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A Report from

Cristalino Jungle Lodge and Alta Floresta, Brazil, April - June 2004,

Frank Lambert and Joe Tobias


FL spent the period 28 March - 27 June 2004 as a voluntary guide at Cristalino Jungle Lodge (CJL) and JT (and Nathalie Tobias) worked at the same site as a researcher for the period 26 May - 27 June 2003. This report contains details of their bird and mammal records, plus background information intended to be of use to anyone visiting or volunteering at Cristalino.

English-speaking birders are required as volunteers all year round, but must be prepared to spend three months at the site. This is adequate to see the majority of the birds that occur in the pristine forests along the Rio Cristalino. Voluntary Englsih-speaking guides, who must be committed to stay at least three months, receive free accommodation and food and are free to explore the forest when there are no tourists. The main tourist season is from July-September, though the best birding months are probably May-August. It rains heavily from December to March, causing the river to rise and flood the igapo forest. Rainfall declines markedly during March and the water-level rapidly drops.

Most birders who come to Cristalino spend far too little time there - usually a week or less - and only see a small fraction of the birds present. Whilst the cost of staying a few extra days may seem prohibitive, the rewards are well worth considering. Don't forget that the cost is for full board and includes boat trips that provide the chance to see a variety of birds that are difficult from forest trails. The 50m-tall tower is higher than any of the nearby trees and offers fantastic opportunities to see canopy birds well. Moreover, the more times you climb the tower for a supracanopy session the higher your chance of seeing a Harpy, Crested Eagle or other rare raptor, not to mention other scarce canopy birds.

We would recommend staying at Cristalino for 10 days to two weeks if you can. Many people combine the trip with the Pantanal and Chapada dos Guimaraes, but if you are organized, those areas combined should not take more than 5-6 days of your time. There is now a direct flight from São Paulo to Alta Floresta and you can be in the forest around the lodge the same day you leave São Paulo or Cuiabá. Flying from Cuiabá (gateway to the Pantanal and Chapada) to Alta Floresta takes less than two hours by plane, or overnight on the bus.

The lodge itself and facilities are very comfortable and the food is excellent. There is a good library at the lodge that has a useful selection of books for birders (both volumes of Ridgely and Tudor, Birds in Brazil, Birds of Ecuador, Dunning's Photographic guide, Birds of Colombia text), as well as a smattering of guide books on reptiles and amphibians, mammals and butterflies. The library depends laregly on donations, so if you have anyrelevent books that you don't need, take them with you. A generator provides electricity for a few hours in the evening; sufficient to charge up digital cameras and to download photos if you have your computer.

In the following systematic list, all records refer to areas around the Cristalino Lodge unless otherwise stated. Trails mentioned here equate to those documented in the Samuel Hansson report. There is one additional trail that runs from the Rochas trail (near the Saleiro) to the Rio Teles Pires. This has yet to be named, but for the sake of convenience we call it the New trail. Another area of interest is the so-called Secret Garden, a patch of open rocky habitat (similar to the Serra) situated some 50 m from the main lodge clearing and best reached by a narrow trail that forks left off the Rochas trail before it reaches the large rocks. A similar patch of rocky, Serra-type habitat is found at the far end of the Caja trail.

The Teles Pires is a white-water river; the Cristalino is a black-water river. This difference is caused by underlying sedimentation (black water being related to a sandy catchment) and underlies some differences in avifauna. In terms of biogeography, and despite being fairly narrow, the Rio Teles Pires is an important waterway marking the distributional boundary between several related forms of birds and mammals.

Away from Cristalino, other sites mentioned in this report are defined as follows:

Hotel Fragment: a 50 ha plot of degraded forest accessible on the grounds of the Hotel Floresta Amazonica in Alta Floresta, part of a larger patch of maybe 200 ha surrounded by cleared land. Birding in the Hotel Fragment is relatively quiet, and few birds form the understorey or canopy flocks so characteristic of the main forest. Nonetheless, it does contain a surprising variety of birds and even rarities like Crested Eagle are still turning up. Some widespread species can be found in the Hotel Fragment more readily than at Cristalino (eg Chestnut-tailed Antbird, Short-tailed Pygmy-tyrant) but our advice is to maximise time at Cristalino Lodge.

Fish Ponds: within a five minute walk of the swimming pool at the Hotel Floresta Amazonica there is an area of wetlands and fish ponds with wet marshy habitat and standing palms adjacent to forest. Here one can see many parrots and various waterbirds, including crakes.

Main Road: the road north of Alta Floresta, c.20 km of which must be driven en route to Cristalino. The first section of road passes through highly degraded agricultural land; the last 5 km passes a narrow Mauritia palm swamp (famed for its palmcreepers) and several patches of degraded bamboo-dominated woodland.

Fazenda Track: a right turn from the Main Road passes through a wooden gate and leads to a c.10 km dirt track through a fazenda, leading down to the Rio Teles Pires. From the end of this track (reached in one hour from Alta Floresta), boats leave for Cristalino Lodge, taking c.25 minutes to get there. The last 5 km of the Fazenda Track goes through relatively intact tall forest with a significantly different avifauna to that found at Cristalino. The Borboletas trail runs from the track to the Rio Teles Pires and has similar birds.

The Island: a wooded island midstream in the Rio Teles Pires, c.300 m downstream from the entrance to the Rio Cristalino. There are some islets with shrubby vegetation found nearby. The fazenda, the island and Cristalino itself all fall within land owned and managed by Dona Vitória da Riva Carvalho.

Vocal activity was relatively slack throughout our visit, but most mornings were busy between 05:30 and 08:00. Afternoons tended to be much quieter and often best spent on the river or tower. In all cases, good birds could be found at any time of day with perseverance. The forest gradually became drier towards June, and species such as tinamous became easier to see when the leaf litter was dry, though still not easy! May was particularly pleasant since the weather was generally dry but not too hot and birding was comfortable at all times of day; and since there are few visitors at that time one can walk anywhere in the knowledge that the trails have not been recently disturbed. Most of the birding tour companies visit between June and August.

If you visit in April or May, rubber boots would be useful for birding along trails where patches of floodwater remain, though most of the time you would not need them. The flooding, however, does not inhibit birding too much, and the Zigzag Heron is perhaps most easily seen during this part of the year (it breeds in March-April). The water level receded rapidly and all trails could be walked by the end of April.

There are very few mosquitoes at Cristalino compared to most Amazonian sites that we have visited, and there is reported to be no malaria, yellow fever or leishmaniasis. Conversely, biting ticks seem to be more common than elsewhere, especially when walking off-trail. Visitors should tuck in socks and shirts, and apply insect repellant to avoid occasional infestation. Sandflies near the river can also be a nuisance at times, though they are easily deterred with insect repellent.

A telescope and tripod are virtually essential for the tower, where digiscoping is also possible. Although there are two telescopes and tripods at the lodge, they are not in good condition and we would not recommend relying on them.

Many of the birds mentioned below are relatively common and exact sites are not given for these since they could potentially be found almost anywhere in the forest. Since we were familiar with many of the birds at Cristalino we did not make a serious effort to see all those that we heard (most tinamous and tyrant-flycatchers, for example).

Some species on the list for Cristalino (available at the website) have been reported on the basis of poor views or inadequate documentation. Hence their occurrence requires confirmation (B. Whitney, pers. comm.). If you find any of the following, therefore, it would be worth attempting to document the species by recording the voice or obtaining photos/videos. These species include: Guianan Gnatcatcher (Polioptila guianensis), Lined Forest-falcon (Micrastur gilvicollis), Black-bellied Gnateater (Conopophaga melanogaster), Red-billed Scythebill (Campylorhamphus trochilirostris) and any species of bushbird (Clytoctantes/Neoctantes).

FL intends to lead one or two private fixed-date bird and butterfly tours to Cristalino during late May and/or June 2006. If you are interested in this, please contact me on for more information.

Systematic Lists


Snethlage's Gnateater mist-netted along the Rochas Trail (JT)

Grey Tinamou (Tinamous tao) Not heard, but one individual was flushed in the Hotel Fragment, and several other large tinamous flushed at Cristalino were either T. tao or T. major.

Great Tinamou (Tinamous major) Heard regularly during late May-June.

Cinereous Tinamou (Crypturellus cinereus) Widespread and relatively common by voice, but seen only rarely.

Little Tinamou (Crypturellus soui) Heard twice at the Hotel Fragment in late May.

Brown Tinamou (Crypturellus obsoletus) Uncommon by voice and generally restricted to bamboo patches (e.g. Taboca trail).

Undulated Tinamou (Crypturellus undulatus) Only heard on the Island.

Variegated Tinamou (Crypturellus variegatus) Heard regularly around the tower, and along Cacao, Rochas, Taboca and New trails; seen 3-4 times.

Brazilian Tinamou (Crypturellus strigulosus) Heard almost daily (though not often in April) and seen occasionally.

Tataupa Tinamou (Crypturellus tataupa) Heard 18 April on the Serra, and occasionally there later that month and sporadically in May-June. Observed once there and in the Secret Garden.

Neotropic Cormorant (Phalacrocorax brasilianus) Not seen until second week of May; subsequent sightings from along Rio Teles Pires and Rio Cristalino.

Anhinga (Anhinga anhinga) Up to three seen fairly regularly along Rio Cristalino, with first sighting on 20 April.

Cocoi Heron (Ardea cocoi) Two observed; once along the Main Road and one near Lagoa Cigana.

Snowy Egret (Egretta thula) Not seen on Rio Cristalino until rocks were exposed in the middle in mid June.

Cattle Egret (Bubulcus ibis) Common around Alta Floresta.

Striated Heron (Butorides striatus) Fairly common.

