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A Report from

Cristalino Jungle Lodge and Alta Floresta June-Aug 2003,

Alex Kirschel


I spent the period 6th June 2003 - 19th Aug 2003 as a volunteer guide at Cristalino Jungle Lodge (CJL), prior to embarking on Graduate Studies in avian ecology and behaviour, at UCLA. I had previously visited southern Mexico, for two weeks in January, and birded several islands in the Caribbean, but other than that, most of the birdlife in the region was completely new. I was helped during my first week by my predecessor, Alex Lees, and subsequently enjoyed interacting and exchanging information with numerous tour guides visiting the lodge. The birdlife represented a steep learning curve, and one really needed to be committed to this in order to guide effectively. I found I learnt a lot in my first couple of weeks, then much less during the next month. After six weeks or so, I made the next step up to identifying the majority of bird sounds in the forest, which made me a far more effective guide, and helped me trace many more inconspicuous species that I had previously overlooked. Nevertheless, time did run out, and I failed to track down some common, and some less common species that I felt I ought to have found. Slender-footed Tyrannulet, Blackish Antbird, Golden-crowned Spadebill and Black-banded Woodcreeper were conspicuous by their absence; while Spotted Antpitta and Striped Cuckoo were heard often, and sought, but never sighted.

I also found that birds not illustrated in Birds of South America (Ridgely and Tudor), were particularly hard to identify by sight alone, as illustrations in other field guides were of little use. I saw several Tinamous really well, but have lingering doubts to their identity because of the poor illustrations I've had to use to identify them with.

I don't include birds heard only on my life list, but include them here in brackets to indicate that they were recorded at the site. I have two words for those that do: Laurence's Thrush. Even Andrew Whittaker thought he was hearing Chestnut-tailed Antbird from the tower, and after listening to my recording of Lawrence's Thrush, accepted it was indeed the mimic that he had heard, after all.

Systematic List

(Great Tinamou (Tinamus major) Heard often, particularly at dusk from the saleiro stream. Tinamus flushed on several occasions, and one seen dashing across the trail near the rapel on the Rochas, were most probably this species)

White-throated Tinamou (Tinamus guttatus) One seen walking in igapo forest along the Caja Trail 19/6. Heard calling soon after.

Cinereous Tinamou (Crypturellus cinereus) Common by voice, particularly in igapo/varzea. A calling bird seen at the Ciganas 17/8, and one seen very well attending an ant swarm at the Saleiro 28/7. A Crypturellus seen at the same swarm the following day, may have been the same bird, though C. obsoletus could not be ruled out. The behavior of attending ant swarms, recorded by Alex Lees for C. strigulosus, evidently applies to other Crypturellus too.

(Brown Tinamou (Crypturellus obsoletus) Once the call was finally identified, heard both at CJL and around Alta Floresta.)

Undulated Tinamou (Crypturellus undulates) Heard often, particularly by the Teles Pires. One was seen in the varzea by the baranca on the other side of the Teles Pires 1/8, and a calling bird seen very well at the Ciganas 6/8.

(Variegated Tinamou (Crypturellus variegatus) Heard often, particularly around the Saleiro stream. I had crippling views of a Crypturellus 24/7, of a bird seen first 19/7 at the same spot on the Saleiro loop. Based on shocking illustrations, I called it this species, but after further investigation, I now believe it was C. strigulosus.)

Brazilian Tinamou (Crypturellus strigulosus) Heard daily and seen twice, and stunningly well - as indicated under C. variegatus, at around 1km on the Saleiro loop (Rochas). I could watch the bird as long as I liked, as it waltzed out onto the trail in front of me, about 10m away - I eventually had to walk away.

Tataupa Tinamou (Crypturellus tataupa) The most often seen Tinamou. After first discovering one up on the serra 17/7, birds were seen up there on virtually every subsequent visit.

Neotropic Cormorant (Phalacrocorax brasilianus) Seen most weeks along the river.

Anhinga  (Anhinga anhinga) Seen fairly regularly along the river.

Cocoi Heron (Ardea cocoi) Seen fairly often along the lower Cristalino and along the Teles Pires.

Great Egret (Ardea alba) Singles regularly seen around Alta Floresta, the Teles Pires Road and on the Teles Pires, and occasionally along the Cristalino.

Snowy Egret (Egretta thula) Fairly common. Some individuals had distinctly yellow legs, which fooled some visitors into believing they had seen Little Blue Heron - a species unrecorded at the site.

Cattle Egret (Bubulcus ibis) Common around Alta Floresta, evening movements up and down the river occasionally noted.

Striated Heron  (Butorides striatus) Common.

