet (Camptostoma obsoletum) – at Remanso Hotel.

Mouse-colored Tyrannulet (Phaeomyias murina) – common.

Yellow Tyrannulet (Capsiempis flaveola) – common.

White-crested Tyrannulet (Serpophaga subcristata) – at Caraça.

Southern Scrub-Flycatcher (Sublegatus modestus) – near Murici.

Forest Elaenia (Myiopagis gaimardii) – near Tamandaré.

Gray Elaenia (Myiopagis caniceps) – common.

Greenish Elaenia (Myiopagis viridicata) – near Estancia.

Yellow-bellied Elaenia (Elaenia flavogaster) – common.

Large Elaenia (Elaenia spectabilis) – at Alto da Serra.

Plain-crested Elaenia (Elaenia cristata) – common.

Highland Elaenia (Elaenia obscura) - at Caraça.

Olivaceous Elaenia (Elaenia mesoleuca) - at Caraça.

White-lored Tyrannulet (Ornithion inerme) – at Jaqueira.

Lesser Wagtail-Tyrant (Stigmatura napensis) – near Jeremboroa.

Gray-backed Tachuri (Polystictus superciliaris) Near-threatened – several seen well near Mucuje.

Rufous-sided Pygmy-Tyrant (Euscarthmus rufomarginatus) – at Mucuje.

Oustalet's Tyrannulet (Phylloscartes oustaleti) Near-threatened – one seen well, wagging its tail at Boa Nova.

Alagoas Tyrannulet (Phylloscartes ceciliae) Critical – two seen well at Jaqueira.

Mottle-cheeked Tyrannulet (Phylloscartes ventralis) - at Caraça.

Bahia Tyrannulet (Phylloscartes beckeri) Endangered – one at Serra Bonia II

Eared Pygmy-Tyrant (Myiornis auricularis) – first of many at Serra Bonita II.

Olivaceous Flatbill (Rhynchocyclus olivaceus) – one at Michelin.

Yellow-olive Flycatcher (Tolmomyias sulphurescens) – common.

Gray-crowned Flycatcher (Tolmomyias poliocephalus) – at Serra Bonita II.

Yellow-breasted Flycatcher (Tolmomyias flaviventris) – at Alto da Serra.

White-throated Spadebill (Platyrinchus mystaceus) – one at Remanso Hotel putting on a show with its raised crest.

Bran-colored Flycatcher (Myiophobus fasciatus) – several sightings.

Whiskered Flycatcher (Myiobius barbatus) – near Estancia.

Black-tailed Flycatcher (Myiobius atricaudus) – seen several times, best at Cipó.

Cliff Flycatcher (Hirundinea ferruginea) – at Remanso Hotel.

Euler's Flycatcher (Lathrotriccus euleri) – first seen at Chapada Araripe but seen a few other places as well.

Tropical Pewee (Contopus cinereus) – a few sightings.

White Monjita (Xolmis irupero) – several along road to Canudos.

Velvety Black-Tyrant (Knipolegus nigerrimus) – at Morro do Pai Ignacio near Lençois.

Crested Black-Tyrant (Knipolegus lophotes) - at Cipó.

Masked Water-Tyrant (Fluvicola nengeta) – common.

White-headed Marsh-Tyrant (Arundinicola leucocephala) – common.

Shear-tailed Gray-Tyrant (Muscipipra vetula) - at Caraça.

Streamer-tailed Tyrant (Gubernetes yetapa) – on the access road to Caraça.

Yellow-browed Tyrant (Satrapa icterophrys) – one near Cipó.

Long-tailed Tyrant (Colonia colonus) - one at Boa Nova.

Cattle Tyrant (Machetornis rixosus) – common (but it took us a while to actually see one)

Gray-hooded Attila (Attila rufus) – at Serra Bonita II.

Ash-throated Casiornis (Casiornis fusca) – eventually found one near Canudos.

Grayish Mourner (Rhytipterna simplex) – at Murici.

Sirystes (Sirystes sibilator) – near Estancia.