Capped Heron (Pilherodius pileatus) Nearly always seen on journeys up or down the Cristalino, but probably less than 8 birds in total.

Rufescent Tiger-Heron (Tigrisoma lineatum) Regularly seen near the floating platform at the lodge in April-mid May, and heard every night from the clearing. Occasionally seen along the river and at the Saleiro.

Zigzag Heron (Zebrilus undulatus) A nest with two large chicks found by Cristalino staff in late March at the boat landing on Rio Teles Pires, about 2.5m above water. The adult seen sitting on the nest with young birds on 28 March. One seen at midday on 18 May in the flooded area of igapo along the Kawall trail. The local guides report that this species is mainly vocal during the wet season; in June, several attempts to encite one to call using nocturnal playback along the main river drew a blank.

Green Ibis (Mesembrinibis cayennensis) Small parties of up to 4 birds regular along Rio Cristalino.

American Wood Stork (Mycteria americana) Two at the Saleiro in mid May, and 1-15 seen at intervals thereafter soaring over or near the Rio Teles Pires. On 18 June, a group of about 30-40 observed perched along the river, seen from the tower.

King Vulture (Sarcoramphus papa) Occasionally seen from the tower, river, clearing and Serra. Largest number was 4 from the tower on 24 June.

Black Vulture (Coragyps atratus) Common.

Turkey Vulture (Cathartes aura) Uncommon; seen most regularly along the Fazenda Track and Main Road.

Lesser Yellow-headed Vulture (Cathartes burrovianus) Regularly observed along the road to Alta Floresta. Never seen at Cristalino.

Greater Yellow-headed Vulture (Cathartes melambrotus) The commonest vulture.

Brazilian Duck (Amazonetta brasiliensis) Regular late evening on the Fish Ponds (three birds) and seen once along the Main Road.

Muscovy Duck (Cairina moschata) Scarce along Rio Cristalino where seen occasionally up until 18 May; one female downriver on 19 June. On 11 May a female seen with five ducklings upriver from the lodge.

White-tailed Kite (Elanus leucurus) Seen twice along the Main Road.

Pearl Kite (Gampsonyx swainsonii) Seen twice along the Main Road.

Swallow-tailed Kite (Elanoides forficatus) 15 or more seen from the tower one day in early April.

Grey-headed Kite (Leptodon cayanensis) Occasionally heard from the trail system in May-June, and regularly seen from the tower in June, including two at close range eating from a bee or wasp nest that had been carried up to the canopy.

Hook-billed Kite (Chondrohierax uncinatus) One from the tower on 20 April, two from the Serra on 9 June.

Double-toothed Kite (Harpagus bidentatus) Regular from the tower and main clearing in April to mid-May. Nest building in an emergent tree near the tower on 17 May. Seen occasionally in June.

Plumbeous Kite (Ictinia plumbea) One from the tower on 18 June. Others seen along the Main Road.

Swallow-tailed Kite (Elanoides forficatus) A group of three at the Hotel Fragment in late May.

Snail Kite (Rostrhamus sociabilis) Observed on three occasions at ponds along the Main Road.

Tiny Hawk (Accipiter superciliosus) One on the Taboca trail 10 May.

Bicoloured Hawk (Accipiter bicolor) One down river on the Cristalino, 21 April.

Grey-bellied Hawk (Accipiter poliogaster) One adult and one subadult seen at close range from the tower 22 June and another adult seen three days later in the same location, all in flight.

Short-tailed Hawk (Buteo brachyurus) Observed soaring near the Main Road on several occasions in May-June.

Zone-tailed Hawk (Buteo albonotatus). A probable seen along the river on 14 May.

Grey-lined Hawk (Asturina nitida) One at the Hotel Fragment on 24 April.

Roadside Hawk (Rupornis magnirostris) Only seen near Alta Floresta.

White Hawk (Leucopternis albicollis) One from the tower on 11 April, another hunting on the Serra on 10 June.

White-browed Hawk (Leucopternis kuhli) At least one pair still resides in the Hotel Fragment where the species was seen or heard on several occasions in early June. At Cristalino it was regular from the tower in early to mid-April, with two on several occasions, and again in late June. Twice seen on the hill on the New trail.

Great Black Hawk (Buteogallus urubutinga) Seen or heard regularly along Rio Cristalino.

Ornate Hawk-Eagle (Spizaetus ornatus) Heard only (and often imitated by Lawrence's Thrush).

Black Hawk-Eagle (Spizaetus tyrannus) One adult heard then seen circling high over the Hotel Fragment.

Crested Eagle (Morphnus guianensis). A possible (very distant) juvenile observed from the tower on 11 and 12 April. A pale-phase adult seen in flight upriver on 17 April. A dark-phase adult seen very well hunting from a perch about 10 m up in the Forest Fragment. Another subadult seen from the tower three days running in June.

Harpy Eagle (Harpia harpyja). One adult seen from the tower late in the afternoon of 16 May was still present early on 17 May. It revisited the same perch on 19 May.

Black Caracara (Daptrius ater) Regularly seen, and even more regularly heard.

Red-throated Caracara (Daptrius americanus) Not particularly common although regularly heard at long range. A few regularly seen along the river, and in particular the Cacao trail. Occasionally seen from the tower.

Southern Caracara (Polyborus plancus) One seen along the Main Road in June.

Laughing Falcon (Herpetotheres cachinnans) Seen or heard quite regularly along the Main Road.

Cryptic Forest-Falcon (Micrastur mintonii) Widespread and fairly common by voice, but generally difficult to see well. Our best views were at the Saleiro and along the Fazenda Track. One individual was seen briefly associating with an Eciton ant swarm on the Taboca trail.

Collared Forest-Falcon (Micrastur semitorquatus). Scarce. An immature regularly observed around the clearing during the beginning of April and once in June. Otherwise heard only a few times at dusk.

American Kestrel (Falco sparverius) Only seen along the Main Road.

Bat Falcon (Falco rufigularis) Relatively common, mostly observed along the river, but also occasionally from the tower.

Spix's Guan (Penelope jacquacu). Seen or heard on most days spent in the forest.

Red-throated Piping-Guan (Pipile cujubi) Common; most easily seen from the river and the tower.

Razor-billed Curassow (Mitu tuberosum) Not uncommon, but only seen with regularity from mid May onwards. Some individuals are notably tame, others more shy.

Marbled Wood-Quail (Odontophorus gujanensis) Common and widespread, and seen most weeks. Most easy to see during May along the Taboca trail (between 300m and 600m marks). Regularly heard along the Cacao and New trails.

Hoatzin (Opisthocomus hoazin) One seen near the boat landing on the Teles Pires in April, when the forest was still extensively flooded. At least ten seen on June 26 at Lagoa Cigana, where it is resident.

Limpkin (Aramus guarauna) One on the Main Road on 7 May.

Dark-winged Trumpeter (Psophia viridis) Widespead and relatively common, with sightings most weeks, sometimes almost daily. Most groups were shy, with the group on the Cacao trail - continaing 11 individuals - seeming the least wary. Attracted to army ant swarms.

Grey-breasted Crake (Laterallus exilis) A pair seen well at the Fish Ponds on 23 and 26 May. Another heard along the Fazenda Track on 15 June.

Russet-crowned Crake (Anurolimnas viridis). Regularly heard from 24 April near the Fish Ponds; seen briefly on 6 May and 2-3 seen very well on 24 May.

Sungrebe (Heliornis fulica) Not uncommon along Rio Cristalino with perhaps three pairs involved - regular sightings from the lower Cristalino close to the Teles Pires, about 1km upstream of the Lodge and further upstream close to the Haffer trail. Also seen on the Teles Pires at the boat landing point.

Sunbittern (Eurypyga helias) Observed regularly on boat trips going down river, with up to three individuals on any one trip. It seemed to be more easy to observe in June (when watewr levels are lower) than in April or May. Less often seen upriver from the lodge.

Wattled Jacana (Jacana jacana) Seen along the Main Road and at the Fish Ponds.

Southern Lapwing (Vanellus chilensis) Occasional along the Main Road.

Pied Plover (Hoploxypterus cayanus) Regularly sighted around the Island in June.

Scaled Pigeon (Columba speciosa) Occasional sightings, mostly from the tower. Also at Lagoa Cigana

Picazuro Pigeon (Columba picazuro) Only seen along the road to Alta Floresta.

Pale-vented Pigeon (Columba cayennensis) Regular on the Island, but rarely seen at Cristalino, with 16 on 18 June from the tower and a few on subsequent dates.

Ruddy Pigeon (Columba subvinacea) Common, mostly near the river.

Plumbeous Pigeon (Columba plumbea) Common, most often away from the river. Regular in trees above the Saleiro.

Ruddy Ground-Dove (Columbina talpacoti) Common around Alta Floresta and along the Main Road.

Blue Ground-Dove (Claravis pretiosa) Unrecorded before the 16th May when five were calling on top of the Serra. Thereafter, always present in good numbers on the Serra, regular along the river and often heard around the lodge clearings.

White-tipped Dove (Leptotila verreauxi) Only seen near Alta Floresta.

Grey-fronted Dove (Leptotila rufaxilla) One regular in the clearing in April, but afterwards very sporadic. Occasionally seen along the river and on the Serra and most often encountered elsewhere by voice.

Ruddy Quail-Dove (Geotrygon montana) Not seen in April, but subsequently very occasionally seen on the Taboca and New trails.

Violaceous Quail-Dove (Geotrygon violacea) Probably flushed on the Caja trail 29 March and 19 April.

Blue-and-Yellow Macaw (Ara ararauna) Uncommon but regular, with small numbers occasionally encountered around the Hotel Fragment, along the Fazenda Track and the lodge clearings and visible from the tower.