Capped Heron (Pilherodius pileatus) Common.

Rufescent Tiger-Heron (Tigrisoma lineatum) Fairly common.

Zigzag Heron (Zebrilus undulates) Proved a real nemesis. Fellow volunteers Richard and Cindy Tkachuk seemed to find it fairly regularly, particularly along the small stretch of the Taboca trail, in front of the lodge. I tried countless times to find it there, for over six weeks, with no luck. Finally saw one well a couple of days before my departure, at the Ciganas 17/8.

Agami Heron (Agamia agami) Always a sought-after species, I asked Francisco to find me one as we got on the boat to head downriver for the last time, for my departure 19/8. He duly obliged. A stunningly beautiful bird, and without a doubt one of the highlights of my stay. My last lifer at Cristalino

Boat-billed Heron (Cochlearius cochlearia) Seen perhaps four times along the river, on exposed rocks, while spotlighting at night.

Green Ibis (Mesembrinibis cayennensis) Common.

American Wood Stork  (Mycteria americana) Common. Large roosts observed on bare trees on the island.

King Vulture (Sarcoramphus papa) Fairly Common.

Black Vulture (Coragyps atratus) Common, as Alex Lees has previously reported, this species has increased in numbers along the Cristalino (cf. reports of Samuel Hansson and Curtis Marantz).

Turkey Vulture (Cathartes aura) Probably overlooked, seen on occasions around Alta Floresta, and along the Teles Pires road.

Greater Yellow-headed Vulture (Cathartes melambrotus) Common.

Black-bellied Whistling-duck (Dendrocygna autumnalis) Groups of up to 40 birds seen occasionally along the Teles Pires, in the vicinity of the island.

Brazilian Duck (Amazonetta brasiliensis) Regular on the Alta Floresta Lakes.

Muscovy Duck (Cairina moschata) Scarce along the river. Wild birds seen on a few occasions in early June. Birds seen on the Teles Pires in August appeared to be feral-type, of which there are many in Alta Floresta.

White-tailed Kite (Elanus leucurus) Seen on two occasions, once in Alta Floresta, at some fields near the airport; and once along the Teles Pires road.

Pearl Kite (Gampsonix swainsonii) One bird seen at the Hotel in Alta Floresta, one at the Mauritia Palm swamp along the Teles Pires road, and one seen regularly near the fazenda at Limao.

Swallow-tailed Kite (Elanoides forficatus) Common

Gray-headed Kite (Leptodon cayanensis) One seen at the Saleiro 15/6, along the river near Limao 18/6 and 24/7, one in display flight over the clearing 1/8, and one thought to be a juvenile but intermediate between the two morphs 17/8.

Hook-billed Kite (Chondrohierax uncinatus) Fairly common. Stunning views of perched birds obtained along the saleiro stream.

Double-toothed Kite (Harpagus bidentatus) One seen regularly from the tower, while others seen occasionally along the river.

Plumbeous Kite (Ictinia plumbea) Common at Cristalino and in Alta Floresta

Tiny Hawk (Accipiter superciliosus) One from the tower on 10/6

Gray-bellied Goshawk (Accipiter poliogaster) One seen perched along the river 10/7, and one flew by the tower 11/8.

Short-tailed Hawk (Buteo brachyurus) A pair seen well (including perched), at Alta Floresta, and birds seen a couple of times at Cristalino, from the clearing and on the new trail.

Gray-lined Hawk (Asturina nitida) An adult and a juvenile seen often in Alta Floresta

Roadside Hawk (Rupornis magnirostris) Seen once in Alta Floresta.

White Hawk (Leucopternis albicollis) Seen several times on the Serra.

White-browed Hawk (Leucopternis kuhli) Seen three times from the tower, and once from the clearing. A pair IS still present at the fragment in Alta Floresta  - Judy Davis pers. comm. Cf Alex Lees report.

Black-collared Hawk (Busarellus nigricollis) Regular at the Ciganas.

Great Black Hawk (Buteogallus urubutinga) Common.

Ornate Hawk-Eagle (Spizaetus ornatus) An adult was seen in display flight, and recorded calling, up on the Serra, 31/7.

Black Hawk-Eagle (Spizaetus tyrannus) Seen on several occasions, particularly up at Limao.

Crane Hawk (Geranospiza caeruscens) One seen well at the Ciganas 28/6.

Black Caracara (Daptrius ater) Common.

Red-throated Caracara (Daptrius americanus) Common

Laughing Falcon (Herpetotheres cachinnans) Observed only once, along the Teles Pires Road.