Campo Suiriri (Suiriri affinis) – common in caatinga.

Swainson's Flycatcher (Myiarchus swainsoni) - at Caraça.

Short-crested Flycatcher (Myiarchus ferox) – common early on.

Brown-crested Flycatcher (Myiarchus tyrannulus) – at Estancia.

Tropical Kingbird (Tyrannus melancholicus) – common.

Fork-tailed Flycatcher (Tyrannus savana) – near Chapada de Araripe.

Variegated Flycatcher (Empidonomus varius) – common in north.

Boat-billed Flycatcher (Megarynchus pitangua) – several locations but best seen at Caraça.

Streaked Flycatcher (Myiodynastes maculatus) – common.

Social Flycatcher (Myiozetetes similis) – common.

Three-striped Flycatcher (Conopias trivirgatus) – one at Serra Bonita II. 

Piratic Flycatcher (Legatus leucophaius) – near Murici.

Great Kiskadee (Pitangus sulphuratus) - common

Thrush-like Schiffornis (Schiffornis turdinus) – one of ssp turdina at Michelin and one of ssp intermedia at Caraça.

Greenish Schiffornis (Schiffornis virescens) – several at Boa Nova.

Green-backed Becard (Pachyramphus viridis) – at Jaqueira.

Chestnut-crowned Becard (Pachyramphus castaneus) – near Lençois.

White-winged Becard (Pachyramphus polychopterus) – seen best at Chapada de Araripe.

Black-capped Becard (Pachyramphus marginatus) – at Serra Bonita II.

Crested Becard (Pachyramphus validus) – at Jaqueira.

Black-crowned Tityra (Tityra inquisitor) - at Estação Veracel near Porto Seguro.

White-naped Jay (Cyanocorax cyanopogon) – only one, en route to Icapui.

Rufous-browed Peppershrike (Cyclarhis gujanensis) - common

Red-eyed Vireo (Vireo olivaceus) – near Icapui.

Gray-eyed Greenlet (Hylophilus amaurocephalus) – at Chapada Araripe.

Lemon-chested Greenlet (Hylophilus thoracicus) – ssp griseiventris at Serra Bonita II, ssp thoracicus, sometimes split as Rio de Janeiro Greenlet, at Boa Nova.

Rufous-crowned Greenlet (Hylophilus poicilotis) – at Caraça.

Yellow-legged Thrush (Platycichla flavipes) - at Serra Bonita II.

Rufous-bellied Thrush (Turdus rufiventris) – at Alto de Serra.

Pale-breasted Thrush (Turdus leucomelas) – common.

White-necked Thrush (Turdus albicollis) - at Serra Bonita II.

Tropical Mockingbird (Mimus gilvus) – common.

Chalk-browed Mockingbird (Mimus saturninus) – common in north.

Black-capped Donacobius (Donacobius atricapillus) – seen in nearly every marshy area.

Moustached Wren (Thryothorus genibarbis) – common in north.

Long-billed Wren (Thryothorus longirostris) – several seen, many more heard at Chapada Araripe.

House Wren (Troglodytes aedon) – common.

Long-billed Gnatwren (Ramphocaenus melanurus) – common in south.

Tropical Gnatcatcher (Polioptila plumbea) – common.

White-winged Swallow (Tachycineta albiventer) – near Tamandaré.

Gray-breasted Martin (Progne chalybea) – common.

Blue-and-white Swallow (Notiochelidon cyanoleuca) – common in south.

Southern Rough-winged Swallow (Stelgidopteryx ruficollis) – common.

House Sparrow (Passer domesticus) – common.

Yellow-faced Siskin (Carduelis yarrellii) – Vulnerable – three birds seen well high in conifers near Baturité.

Tropical Parula (Parula pitiayumi) – at Lençois.

Masked Yellowthroat (Geothlypis aequinoctialis) – at Michelin.

Golden-crowned Warbler (Basileuterus culicivorus) – at Chapada de Araripe.

White-bellied Warbler (Basileuterus hypoleucus) - at Caraça.