Scarlet Macaw (Ara macao) The most common macaw, seen easily from the tower, with as many as 40-50 gathering in groups during the second half of June.

Red-and-green Macaw (Ara chloroptera) More often seen than Ara macao until 10 April, but thereafter rather scarce and not seen at all from 1-20 April. Subsequently seen every week and heard every day. Also observed at the Hotel Fragment.

Chestnut-fronted Macaw (Ara severa) Common, seeming more so during June.

Red-bellied Macaw (Orthopsittaca manilata) Common around Alta Floresta and at the Mauritia palm swamp on the Main Road.

White-eyed Parakeet (Aratinga leucophthalmus) Rare until mid-May, but thereafter regularly observed. Large numbers (up to 150) seen in flight from the tower on most visits during June.

Crimson-bellied Parakeet (Pyrrhura rhodogaster) Regular in the Hotel Fragment, and seen on about eight occasions at Cristalino, usually from the tower or at the Saleiro. Heard more often.

Hellmayr's Parakeet (Pyrrhura amazonum) Regular in the Hotel Fragment, and observed on every visit to the tower and elsewhere until early June. Subsequently became much less regular, though usually reliable along the Fazenda Track.

Dusky-billed Parrotlet (Forpus sclateri) During April and most of May, seen on most visits to the tower, and also around the main clearing. Numbers seemed to decline thereafter, but remained fairly common along the Fazenda Track, particularly near the river.

Golden-winged Parakeet (Brotogeris chrysopterus) Seen on most visits to the tower (usually in flight) and at the Serra, Caja extension and Secret Garden (often perched). Associated with open deciduous forest on rocky substrate.

White-bellied Parrot (Pionites leucogaster) Small parties seen from April to June, with increasing regularity, from the tower. Often heard elsewhere, but difficult to see from the ground.

Orange-cheeked Parrot (Pionopsitta barrabandi) Seen sporadically from the tower throughout my visit, usually a group of four birds. Occasionally heard scooting over the forest canopy from the trail system.

Blue-headed Parrot (Pionus menstruus) Common.

Yellow-crowned Amazon (Amazona ochrocephala) Fairly common, usually seen from the tower or river, heard all over. Daily around the Hotel Fragment.

Orange-winged Amazon (Amazona amazonica) Two from the tower on 27 March.

Mealy Amazon (Amazona farinosa) Regular from the tower and along the New trail in May and June, and usually common around the Hotel Fragment.

Kawall's Amazon (Amazona kawalli) Seen on at least six dates from the tower, and on one date from the river. Maximum number together was 10 on 20 June.

Red-fan Parrot (Deroptyus accipitrinus) Fairly common at Cristalino and the Hotel Fragment. Observed on most visits to the tower from May onwards, and often around the main lodge clearing.

Dark-billed Cuckoo (Coccyzus melacoryphus) One on the Serra top on 26 June.

Squirrel Cuckoo (Piaya cayana) Widespread, seen or heard most days.

Black-bellied Cuckoo (Piaya melanogaster) Widespread and quite often heard, but apparently rarer than P. cayana. Occasionally seen from the tower.

Little Cuckoo (Piaya minuta) Appeared to be uncommon, with only a few sightings.

Smooth-billed Ani (Crotophaga ani) Common along the Main Road and near the Hotel Fragment.

Greater Ani (Crotophaga major) Occasionally seen at the river edge near the Teles Pires. Also at Lagoa Cigana on June 26.

Guira Cuckoo (Guira guira) Only seen along the Main Road and near the Hotel Fragment.

Ground-Cuckoo (Neomorphus sp. - probably N. squamiger). The bill-snapping of a ground-cuckoo was heard and recorded at Rochas 700m on 4 May, with a brief sighting of a bird in the same area on 19 June. Another individual was probably seen very briefly near an ant swarm on the Cacao trial on 22 May.

Southern Tawny-bellied Screech-Owl (Otus usta) Often heard at night, and often well before dark, especially from the tower. One seen roosting on the Rochas trail in mid June.

Crested Owl (Lophostrix cristata) Heard rarely near the Saliero, the bungalow clearing and at the Hotel Fragment.

Spectacled Owl (Pulsatrix perspicillata). Heard near the bungalows. Observed at the edge of igapo on the Taboca trail during daylight on 9 May (2 birds) and 1 June.

Amazonian Pygmy-Owl (Glaucidium hardyi) Widespread and fairly common. Heard by night and day, most regularly at the tower, the clearing and at the Hotel Fragment. Observed from the tower on two occasions; one mist-netted on the New trail.

Burrowing Owl (Athene cunicularia) Along the road to Alta Floresta.

Black-banded Owl (Strix huhula) Heard at the Saliero on the 2 May and from the Rochas on 5 June. Seen along the Rochas near the tower just before dawn on 7 June.

Great Potoo (Nyctibius grandis) Seen in the Hotel Fragment during the day on 26 May, and three heard there on 28 June. One was spotlighted along Rio Cristalino on 25 June.

Common Potoo (Nyctibius griseus) Occasionally spotlighted along the river but never heard.

Short-tailed Nighthawk (Lurocalis semitorquatus) Uncommon, with 2-4 birds regularly seen over the bungalow clearing or upriver at dawn and dusk.

Pauraque (Nyctridomus albicollis) 1-2 pairs around the lodge; common along the Main Road.

Ocellated Poorwill (Nyctiphrynus ocellatus) Fairly common by voice. At least 3-4 calling males along the Rochas trail close to the Saliero and near the tower. Others

Blackish Nightjar (Caprimulgus nigrescens) Daily around the main and bungalow clearings. Always present on the Serra and Secret Garden.

Little Nightjar (Caprimulgus parvulus). A bird seen sallying over the Rio Cristalino at night from a perch at the edge of igapo forest on 25 June was subsequently identified as this species (based on photos), though its behaviour and habitat seem to be at odds with those described in the literature.

Ladder-tailed Nightjar (Hydropsalis climacocerca) Occasionally seen along the Cristalino and Teles Pires. Several individuals roost on or near the Island.

Spot-tailed Nightjar (Caprimulgus maculicaudus). One near the fishponds by the Hotel Fragment in Alta Floresta on 25-26 May.

Sooty Swift (Cypseloides fumigatus) 2-3 small flocks seen over the Serra in June.

Amazonian Swift (Chaetura viridipennis) Seemingly fairly common, and best observed late in the day from the tower.

Grey-rumped Swift (Chaetura cinereiventris) Regular in small numbers or occasionally larger flocks around the tower and Serra.

Pale-rumped Swift (Chaetura egregia) Common. Most easily seen from the tower and Serra.

Short-tailed Swift (Chaetura brachyura) Scarce. Only one sighting at Cristalino, and a few more around Alta Floresta.

Fork-tailed Palm-Swift (Tachornis squamata) Found around the Mauritia palm grove on the Main Road.

Rufous-breasted Hermit (Glaucis hirsuta) Regular in April-May, with three nests found, but rarely seen in June.

White-bearded Hermit (Phaethornis hispidus) Apparently fairly common, especially near the river and along the Fazenda Track. Three individuals mistnetted on the Taboca Trail. A nest of this species built in the bungalow clearing in mid-April contained two eggs on 5 May and two nestlings on 8 May.

Eastern Long-tailed Hermit (Phaethornis superciliosus) Fairly common, especially along the New trail where one lek was situated. Two mistnetted individuals seemed referable to the subspecies muelleri (photographs checked against specimens).

Reddish Hermit (Phaethornis ruber) Common and vocal at the Hotel Fragment, fairly common on the west bank of the Teles Pires in the forest along the first part of the road towards Alta Floresta. Apparently scarce at Cristalino: a probable observed once along the Caja trail.

Streak-throated Hermit (Phaethornis rupurumii) A small, dark-throated hermit observed at close range in the Secret Garden on 14 May, and on several occasions along the New trail on 23 and 25 June, is thought to be this species. It was frequently observed visiting the large red flowers of Passifloraceae. Field photographs confirm that the bird involved belongs to the longuemareus/squalidus group of hermits, and most likely the amazonicus race of rupurumii (sometimes lumped with squalidus). This would be a rather large, if not quite unexpected, range extension.

Straight-billed Hermit (Phaethornis bourcieri). Inconspicuous. One seen on the Saleiro loop on 1 May, another on the Cacao trail on 15 June, and occasionally heard.

Grey-breasted Sabrewing (Campylopterus largipennis) Uncommon; seen only about eight times. A nest found on the Taboca trail containing two eggs on 5 May.

White-necked Jacobin (Florisuga mellivora) Not observed until mid-April, when it suddenly appeared along the river and in the clearings. From then on seen almost daily in small numbers.

Black-throated Mango (Anthracothorax nigricollis) Uncommon; most easily observed on the Serra where it seems fairly common. A nest found overhanging the river on 19 May, and another nest containing two eggs found on the Serra on 16 June.

Black-bellied Thorntail (Discosura langsdorffi) A male at an Inga tree in the lodge clearing on 30 March. Probably overlooked.

Fork-tailed Woodnymph (Thalurania furcata) Common.

White-chinned Sapphire (Hylocharis cyanus) Fairly common. This species typically called incessantly from certain small clearings.

Rufous-throated Sapphire (Hylocharis sapphirina). Male at the far end of the Caja trail on 10 April, and another on the Serra on 12 June. Typically found in more open forest.

Versicolored Emerald (Agyrtria versicolor) Often seen or heard in the Secret Garden and on the Serra, where present from mid-April. Scarce, or at least inconspicuous, in tall forest.