Barred Forest-Falcon (Micrastur ruficollis) A pair seen and heard at the start of the Rochas 14/8. Heard on occasions along the Rochas and in Alta Floresta.

(Collared Forest-Falcon (Micrastur semitorquatus) Heard for a week or so, starting 23/7, along the Saleiro loop.)

Slaty-backed Forest-Falcon (Micrastur mirandoleii) An adult male scoped by the football field at the Hotel in Alta Floresta. The bird was being harassed by a Bare-necked Fruitcrow, and sported a damaged eye.

Cryptic Forest-Falcon (Micrastur mintoni) This newly described species (Whittaker 2003) was seen several times at the Saleiro and on the New trail, and once at the start of the Amazon Kawalli trail.

American Kestrel (Falco sparverius) One seen on the Teles Pires Road.

Bat Falcon (Falco rufigularis) Common

Aplomado Falcon (Falco femoralis) One seen attacking doves in fields near the airport in Alta Floresta 21/7. This species was previously not known to occur in the region, and other observers may have overlooked it in the past, possibly even confusing it with the much rarer Falco deiroleucus. A large falcon seen poorly by Alex Lees previously in the same area, was probably also this species.

Spix's Guan (Penelope jacquacu) Fairly common.

Red-throated Piping-Guan (Pipile cujubi) Common

Bare-faced Curassow (Crax fasciolata) The same group of three birds - a pair and a dependent immature male, seen often around the lodge, along the Taboca, Rochas and Caja trails, and occasionally on the other side of the Cristalino. Different birds seen once down river.

Razor-billed Curassow (Mitu tuberosa) Seen first on the Haffer Trail 12/6, and then not again for a month, after which they were seen almost daily, usually on the river banks, but also at times on the trails.

Marbled Wood-Quail (Odontophorus gujanensis) Parties seen on various trails, and heard often on the Saleiro loop and along the Teles Pires.

Hoatzin (Opisthocomus hoazin) Common at the Ciganas.

Limpkin (Aramus guarauna) Seen on occasion at Alta Floresta Lakes.

Dark-winged Trumpeter (Psophia viridis) A group of eight birds watched feeding on the Cacao trail 3/8.

Gray-necked Wood-Rail (Aramides cajanea) One bird seen several times along the short stretch of the Taboca in front of the lodge.

American Purple Gallinule (Porphyrula martinica) A juvenile seen on the island

Sunbittern (Eurypyga helias) Seen almost daily along the river.

Wattled Jacana (Jacana jacana) Common.

Southern Lapwing (Vanellus chilensis) Common.

Pied Plover (Hoploxypterus cayanus) Regular on exposed sand spits on the island.

Large-billed Tern (Phaetusa simplex) One on the Teles Pires 13/6. Since I never observed this species subsequently, I wonder whether its occurrence in the region has become more sporadic.

Scaled Pigeon (Columba speciosa) Seen irregularly at Limao and the Ciganas.

Picazuro Pigeon (Columba picazuro) Fairly common around Alta Floresta and along the Teles Pires Road.

Pale-vented Pigeon (Columba cayennensis) Common.

Ruddy Pigeon (Columba subvinacea) Common.

Plumbeous Pigeon (Columba plumbea) Common

Ruddy Ground-Dove (Columbina talpacoti) Common.

Blue-Ground-Dove (Claravis pretiosa) Common.

White-tipped Dove (Leptotila verreauxi) Common around Alta Floresta, and one bird seen several times on the Serra.

Gray-fronted Dove (Leptotila rufaxilla) A pair regular around the bungalows and others occasionally seen along the river.

Ruddy-Quail-Dove (Geotrygon montana) Seen on the Taboca, along the Saleiro stream and on the new trail. Heard often. I never observed any Geotrygon crossing the river, though other observers seemed to from time to time.

Violaceous Quail-Dove (Geotrygon violacea) A female seen well on the Figuera 29/7. Called regularly in July, along the Taboca, the Cacao and around the Saleiro,  but silent in August.

Blue-and-Yellow Macaw (Ara ararauna) Regular from the tower, and common in Alta Floresta.

Scarlet Macaw (Ara macao) Common.

Red-and-Green Macaw (Ara chloroptera) Regularly observed, particularly at Limao.

Chestnut-fronted Macaw (Ara severa) Common.

Red bellied Macaw (Orthopsittaca manilata) Common around Alta Floresta and along the Teles Pires road.

White-eyed Parakeet (Aratinga leucophthalmus) Abundant.

Crimson-bellied Parakeet (Pyrrhura rhodogaster) Common around the Hotel and seen on numerous occasions at CJL from the river, and particularly at the Saleiro.