Flavescent Warbler (Basileuterus flaveolus) – quite a few at Chapada Araripe but took a while to get a good view of these fast movers.

Riverbank (Neotropical River) Warbler (Phaeothlypis rivularis) – several birds giving a great display at Michelin.

Rufous-collared Sparrow (Zonotrichia capensis) – common.

Grassland Sparrow (Ammodramus humeralis) – at Mucuje.

Pectoral Sparrow (Arremon taciturnus)- this normally skulking bird was hopping around the grounds of Alto de Serra hotel.

Saffron-billed Sparrow (Arremon flavirostris) – one bird seen well near Cipó, well outside its documented range

Saõ Francisco Sparrow (Arremon franciscanus) Near-threatened – seen well at Palmieras near Lençois.

Red-cowled Cardinal (Paroaria dominicana) – common in north.

Bananaquit (Coereba flaveola) - common

Bicolored Conebill (Conirostrum bicolor) – several at Icapui

Cinnamon Tanager (Schistochlamys ruficapillus) - common

White-rumped Tanager (Cypsnagra hirundinacea) - at Cipó.

Magpie Tanager (Cissopis leveriana) - at Caraça.

Scarlet-throated Tanager (Compsothraupis loricata) – a flock at our hotel in Lençois.

Orange-headed Tanager (Thlypopsis sordida) - at Remanso Hotel.

Guira Tanager (Hemithraupis guira) – common.

Rufous-headed Tanager (Hemithraupis ruficapilla) - at Serra Bonita II and Boa Nova.

Hooded Tanager (Nimosia pileata) – near Estancia.

Yellow-backed Tanager (Hemithraupis flavicollis) – near Tamandaré.

Flame-crested Tanager (Tachyphonus cristatus) - near Tamandaré and at Murici.

Ruby-crowned Tanager (Tachyphonus coronatus) - at Caraça.

White-lined Tanager (Tachyphonus rufus) – common in north.

Black-goggled Tanager (Trichothraupis melanops) – at Caraça.

Red-crowned Ant-Tanager (Habia rubica) – near Estancia.

Hepatic Tanager (Piranga flava) - at Cipó.

Brazilian Tanager (Ramphocelus bresilius) – many seen around Tamandaré.

Sayaca Tanager (Thraupis sayaca) – common.

Azure-shouldered Tanager (Thraupis cyanoptera) Near-threatened – at Serra Bonita II.

Golden-chevroned Tanager (Thraupis ornata) – at Boa Nova.

Palm Tanager (Thraupis palmarum) - common

White-banded Tanager (Neothraupis fasciata) Near-threatened – at Palmieras near Lençois.

Purple-throated Euphonia (Euphonia chlorotica) – common in north.

Violaceous Euphonia (Euphonia violacea) – at Alto de Serra and Chapada de Araripe.

Orange-bellied Euphonia (Euphonia xanthogaster) – at Michelin.

Chestnut-bellied Euphonia (Euphonia pectoralis) – at Tamandaré.

Turquoise Tanager (Tangara mexicana) – ssp brasiliensis, sometimes split as White-bellied Tanager, at Caraça.

Gray-headed Tanager (Eucometis penicillata) - at Cipó.

Seven-colored Tanager (Tangara fastuosa) Endangered – near Tamandaré.

Green-headed Tanager (Tangara seledon) – at Serra Bonita II.

Red-necked Tanager (Tangara cyanocephala) – seen at multiple locations, race caerensis in the north and race corallina farther south.

Brassy-breasted Tanager (Tangara desmaresti) – several seen well at Caraça.

Gilt-edged Tanager (Tangara cyanoventris) – at Boa Nova.

Burnished-buff Tanager (Tangara cayana) – common in caatinga

Opal-rumped Tanager (Tangara velia) - near Tamandaré.

Blue Dacnis (Dacnis cayana) – common.

Red-legged Honeycreeper (Cyanerpes cyaneus) – at Murici.

Green Honeycreeper (Chlorophanes spiza) – at Michelin.

Swallow-Tanager (Tersina viridis) – at Michelin.