Glittering-throated Emerald (Polyerata fimbriata) Only one positively identified: an individual in the Secret Garden in early June.

Black-eared Fairy (Heliothryx aurita) Observed daily from the end of March until mid April, then notably scarcer; only observed a few of times in May and June.

Long-billed Starthroat (Heliomaster longirostris) Two or more visiting the lodge clearing from end of March until 6 April, then seemingly scarce except at the Serra where several seen during every visit. One feeding half-grown fledgling there on 5-6 June.

Ruby-Topaz Hummingbird (Chrysolampis mosquitus) One male seen on 28 June near the junction of the Fazenda Track and the Main Road, perhaps the first record for the area.

Amethyst Woodstar (Calliphlox amethystina) A female regularly in the lodge clearing from 1-18 May, another on the Caja trail on 14 May, and another chased by a jacobin at the Saleiro clearing on 4 June.

Pavonine Quetzal (Pharomachrus pavoninus) One heard in tall forest on the far side of the hill on the New trail.

Black-tailed Trogon (Trogon melanurus) Common.

White-tailed Trogon (Trogon viridis) Common.

Collared Trogon (Trogon collaris) Fairly common.

Black-throated Trogon (Trogon rufus) Apparently scarce; only seen or heard on five occasions (usually New trail or Cacao trail).

Blue-crowned Trogon (Trogon curucui) Fairly common; most reliable around the lodge clearings, the rocks on the Rochas trail, and on the Serra.

Violaceous Trogon (Trogon violaceus) Fairly common; regular from the tower.

Ringed Kingfisher (Ceryle torquata) Regular along the river.

Amazon Kingfisher (Chloroceryle amazona) Common; breeding near the boathouse.

Green Kingfisher (Chloroceryle americana) Fairly common along the river.

Green-and-rufous Kingfisher (Chloroceryle inda) Fairly common along the river, and also regularly at the pool at the Saleiro at dawn (this pool is only present during the wet season).

American Pygmy Kingfisher (Chloroceryle aenea) Observed regularly from the floating platform from mid-April until 12 May, when appeared to be feeding young. Probably bred close by.

Broad-billed Motmot (Electron platyrhynchum) Generally scarce, but often heard near the stream on the Taboca trail.

Blue-crowned Motmot (Momotus momota) Common. During the day, perhaps most reliably seen at antswarms.

Brown Jacamar (Brachygalba lugubris) One from a boat on 2 May about 300m before the Haffer trail, two from the Kawall trail on 11 June (on opposite bank) and another near there, from a boat, on 17 June.

Blue-necked Jacamar (Galbula cyanicollis) Widespread and observed regularly on the Rochas, Cacao, Caja and Taboca trails. Small numbers survive in the Hotel Fragment.

Rufous-tailed Jacamar (Galbula ruficauda) Occasionally seen along the river, and in the main clearing.

Bronzy Jacamar (Galbula leucogastra). One from Kawall trail (on opposite side of river) on 11 June.

Paradise Jacamar (Galbula dea) Fairly common; often seen from the tower and along the rivers.

Great Jacamar (Jacamerops aurea) Fairly common and widespread, seemed especially easy to find in the Hotel Fragment.

White-necked Puffbird (Notharchus macrorhynchus) Regular from the tower from end of March until 12 April, and again on 15-16 May; on the Serra on 12 April; and near the bungalow clearing on 21 April.

Brown-banded Puffbird (Notharchus ordii) Widespread, though not vocal until June. Observed from the tower on 29 April and 16 May, and on the Kawall trail on 11 June. Heard elsewhere, such as on Caja and New trails.

Pied Puffbird (Notharchus tectus) Two in the Hotel Fragment on 1 June, another on the Serra on 19 June.

Spotted Puffbird (Bucco tamatia). One on the Serra top on 9 June, and another there on 25 June.

Collared Puffbird (Bucco capensis) One on the Cacao trail on 21 May, another on Castaneira trail on 10 June; also regular at dawn near the large Ficus on the Figuera trail.

Striolated Puffbird (Nystalus striolatus) Widespread; heard in many places, including the Hotel Fragment, but only observed in the Secret Garden, on 14 and 22 May.

Rufous-necked Puffbird (Malacoptila rufa) Seen well on six occasions: once on the Haffer trail, once on the Tapiri trail, three times along the New trail, and once along the Taboca trail. In addition, another was mist-netted on the Taboca trail in June.

Rufous-capped Nunlet (Nonnula ruficapilla) Seen on several occasions on the Taboca trail in May and June. A pair were apparently digging a nest burrow at the beginning of the Figuera trail on 2 June.

Black-fronted Nunbird (Monasa nigrifrons) Common, even around the Fish Ponds.

White-fronted Nunbird (Monasa morphoeus) Uncommon. Usually away from the river and in the Hotel Fragment.

Swallow-wing (Chelidoptera tenebrosa) Common.

Black-girdled Barbet (Capito dayi) Common; best observed from the tower, the main clearing or on the Serra. A male at an Eciton antswarm on 29 April was regularly dropping to the ground in the middle of the swarm.

Chestnut-eared Aracari (Pteroglossus castanotis) Fairly common, though less frequently seen in June.

Lettered Aracari (Pteroglossus inscriptus) Common.

Red-necked Aracari (Pteroglossus bitorquatus) Common.

Curl-crested Aracari (Pteroglossus beauharnaesii) Common.

Black-necked Aracari (Pteroglossus aracari) 1-2 from the tower on 15 May.

Gould's Toucanet (Selenidera gouldii) Uncommon but widespread. Heard far more often than seen.

Channel-billed Toucan (Ramphastos vitellinus) Common, but less so than Red-billed.

Red-billed Toucan (Ramphastos tucanus) Common.

Bar-breasted Piculet (Picumnus aurifrons) Relatively common, usually in mixed flocks.

Yellow-throated Woodpecker (Piculus flavigula) Fairly common. Most often detected by voice and most easily seen from tower.

Golden-green Woodpecker (Piculus chrysochloros) Uncommon. Recorded on six dates, usually along the New trail.

Chestnut Woodpecker (Celeus elegans) Uncommon. Recorded on a few days only, although many Celeus-type drums were left unidentified.

Scale-breasted Woodpecker (Celeus grammicus) Scarce, usually detected by voice.

Cream-coloured Woodpecker (Celeus flavus) Only encountered twice in igapo forest.

Ringed Woodpecker (Celeus torquatus) Uncommon; but regular from the clearings early morning in April and May. Occasionally heard or seen from the tower and along the New trail. Present in the Hotel Fragment.

Lineated Woodpecker (Dryocopus lineatus) Fairly common around the Hotel Fragment and Fish Ponds. Less common at Cristalino and usually encountered near the river or from boats.

Yellow-tufted Woodpecker (Melanerpes cruentatus) Common at the Hotel Fragment and Fish Ponds. Seen daily from the tower and occasionally elsewhere.

Little Woodpecker (Veniliornis passerinus) Scarce. Only encountered on the Serra and the Island.

Red-stained Woodpecker (Veniliornis affinis) Common, usually with mixed flocks.

Crimson-crested Woodpecker (Campephilus melanoleucos) Uncommon; most often seen or heard along the Taboca trail.

Red-necked Woodpecker (Campephilus rubricollis) More common than C. melanoleucos, encountered every few days and heard drumming most days in June.

Plain-crowned Spinetail (Synallaxis gujanensis) Heard in rank vegetation along the Main Road.

Ruddy Spinetail (Synallaxis rutilans) Regularly heard in the Hotel Fragment. At Cristalino, only encountered on the Cacao trail and the New trail, where three were mist-netted.

Chestnut-throated Spinetail (Synallaxis cherriei) Widespread, mostly in areas with bamboo, but not exclusively so. Most easily seen along the Taboca and Haffer trails.

Speckled Spinetail (Cranioleuca gutturata) One with a canopy flock at the Saleiro on 2 April, and subsequently a pair building a nest  there on 4 April (though not seen again). Another on the Taboca trail on 3 June.

Point-tailed Palmcreeper (Berlepschia rikeri) A pair seen at the extensive Mauritia palm swamp along the road to Alta Floresta on 21 April, and heard there on at least two other occasions. This is a reliable site to see the species although it can take considerable effort.

Striped Woodhaunter (Hyloctistes subulatus) Scarce. Only seen or heard along the Fazenda Track on 24 May and along the New trail in June.

Chestnut-winged Hookbill (Ancistrops strigilatus) Common, accompanying most mixed flocks.

Rufous-rumped Foliage-Gleaner (Philydor erythrocercus) The most frequently seen Philydor species; present in the majority of larger subcanopy and canopy flocks.

Chestnut-winged Foliage-Gleaner (Philydor erythropterus) Fairly common with subcanopy/canopy flocks; occasionally seen from the tower.

Rufous-tailed Foliage-Gleaner (Philydor ruficaudatus) Uncommon; in canopy/subcanopy flocks.

Cinnamon-rumped Foliage-Gleaner (Philydor pyrrhodes) 3-4 sightings (and one bird taped) in palm-dominated understorey near the stream on the Taboca trail, and beyond the hill on the New trail. Difficult to see well.

Pará Foliage-Gleaner (Automolus paraensis) Widespread; usually seen or heard every 2-3 days, often with understorey flocks.

Buff-throated Foliage-Gleaner (Automolus ochrolaemus) Not seen very often, but heard every 2-3 days.

Chestnut-crowned Foliage-Gleaner (Automolus rufipileatus) Mostly in areas with bamboo. Observed on the Taboca and Haffer trails, from the understorey to the subcanopy. Calling regularly only in June.

Dusky-cheeked (Bamboo) Foliage-Gleaner (Anabazenops dorsalis) Regular in bamboo along the Taboca, Haffer and Cacao trails, and sometimes seen more than 50 m from the nearest bamboo.

Rufous-tailed Xenops (Xenops milleri) One in a mixed bird flock on the Borboleta trail on 8 May.

Plain Xenops (Xenops minutus) Widespread and fairly common; seen or heard every 2-3 days.

Slender-billed Xenops  (Xenops tenuirostris) One in the canopy top nearest the tower on 2 April, another with a canopy flock on the Cacao trail on 8 June. Several other canopy xenops were seen but not well enough to confirm identity; Streaked Xenops (Xenops rutilans) was never positively identified.

Tawny-throated Leaftosser (Sclerurus mexicanus) Probables observed along the Taboca on two occasions.

Short-billed Leaftosser (Sclerurus rufigularis) Widespread; the most frequently observed leaftosser. Seen or heard several times a week, and one mist-netted at the Saleiro.

Grey-throated Leaftosser (Sclerurus albigularis). One heard on the Haffer trail on 20 June.

Black-tailed Leaftosser (Sclerurus caudacutus) One seen on the Taboca trail on 4 May; another heard near the tower at dawn on 12 June; also often imitated by Lawrence's Thrush.

Plain-brown Woodcreeper (Dendrocincla fuliginosa) Widespread. Usually close to Eciton ant swarms.

White-chinned Woodcreeper (Dendrocincla merula) Widespread. Usually seen at Eciton ant swarms, but occasionally independently.

Spot-throated Woodcreeper (Deconychura stictolaema). Uncommon and inconspicuous. Seen on several occasions, usually with mixed flocks, on the Saleiro loop, the first 200 m of the New Trail, and the Taboca trail.

Long-tailed Woodcreeper (Deconychura longicauda) Widespread; calling daily at dusk along the Rochas trail and close to the tower. Occasionally encountered elsewhere.

Olivaceous Woodcreeper (Sittasomus griseicapillus) Fairly common; seen or heard most days.

Wedge-billed Woodcreeper (Glyphorhynchus spirurus) Fairly common.

Long-billed Woodcreeper (Nasica longirostris) Scarce, unobtrusive and usually encountered by voice. Restricted to igapo or riverine forest.

Strong-billed Woodcreeper (Xiphocolaptes promeropirhynchus) Widespread but unobtrusive. Occasionally seen but more often heard, particularly near the tower, where usually calling just before dawn. Several individuals reside in the Hotel Fragment.

Cinnamon-throated Woodcreeper (Dendrexetastes rufigula) Uncommon but widespread. Seen with regularity only near the bungalows, but present on the Taboca and Haffer trails and observed from the tower on two occasions. Seemingly much more often heard at the Hotel Fragment.

Uniform Woodcreeper (Hylexetastes uniformis) Scarce. Only seen and heard on the Saleiro loop, and once at the Hotel Fragment.

Amazonian Barred Woodcreeper (Dendrocolaptes certhia concolor) Probably fairly common but unobtrusive. Seen frequently in April-May (especially at the beginning of the Rochas) but rarely in June.

Black-banded Woodcreeper (Dendrocolaptes picumnus) Seemingly scarce. Very rarely seen and infrequently heard during our visit, mostly on the Rochas trail.

Straight-billed Woodcreeper (Xiphorhynchus picus) Uncommon, usually in igapo along the river-edge.

'Dusky-billed Woodcreeper' (Xiphorhynchus [guttatus] eytoni) Common by voice in the Forest Fragment and at Cristalino; probably the most frequently observed woodcreeper.

Striped Woodcreeper (Xiphorhynchus obsoletus) Regular along the river in igapo forest, and especially frequent along the Kawall trail.

Spix's Woodcreeper (Xiphorhynchus spixii) Fairly common, seen or heard most days.

Lineated Woodcreeper (Lepidocolaptes albolineatus) Fairly common; regularly seen from the tower in canopy mixed flocks.

Curve-billed Scythebill (Campylorhamphus procurvoides) Common but unobtrusive. Observed or heard with regularity in flocks in or near bamboo, but occasionally in areas without obvious stands of bamboo.  In addition, Red-billed Scythebill (C. trochilirostris) has been reported from the area, but we had no confirmed sightings or audial records of this species.

Fasciated Antshrike (Cymbilaimus lineatus) Fairly common.

Great Antshrike (Taraba major) Regularly heard in riverine growth and along the Main Road.

Glossy Antshrike (Sakesphorus luctuosus) Fairly common along the rivers, at the beginning of the Fazenda Track, and especially easily seen on the Island.

Chestnut-backed Antshrike (Thamnophilus palliates) Regularly heard, less often seen along the Taboca and Haffer trails, and along the Fazenda Track.

Natterer's Slaty Antshrike (Thamnophilus stictocephalus) Found on the Serra, in the Secret Garden and in the rocky area at the end of the Caja trail. Restricted to low stature forest on rocky substrate.

White-shouldered Antshrike (Thamnophilus aethiops) Scarce. Most often seen or heard on the Taboca and Haffer trails, and in the Hotel Fragment.

Plain-winged Antshrike (Thamnophilus schistaceus) Common.

Amazonian Antshrike (Thamnophilus amazonicus) Generally uncommon. Most easily found on the Taboca and Haffer trails, and fairly common along the Fazenda Track.

Barred Antshrike (Thamnophilus duliatus). A female on the Island on 21 April.

Spot-winged Antshrike (Pygiptila stellaris) Fairly common.

Cinereous Antshrike (Thamnomanes caesius) Common and vocal member of understorey flocks.

Saturnine Antshrike (Thamnomanes saturninus) Uncommon. Most regularly observed on the Saleiro loop, in the area of Taboca 900-1,000, and the beginning of the New trail. Often heard near the tower at dawn or dusk.

Amazonian Streaked Antwren (Myrmotherula multostriata) Common. Only in igapo and riverside vegetation.

White-flanked Antwren (Myrmotherula axillaris) Widespread but not particularly common; most often found in scrappy habitat, bamboo, riverine growth or around the Serra.

Plain-throated Antwren (Myrmotherula hauxwelli) Common near the ground, even in Hotel Fragment.

White-eyed Antwren (Myrmotherula leucophthalma) Fairly common.

Ornate Antwren (Myrmotherula ornata) The distinctive local race regularly observed on the Serra, Cacão and New trails. Most frequently in mixed bird flocks. Does not appear to be particularly tied to bamboo at Cristalino.

Pygmy Antwren (Myrmotherula brachyura) Common.

Sclater's Antwren (Myrmotherula sclateri) Fairly common.

Long-winged Antwren (Myrmotherula longipennis) Common.

Grey Antwren (Myrmotherula menetriesii) Common.

Rufous-winged Antwren (Herpsilochmus rufimarginatus) Fairly common. Often heard in riverine forest, and most easily seen on the Serra or in the Secret Garden.

Dot-winged Antwren (Microrhopias quixensis) Observed on the Borboletas trail and the Fazenda Track.

'Emilia's Antwren' (Microrhopias [quixensis] emiliae) Fairly common; regularly seen or heard in areas dominated by bamboo at Cristalino.

White-fringed Antwren (Formicivora grisea) Seen twice on the Serra.

'Xingu Antbird' (Drymophila [devillei] subochracea) Fairly common in bamboo-dominated areas.

Gray Antbird (Cercomacra cinerascens) Common.

Blackish Antbird (Cercomacra nigrescens) Uncommon. Seen or heard on the Taboca, Haffer and Serra trails. Much more commonly heard imitated by Lawrence's Thrush.

Manu Antbird (Cercomacra manu) Found only on the Haffer and Taboca trails. Associated with larger bamboo patches.

White-backed Fire-Eye (Pyriglena leuconota) Usually, but not exclusively, found at Eciton ant swarms. Never seen at ant swarms on the Rochas trail, but present at swarms at the end of the Caja trail, and along the New and Taboca trails.

White-browed Antbird (Myrmoborus leucophrys) Common and vocal, especially in dense vine tangles and bamboo.

Black-faced Antbird (Myrmoborus myotherinus) Fairly common.

Warbling Antbird (Hypocnemis cantator) Common. The populations on different sides of the Teles Pires are separate taxa and differ significantly in voice, although they are both included within 'Spix's Antbird' in a forthcoming review paper..

Yellow-browed Antbird (Hypocnemis hypoxantha). One on the Serra on 9 June (found by B. Whitney) and seen again a few days later, represents the first record from Cristalino.

Band-tailed Antbird (Hypocnemoides maculicauda) Fairly common along the Cristalino and Teles Pires, usually at the water edge.

Spot-winged Antbird (Schistocichla leucostigma) Encountered only by small streams. Seen or heard on a few occasions on the Haffer trail, Taboca trail and at the Saleiro.

Silvered Antbird (Sclateria naevia) Only along the river, where not particularly common, and occasionally at the Saleiro.

Chestnut-tailed Antbird (Myrmeciza hemimelaena) Scarce at Cristalino, with one found on the Serra top in mid June. Scarce along the early part of the road to Alta Floresta and fairly common at the Hotel Fragment.

Black-throated Antbird (Myrmeciza atrothorax) Scarce at Cristalino, where we only saw or heard it on several occasions on the Serra. It is common on the other side of the Teles Pires (Borboletas trail and Fazenda track).

Bare-eyed Antbird (Rhegmatorhina gymnops) Present at the majority of Eciton ant swarms.

Spot-backed Antbird (Hylophylax naevia) Widespread but uncommon. Most easily seen near the Saleiro.

Dot-backed Antbird (Hylophylax punctulata) Uncommon. Usually near the river or other water bodies, and most reliably seen near the Saleiro.