Pileated Finch (Coryphospingus pileatus) – common.

Uniform Finch (Haplospiza unicolor) – at Boa Nova and Caraça.

Cinereous Warbling-Finch (Poospiza cinerea) Vulnerable – Ricardo was surprised when we saw several birds at Cipó NP.

Stripe-tailed Yellow-Finch (Sicalis citrina) - several near Lençois.

Saffron Finch (Sicalis flaveola) – at Michelin.

Grassland Yellow-Finch (Sicalis luteola) – near Tamandaré.

Wedge-tailed Grass-Finch (Emberizoides herbicola) - near Tamandaré.

Pale-throated Serra-Finch (Embernagra longicauda) Near-threatened – several at Morro do Pai Ignacio near Lençois.

Blue-black Grassquit (Volatinia jacarina) – common, hopping up and down in display.

Plumbeous Seedeater (Sporophila plumbea) – near Mucuje.

Yellow-bellied Seedeater (Sporophila nigricollis) – common.

White-throated Seedeater (Sporophila albogularis) – at Oh! Linda hotel near Icapui

White-bellied Seedeater (Sporophila leucoptera) - near Tamandaré.

Capped Seedeater (Sporophila bouvreuil) – one near Mucuje.

Sooty Grassquit (Tiaris fuliginosa) – at Remanso Hotel.

Yellow-green Grosbeak (Caryothraustes canadensis) – at Boa Nova.

Black-throated Grosbeak (Saltator fuliginosus) – at Lençois.

Buff-throated Saltator (Saltator maximus) – common.

Green-winged Saltator (Saltator similis) - at Palmieras near Lençois.

Black-throated Saltator (Saltator atricollis) - at Palmieras near Lençois.

Ultramarine Grosbeak (Cyanocompsa brissonii) - at Palmieras near Lençois.

Yellow-billed Blue Finch (Porphyrospiza caerulescens) - at Cipó.

Crested Oropendola (Psarocolius decumanus) - at Caraça.

Yellow-rumped Cacique (Cacicus cela) – at Serra Bonita II.

Red-rumped Cacique (Cacicus haemorrhous) – near Murici and at Caraça.

Solitary Cacique (Cacicus solitarius) – a single bird near Tamandaré.

Epaulet Oriole (Icterus cayanensis) – common.

Campo Troupial (Icterus jamacaii) – seen first at Alto de Serra, common in area.

Chestnut-capped Blackbird (Agelaius ruficapillus) – common near Tamandaré.

White-browed Blackbird (Sturnella superciliaris) – near Murici.

Yellow-rumped Marshbird (Pseudoleistes guirahuro) – large flocks at Cipó.

Forbes's Blackbird (Curaeus forbesi) Critical – several seen at sites around Tamandaré.

Chopi Blackbird (Gnorimopsar chopi) – common.

Bay-winged Cowbird (Molothrus badius) – near Murici.

Shiny Cowbird (Molothrus bonariensis) - common.

Plus an undescribed species of Helibletos Treehunter seen at Serra Bonita II. In addition, a few birds were heard but not seen, primarily tinamous.

Among mammals we saw and tentatively identified were Cavy, White-tufted and Black-tufted Marmosets, Maned Three-toed Sloth, Masked Titi Monkey, Tayra, Crab-eating Fox, White Fox, and Agouti, plus an armadillo, squirrels and deer. 

Other Details


“Red Book”: Birdlife International (2000) Threatened Birds of the World. Published by Lynx Edicions, Passeig de Gracia, 12 E-08007, Barcelona, Spain,

As a field guide, we used All The Birds Of Brazil by Deodato Souza, Subbuteo Natural History Books, Second Edition June 2006,

There is a new guide for Brazil, split by regions. The one used by our guides was: Guia de Campo, Birds of Eastern Brazil, by Tomas Sigrist, with much-improved illustrations.


Ciro Albano, e-mail,
Ricardo Parrini, e-mail:;
Another well-regarded guide for Brazil is Andy Whittaker,


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