Scale-backed Antbird (Hylophylax poecilinota) Uncommon. The distinctive local race (nigrigularis) occasionally seen at Eciton ant swarms but also found elsewhere. Four caught in mist-nets on the Saleiro loop.

Black-spotted Bare-eye (Phlegopsis nigromaculata) Fairly common. An obligate ant follower, found at most Eciton swarms.

Band-winged Antbird (Myrmornis torquata). One heard and seen near the beginning of the New trail on 8 June. Subequent searching of the area failed to re-find the bird.

Striated Antthrush (Chamaeza nobilis) Uncommon to scarce. Glimpsed on the Rochas loop on one occasion, and heard along the New trail 2-3 times.

Rufous-capped Antthrush (Formicarius colma) Fairly common.

Black-faced Antthrush (Formicarius analis) Widespread but uncommon.

Variegated Antpitta (Grallaria varia) Uncommon and localised. Up to three heard near the Saleiro (audible from the tower) every dawn and dusk, at least in June. Apparently not vocal during the day and unresponsive to tape playback during our visit.

Spotted Antpitta (Hylopezus macularius) Regularly heard calling early or late in the day on the Caja, Rochas and Cacao trails. Seen once on the Caja trail (near Rochas) in April, again near the tower in June. One mist-netted on the New trail on 21 June.

Thrush-like Antpitta (Myrmothera campanisona) Widespread but uncommon; seemingly more vocal in June.

'Snethlage's' Gnateater (Conopophaga [aurita] snethlageae) Widespread and fairly common. Regularly heard in April, but subsequently only heard giving alarm calls or a few sporadic songs early and late in the day. Chestnut-belted Gnateater (Conopophaga aurita) has been reported from the area but was not found by us; it presumably occurs on the other side of the Teles Pires to Cristalino (i.e. no overlap with Snethlage's).

Slender-footed Tyrannulet (Zimmerius gracilipes) Regularly heard in mixed species canopy flocks. One probable seen from the tower on 20 May.

White-lored Tyrannulet (Ornithion inerme) Seen or heard on every visit to the tower and often elsewhere on the trail system.

Southern Beardless Tyrannulet (Camptostoma obsoletum) Fairy common at edge habitats and regular around the lodge.

Mouse-coloured Tyrannulet (Phaeomyias murina) Scarce. One on the Serra on 7 June.

Fuscous Flycatcher (Cnemotriccus fuscatus) Scarce. Observed on the Serra on 6 and 14 June.

Yellow-crowned Tyrannulet (Tyrannulus elatus) Fairly common and widespread by voice. Observed only in June along the river, the Fazenda Track, and from the tower.

Greenish Elaenia (Myiopagis viridicata) Seemingly scarce; only seen or heard at the hill on the New trail.

Forest Elaenia (Myiopagis gaimardii) Common and often heard with canopy flocks.

Gray Elaenia (Myiopagis caniceps) Uncommon but widespread. Most easily seen from the tower, but heard regularly along the Cacao and New trails.

Small-billed Elaenia (Elaenia parvirostris) A couple of individuals were seen with mixed flocks in Cecropia-dominated regrowth around the lodge clearing.

Amazonian Tyrannulet (Inezia subflava) Easily seen with playback on the smallest islands in the Teles Pires river. Not present elsewhere.

Ochre-bellied Flycatcher (Mionectes oleaginous) Scarce. Observed on only four occasions; the only lek we encountered was on top of the hill on the New trail.

Sepia-capped Flycatcher (Leptopogon amaurocephalus) Apparently scarce. Rarely heard and observed only twice.

Yellow Tyrannulet (Capsiempis flaveola) Scarce at Cristalino, where seen only along the Taboca trail. Present on the Island and more common in bamboo patches on the Fazenda Road and Main Road.

Ringed Antpipit (Corythopis torquata) Uncommon but widespread.

Short-tailed Pygmy-Tyrant (Myiornis ecaudatus) Common W of the Teles Pires in the Hotel Fragment, and along the Fazenda Track and the Borboletas trail. At Cristalino only seen or heard around the bungalows, on the Serra, and in the Secret Garden.

Helmeted Pygmy-Tyrant (Lophotriccus galeatus) Common at Cristalino but not present across the Rio Teles Pires.

Snethlage's Tody-Tyrant (Hemitriccus minor) Seen or heard only along the Borboletas trail and the Fazenda Track, and on the Island. Apparently not found at Cristalino itself.

White-bellied Tody-Tyrant (Hemitriccus griseipectus) Uncommon; most often heard near the Saleiro, along the Cacão and the New Trails.

Zimmer's Tody-Tyrant (Hemitriccus aenigma) Present in igapo forest (e.g. Kawall's trail), vine-tangled forest (e.g. the New trail) and in low-stature woodland on rocky substrate (e.g. the Serra, where at least three calling birds were found). Often forages quite high off the ground, making it hard to see well, unless encountered in low forest on the Serra, where it can come very low, especially in response to tape playback.

Spotted Tody-Flycatcher (Todirostrum maculatum) Fairly common on the Island and in scrubby vegetation on offshore islets.

Yellow-browed Tody-Flycatcher (Todirostrum chrysocrotaphum) Scarce or overlooked high canopy species. Most easily seen from the main clearing with a scope. Seen and heard elsewhere along the river and from the tower.

Large-headed Flatbill (Ramphotrigon megacephala) Fairly common, usually in bamboo-dominated areas.

Dusky-tailed Flatbill (Ramphotrigon fuscicauda) Uncommon bamboo specialist, most easily found on the Taboca and Haffer trails.

Rufous-tailed Flatbill (Ramphotrigon ruficauda) Fairly common.

Gray-crowned Flycatcher (Tolmomyias poliocephalus) Uncommon.

Yellow-breasted Flycatcher (Tolmomyias flaviventris) Localised. Seen or heard only on the top of the Serra, in the Secret Garden and on the Island.

Yellow-margined Flycatcher (Tolmomyias assimilis) Fairly common with subcanopy and canopy flocks.

Yellow-olive Flycatcher (Tolomyias sulphurescens) Seen and heard on several occasions in riverine forest.

Golden-crowned Spadebill (Platyrinchus coronatus) Apparently uncommon, but possibly overlooked since this species is hard to see when not vocalising. Most often heard in riverine woodland along the Taboca and Cacao trails.

Cinnamon-crested Spadebill (Platyrinchus saturatus) Inconspicuous. One seen and mist-netted at the foot of the hill on the New trail on 21 June, another probably heard in transition forest on the Serra in mid-June.

White-crested Spadebill (Platyrinchus platyrhynchos) Widespread and fairly common but rather unobtrusive.

Amazonian Royal Flycatcher (Onychorhynchus coronatus) Scarce. Most often seen or heard on the Taboca trail and along the road to Cristalino.

Ruddy-tailed Flycatcher (Terenotriccus erythrurus) Uncommon or at least inconspicuous. Its unobtrusive vocalisation was most often heard on the Caja and Rochas trails.

Euler's Flycatcher (Lathrotriccus euleri) Fairly common; often heard along the Rochas trail.

Drab Water-Tyrant (Ochthornis littoralis) Only seen near the mouth of the Cristalino, along the Teles Pires and on the Island, but perhaps more common later in the year when water levels are lower.

Long-tailed Tyrant (Colonia colonus) A pair daily from the tower, and observed in at least four other locations.

Bright-rumped Attila (Attila spadiceus) Uncommon to common. One collecting nest material on 29 Apr and 1 May.

Cinnamon Attila (Attila cinnamomeus) Fairly common in igapo or riverine woodland; the riverine sections of the Caja and Taboca trails are best.

Rufous Casiornis (Casiornis rufa) One seen on the Serra on 8 June.

Grayish Mourner (Rhytipterna simplex) Fairly common.

Cinereous Mourner (Laniocera hypopyrra) Fairly common, probably less so than previous species.

Sirystes (Sirystes sibilator) One seen on the Serra on 8 June.

Short-crested Flycatcher (Myiarchus ferox) Fairly common, mostly along the river edges or the main road.

Brown-crested Flycatcher (Myiarchus tyrannulus) Only seen on the Serra, where regular.

Swainson's Flycatcher (Myiarchus swainsoni) One on the Serra on 11 May.

Dusky-capped Flycatcher (Myiarchus tuberculifer) Usually with canopy flocks, quite vocal at dawn and dusk, and regularly seen from the tower.

Great Kiskadee (Pitangus sulphuratus) Fairly common along the river at Cristalino and the Hotel Fragment.

Lesser Kiskadee (Philohydor lictor) Never seen at Cristalino, but present on the fishponds by the hotel in Alta Floresta, where first seen on 6 May.

Boat-billed Flycatcher (Megarynchus pitangua) Scarce at Cristalino, where first encountered on 15 May. Several individuals were audible most days thereafter, especially around the clearing and Serra areas.

Rusty-margined Flycatcher (Myiozetetes cayanensis) Scarce at Cristalino. Seen only along the river near Limao and near the Teles Pires. Common around the Hotel Fragment and along the main road.

Dusky-chested Flycatcher (Myiozetetes luteiventris) Widespread but scarce; seen or heard only eight times, sometimes from the tower.

Streaked Flycatcher (Myiodynastes maculatus) Scarce; seen or heard occasionally on the Serra in June.

Piratic Flycatcher (Legatus leucophaius) Scarce, with two sightings from the tower. Did not seem to be vocal during our visit.

Crowned Slaty-Flycatcher (Griseotyrannus aurantioatrocristatus) Seen daily from the tower in April and the first half of May, but afterwards only sporadically, and only once in June.

Sulphury Flycatcher (Tyrannopsis sulphurea) One seen in swampy and palmy vegetation near the edge of forest on the track between the main road and the Rio Teles Pires.

Tropical Kingbird (Tyrannus melancholicus) Scarce at Cristalino, more common along the road to Alta Floresta from the Teles Pires.

Chestnut-crowned Becard (Pachyramphus castaneus) Scarce. Seen only three times, all in April and early May.

White-winged Becard (Pachyramphus polychopterus) Scarce. Usually encountered around the bungalow clearing; one female was watched nest-building in this clearing on 15 June (low ball nest 2 m up in isolated bush).

Black-capped Becard (Pachyramphus marginatus) Perhaps the most common Becard, sometimes heard at dawn, and regularly encountered with canopy flocks.

Pink-throated Becard (Platypsaris minor) Scarce. A pair seen near the Serra on 16 May, and a young bird seen at the Hotel Fragment on 27 May.

Crested Becard (Platypsaris validus). Scarce. A female seen well on the Rochas trail on 1 May, another seen on the New trail on 16 June.

Masked Tityra (Tityra semifasciata) Common.

Black-crowned Tityra (Tityra inquisitor) Uncommon; seen on a few occasions at Cristalino, usually from the tower, and also nesting at the Hotel Fragment.

Red-headed Manakin (Pipra rubrocapilla) Common at Cristalino and one male heard at the Hotel Fragment (further along the road from the hotel entrance).

Snow-capped Manakin (Pipra nattereri) Highly localised. Only observed on the New trail (near the leaf-cutter ant colony at the beginning of the trail), on Rochas near the entrance to the New trail, and at a fruiting tree near the Saleiro. Not heard calling before mid-May after which small leks were heard on New, Rochas and Haffer trails.

Band-tailed Manakin (Pipra fasciicauda) Widespread and probably common but inconspicuous. Most easily found at leks on the Taboca (450-600m), Haffer and Cacão trail (near bamboo area).

White-crowned Manakin (Pipra pipra) Scarce. A female at the Saleiro in early June, and a male on the Taboca trail in mid-June.

Blue-backed Manakin (Chiroxiphia pareola) Not heard until mid-May, when found to be widespread and relatively common. Best observed on the Rochas loop (left fork, towards the Saleiro) and along the New trail where a lek was situated pathside c.300 m past the stream.

White-bearded Manakin (Manacus manacus) Heard in the Hotel Fragment.

Fiery-capped Manakin (Machaeropterus pyrocephalus) Widespread and fairly common by voice; rarely seen without following up the voice (closer than it sounds).

Flame-crowned Manakin (Heterocercus linteatus) Found in igapo forest. One reliable lek was found on the Kawall trail, and a less reliable one on the Caja trail.

Dwarf-Tyrant Manakin (Tyranneutes stolzmanni) Widespread and fairly common; males attended song-posts throughout our stay.

Thrush-like Mourner (Schiffornis turdinus) Widespread and common.

Purple-throated Cotinga (Porphyrolaema porphyrolaema) One heard singing from the tower on 26 June.

Spangled Cotinga (Cotinga cayana) Relatively common, seen from the tower on most visits and often along the river.

Plum-throated Cotinga (Cotinga maynana). Scarce. A probable female at the main clearing on 10 April.

Pompadour Cotinga (Xipholena punicea) Scarce. A male (probably the same individual) observed from the tower on almost every visit from 28 March to 22 May, but only twice in June. Often landed on the canopy adjacent to the tower giving exceptional views.

White-browed Purpletuft (Iodopleura isabellae) Uncommon, or easily overlooked. Two seen from the tower on 15 May, two below the Serra on 14 June, two along the Fazenda Track on 16 June, three from the tower on 22 June and one there on 25 June.

Screaming Piha (Lipaugus vociferans) Common.

Amazonian Umbrellabird (Cephalopterus ornatus) Uncommon; 1-2 observed on five dates from 11 April onwards, always near the river.

Bare-necked Fruitcrow (Gymnoderus foetidus) Individuals seen regularly from the tower from 19 April onwards, and occasionally along the river. Females seen with nesting material near the tower on 22 May and 22 June.

Wing-barred Piprites (Piprites chloris) Common and vocal in mixed flocks.

White-winged Swallow (Tachycineta albiventer) Small numbers regular along the river.

Brown-chested Martin (Phaeoprogne tapera) Scarce.

Gray-breasted Martin (Progne chalybea) Fairly common.

White-banded Swallow (Atticora fasciata) Common along the Cristalino.

Southern Rough-winged Swallow (Stelgidopteryx ruficollis) Common.

Thrush-like Wren (Campylorhynchus turdinus) Common around Alta Floresta including the Hotel Fragment; only found once (Haffer trail) at Cristalino.

Black-capped Donacobius (Donacobius atricapillus) Seen once along the Main Road.

Tooth-billed Wren (Odontorchilus cinereus) Common and widespread; often seen and heard in canopy flocks, and perhaps most easily seen from the tower.

Moustached Wren (Thryothorus genibarbis) Widespread but uncommon in vine tangles and bamboo.

Buff-breasted Wren (Thryothorus leucotis) Regular in riverside vegetation along the Cristalino and Teles Pires, but not very vocal until June.

House Wren (Troglodytes aedon) Common around Alta Floresta. Scarce at Cristalino; 1-2 occasionally seen or heard in the main clearing and on the Serra.

Southern Nightingale-Wren (Microcerculus marginatus) Fairly common but not very vocal except in early June.

Musician Wren (Cyphorhinus aradus) Uncommon or at least non-vocal during our visit; seen or heard on Caja, Rochas and Cacao trails.

Long-billed Gnatwren (Ramphocaenus melanurus) Common, including in the Hotel Fragment.

Lawrence's Thrush (Turdus lawrencii) Regularly heard: two males attended song posts for much of each day near the Saleiro, and another two near the stream at the Taboca trail. Others were heard occasionally at widely scattered localities.

Hauxwell's Thrush (Turdus hauxwelli) Apparently uncommon, but since this species was not heard to vocalise until June, it may have been more widespread. Calls and song were quite often heard thereafter. It was only seen along the Taboca trail and at the Saleiro, where two adults were feeding young in late June.

White-necked Thrush (Turdus albicollis) Uncommon, or at least non-vocal and inconspicuous. Several seen or heard calling (not singing) along the New trail and one seen from the tower on 23 June.

Rufous-browed Peppershrike (Cyclarhis gujanensis) Generally scarce, though heard regularly on the Serra, and along the Fazenda Track/Main Road.

Slaty-capped Shrike-Vireo (Smaragdolanius leucotis) Fairly common and widespread (even in Hotel Fragment); often heard around the trail system and seen regularly from the tower.

Red-eyed Vireo (Vireo olivaceus) Scarce. Only seen on the Serra and the Borboletas trail.

Golden-crowned Warbler (Basileuterus culicivorus). Scarce. Two observed at the beginning of the Rochas trail on 1 April were probably the same birds observed occasionally in the main clearing in the first two weeks of April. The only other sighting was of one on the Serra trail on 16 May.

Gray-chested Greenlet (Hylophilus semicinereus) Commonly heard near Rio Cristalino, occasionally elsewhere, but rarely seen.

Dusky-capped Greenlet (Hylophilus hypoxanthus) Common; heard with virtually all canopy flocks but more difficult to see.

Tawny-crowned Greenlet (Hylophilus ochraceiceps) Uncommon. Occasionally seen or heard in mixed bird flocks on the Rochas, Taboca and New trails.

Rose-breasted Chat (Granatellus pelzeni) Present in small numbers at the Hotel Fragment. Fairly common at Cristalino, where most easily seen on the Taboca trail. Often in or near bamboo patches or vine-tangled habitat.

Bananaquit (Coereba flaveola) Common on the Serra and on the Island but scarce elsewhere.

Red-billed Pied-Tanager (Lamprospiza melanoleuca) Fairly common. Seen regularly from the tower, less often on the Serra, New and Cacao trails.

Magpie Tanager (Cissopis leveriana) Regular in the vicinity of the Hotel Fragment and along the Fazenda Track/Main Road. Not recorded at Cristalino.

Yellow-backed Tanager (Hemithraupis flavicollis) Generally scarce, but observed on the Borboletas trail and the Fazenda Track on most visits.

White-winged Shrike-Tanager (Lanio versicolor) Widespread and fairly common with canopy and subcanopy mixed flocks.

Flame-crested Tanager (Tachyphonus cristatus) Widespread and common with canopy mixed flocks. Often seen from the tower.

White-shouldered Tanager (Tachyphonus luctuosus) Widespread and common, usually in mixed flocks.

Red-crowned Ant-Tanager (Habia rubica) Uncommon but regularly seen or heard with understorey mixed-species flocks on the Rochas, Taboca and Haffer trails.

Silver-beaked Tanager (Ramphocelus carbo) Fairly common but only found around the clearings.

Palm Tanager (Thraupis palmarum) Relatively common, pairs regularly seen from the tower and around the clearings.

Purple-throated Euphonia (Euphonia chlorotica) Scarce; seemingly restricted to more open, degraded or deciduous forest.

White-lored Euphonia (Euphonia chrysopasta) Fairly common and often heard; most easily seen from the tower and along the river near the main clearing.

White-vented Euphonia (Euphonia minuta) A pair seen gathering nest material in riverine forest along the Caja trail.

Orange-bellied Euphonia (Euphonia xanthogaster) Uncommon; only seen on the Serra, in riverine woodland and in a few canopy flocks.

Rufous-bellied Euphonia (Euphonia rufiventris) Fairly common and heard in most canopy flocks.

Thick-billed Euphonia (Euphonia laniirostris) Scarce. One on the Serra on 16 May.

Turquoise Tanager (Tangara mexicana) Scarce. One from the tower 12 May.

Paradise Tanager (Tangara chilensis) Relatively uncommon; seen infrequently but often heard with canopy flocks, especially along the Fazenda track. 

Green-and-gold Tanager (Tangara schrankii) Uncommon. Small numbers seen occasionally with canopy flocks.

Bay-headed Tanager (Tangara gyrola) Fairly common and widespread.

Blue-necked Tanager (Tangara cyanicollis) Scarce. Two from the Serra top on 16 May.

Masked Tanager (Tangara nigrocincta) Scarce. Two seen from the Serra top on 9 June.

Opal-rumped Tanager (Tangara velia) Scarce. Only seen on 5 occasions, of which 2 were from the tower.

Black-faced Dacnis (Dacnis lineata) Fairly common; regularly observed from the tower.

Yellow-bellied Dacnis (Dacnis flaviventer) Uncommon; observed from the tower and quite regularly in canopies along the river.

Blue Dacnis (Dacnis cayana) Fairly common.

Green Honeycreeper (Chlorophanes spiza) Fairly common.

Short-billed Honeycreeper (Cyanerpes nitidus) Fairly common. Regularly observed from the tower and along the Fazenda track. Seemed commonest, or at least most easily seen, in open rocky forest at the Serra and the Secret Garden.

Purple Honeycreeper (Cyanerpes caeruleus) Fairly common; seen on most visits to the Serra top.

Chestnut-vented Conebill (Conirostrum speciosum) Highly localised. Only seen on two occasions on the Serra.

Swallow Tanager (Tersina viridis) Scarce and unrecorded before 29 April. Occasionally seen from the tower and along the river. A pair in the Secret Garden on 22 June were collecting nesting material.

Blue-black Grassquit (Volatinia jacarina) Common along the Main Road in pasture and roadside grasses.

Pectoral Sparrow (Arremon taciturnus) Scarce, or at least inconspicuous. Two individuals seen along the New trail.

Red-capped Cardinal (Paroaria gularis) Fairly common along the river.

Yellow-shouldered Grosbeak (Parkerthraustes humeralis) Seen on at least half the visits to the tower in April and early May, but much rarer thereafter until late June, when again regularly observed. Also seen once along the Cacao trail and once along the New trail, often in small groups of 2-4 accompanying mixed canopy flocks.

Slate-coloured Grosbeak (Pitylus grossus) Common by voice, but infrequently seen.

Buff-throated Saltator (Saltator maximus) Fairly common.

Grayish Saltator (Saltator caerulescens) Heard on the Island, and in scrappy habitats along the Main Road.

Crested Oropendola (Psarocolius decumanus) Fairly common.

Amazonian Oropendola (Gymnostinops bifasciatus) Fairly common. Small numbers, often mixed with previous species, passed the tower at dusk on many evenings, presumably heading to a communal roost.

Yellow-rumped Cacique (Cacicus cela) Seasonal visitor? Not seen at Cristalino until early June, and then only regularly in the second half of the month, with up to four birds together. Common around Alta Floresta.

Red-rumped Cacique (Cacicus haemorrhous)  Fairly common in the Hotel Fragment but scarce at Cristalino, where three birds were seen from the tower on 24 June.

Epaulet Oriole (Icterius cayanensis) Fairly common at Cristalino, most regularly seen around the clearings but often heard in tall forest.

Giant Cowbird (Scaphidura oryzivora) Occasional in flight along Rio Cristalino, usually near the Teles Pires. Once seen flying past the tower.

House Sparrow (Passer domesticus) A few in Alta Floresta.

Mammals (non-volant species)

There is a list of recorded and expected mammals on the Cristalino website. [The Neotropical Rainforest Mammals field guide (Emmons & Feer) disappeared from the library during our visit - if you have a copy to donate, please take it to the lodge!].

Giant Armadillo at the Saleiro (FL)

Common Oppossum (Didelphis marsupialis) Seen once along the Rochas Trail after dark.

Mouse Opossum sp. (probably either Pale-bellied Woolly Mouse Opossum Micoureus constantinae or Murine mouse opossum Marmosa murina ) Occasionally seen at night around the buildings. Very acrobatic, and fond of bananas.

Southern Tamandua (Tamandua tetradactyla) Apparently quite common. Observed on several occasions (and regularly sighted by other people), once swimming across the river.

Giant Armadillo (Priodontes maximus) One seen by FL crossing the edge of the Saleiro clearing around 7 am.

Nine-banded Armadillo Dasypus novemcinctus One seen stumbling around in undergrowth of the Hotel Fragment at 10 am.

Feline Night-monkey (Aotus infulatus) Regularly heard at night and occasionally seen, even in daylight, along the Rochas Trail and around the main clearing.

Duky Titi Monkey (Callicebus moloch moloch) Not easy to see at Cristalino, where present in small numbers and usually heard distantly. More easily seen in the Hotel Fragment.

Brown Capuchin Monkey (Cebus apella apella) The most commonly observed primate.

White-nosed Saki Monkey (Chiropotes albinasus) Not uncommon, usually seen in small groups and picked up by voice (high thin whistles). Mostly seen in the canopy and subcanopy, in igapo as well as terra firme forest. Regularly seen from the tower in June. Sometimes appeared to be associated with Brown Capuchin groups, and occasionally troops of spider monkeys.

Red Howler Monkey (Alouatta seniculus) Fairly easy to see in the Hotel Fragment.

Red-handed Howler Monkey (Alouatta belzebul) Heard daily at Cristalino but seen much less frequently. Most easily seen around the main clearing, from the Secret Garden and along the Rio Cristalino.

White-bellied Spider Monkey (Ateles belzebuth) Spider-monkeys observed at the Hotel Fragment were of a black-bellied, dark-faced form (similar to those in E Bolivia and SE Peru), included within belzebuth by some authors. Taxonomy unsettled.

White-whiskered Spider Monkey (Ateles marginatus) This localised endemic is easily found in the forests around Cristalino Lodge.

Snethlage's Marmoset (Callithrix emiliae) Unobtrusive. Most regularly observed along the first part of the Rochas and the Figuera trails.

Silvery Marmoset (Callithrix argentata) Some marmosets at the Hotel Fragment show features of this species, others do not. Taxonomy unsettled.

Crab-eating Raccoon (Cerdocyon thous) Observed foraging in shallow water from the Saleiro tree hide on two occasions, once a female accompanied by two mid-sized offspring.

South American Coati (Nasua nasua) A large, tame group (estimated as 30-50) on the Taboca trail on 8 May. Another group of c.10 were seen in the Hotel Fragment in early June.

Kinkajou (Potos flavus) Observed twice at night, once near the clearing and another time on the Rochas Trail. Occasionally heard.

Tayra (Eira barbara) Observed on three occasions, twice on the ground, and once in the canopy.

Neotropical Otter (Lontra longicaudis) Usually solitary. Seen on four occasions along the Cristalino

Giant (River) Otter (Pteronura brasiliensis) Usually in small groups. Remarkably tame when feeding. Observed along the Rio Cristalino on three occasions.

Jaguarundi (Hepailurus yaguarondi) One probably observed along the Taboca Trail in June.  

Jaguar (Panthera onca) Fresh faeces of this species were found on three occasions.

Tapir (Tapiris terrestris) Regularly seen at the Saleiro; FL observed 3 or 4 one morning, including a striped immature; JT observed at least 8 during a full night in the hide. If you spend a night at the observation hide there, or visit the Saleiro very early in the morning (pre-dawn, occasionally just after dawn), you have a very good chance of seeing one or more individuals. They are occasionally seen crossing the river or from boats along the river.

Collared Peccary (Pecari tajacu) Solitary or in small groups (maximum number seen together was 7) Not particularly common, or easy to see well, but occasionally encountered. Visit the Saleiro regularly as the forest dries out, during the day.

White-lipped Peccary (Tayassu pecari) In large groups. FL encountered this species twice. On one occasion (9 May) a group of 104, travelling in a line to the Saleiro in late afternoon, was filmed.

Red Brocket Deer (Mazama americana) While it is likely that at least some, if not most, of the deer that were occasionally seen running away were this species, it was never conclusively identified, partly because most of deer were so shy.

Grey Brocket Deer (Mazama gouazoubira) Seen on at least three occasions, once browsing for a prolonged period 40 m away on the New Trail.

Guianan Squirrel (Sciurus aestuans) Not particularly common; individuals seen roughly every 3-4 days.

Capybara  (Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris) Not easy to observe at Cristalino. Regularly feeds pre-dawn on grass in the main clearing, near the track to the boat landing. Once seen along the river. Much easier to see around the fish ponds near the Hotel Fragment in Cristalino just after dawn or in late afternoon.

Azara´s Agouti (Dasyprocta azarae) Not uncommon, but very difficult to see at Cristalino. In contrast, very easy to see on the lawns around the Hotel Floresta Amazonica, adjacent to the Hotel Fragment.

Brazilian Rabbit (Sylvilagus brasiliensis) Seen once, at night, at the edge of the main clearing.


The diversity and abundance of butterflies that can be observed at Cristalino is truly awesome. Many are depicted at


First and foremost we would like to thank Dona Vitória da Riva Carvalho for giving us the opportunity to work at Cristalino, and for all her help (along with Zuleica Melo) throughout our respective stays. We also thank the staff at CJL - particularly Francisco - and at the Hotel Floresta Amazônica for their kindness and support. We also extend our gratitude to Will and Gill Carter for their generousity and friendship and for sharing with us their expertise on plants and butterflies, as well as their limited supply of Bacardi and Coke.


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