Painted Parakeet (Pyrrhura picta) Very common. I have been informed that the paper describing this as a new taxon, Helmayr's Parakeet (Pyrrhura amazonum) (Joseph 2002), is fundamentally flawed, (J. Penhallurick pers comm.), lacking any indication of differences in mitochondrial DNA.

Dusky-billed Parrotlet (Forpus sclateri) Common, particularly around the floating deck area and at Limao.

Golden-winged Parakeet (Brotogeris chrysopterus) Abundant.

White-bellied Parrot (Pionites leucogaster) Common. Seen regularly from the tower, often up on the Serra, and heard along the trails.

Orange-cheeked Parrot (Pionopsitta barrabandi) Seen perched once from the river close to the Haffer trail on the 12/6, a small group flew past the tower 6/8, and a few more observed feeding on the new trail 14/8.

Blue-headed Parrot (Pionus menstruus) Abundant.

Yellow-crowned Amazon (Amazona ochrocephala) The most regularly seen Amazona.

Orange-winged Amazon (Amazona amazonica) Seen once at Limao 14/6.

Mealy Amazon (Amazona farinose) Common around Alta Floresta, and seen twice at Cristalino, once at the Saleiro and once from the tower.

Kawall's Amazon (Amazona kawalli) Not identified during my first month at CJL, but found regularly subsequently - especially after learning its vocalisations, particularly from the tower and along the river.

Red-fan Parrot (Deroptyus accipitrinus) Fairly common around CJL and in Alta Floresta

Pheasant Cuckoo (Dromococcyx phasianellus) One bird seen on the Serra 10/8. Heard there twice, and once at the end of the new trail, calling from the island.

(Striped Cuckoo (Taperia naevia) Heard on at least three occasions way off trail on the island.)

Squirrel Cuckoo (Piaya cayana) Common.

Black-bellied Cuckoo (Piaya melanogaster) Common.

Little Cuckoo (Piaya minuta) Regular in suitable low scrub, by the river and the bungalows.

Smooth-billed Ani (Crotophaga ani) Abundant.

Greater Ani (Crotophaga major) Only seen once, at the Ciganas 28/6.

Tawny-bellied Screech-Owl (Otus watsonii) One bird seen 9/8 on the Saleiro loop, but heard often around CJL and Alta Floresta.

Crested Owl (Lophostrix cristata) One seen well from the football field in Alta Floresta 12/8. Heard along the river, from the tower, along the Rochas and in AF.

Amazonian Pygmy-Owl (Glaucidium hardyi) A pair first observed mating from the Clearing 21/6, and seen there regularly thereafter. Others seen from the tower and on the New trail. Heard often.

Burrowing Owl (Athene cunicularia) Common along the Teles Pires road.

Great Potoo (Nyctibius grandis) A day-roosting bird seen on every trip up river, just past the start of the Amazon Kawalli trail. Occasionally seen while spotlighting at night.

Common Potoo (Nyctibius griseus) Regularly spotlighted along the river. An individual perched at the mouth of the Cristalino was photographed well, displaying a clear white malar streak; a feature supposedly only present on Long-tailed Potoo. However, the bird's remaining characteristics did indicate N. griseus. More work is required to understand whether this might be an undescribed  species / subspecies.

Short-tailed Nighthawk (Lurocalis semitorquatus) Common

Pauraque (Nyctridomus albicollis) Common

Ocellated Poorwill (Niyctiphrynus ocellatus) Seen on several occasions along the Saleiro loop, and once in the igapo of the Taboca. Twice observed in daylight.

Blackish Nightjar (Caprimulgus nigrescens) Very common and conspicuous in rocky areas, around the clearing and the baranca.

Ladder-tailed Nightjar  (Hydropsalis climacocerca) Fairly common along the river.

Chapman's Swift (Chaetura chapmani) Seen regularly from the tower, and on occasion up on the Serra. Some consider the race here a separate species, Amazonian Swift (Chaetura viridipennis)

Gray-rumped Swift (Chaetura cinereiventris) Common. In mixed flocks this species can often appear rather short-tailed, and several visitors seem to have misidentified them as the less common and far shorter tailed C. brachyra.

Pale-rumped Swift (Chaetura egregia) Common. 

Short-tailed Swift (Chaetura brachyura) Seen occasionally along the Cristalino and more regularly up at Limao

Lesser Swallow-tailed Swift (Panyptila cayennensis) Two birds seen from the tower 6/8.

Fork-tailed Palm-Swift (Tachornis squamata) Common around the palm grove close to the Ciganas and around Alta Floresta in suitable habitats.

Great-billed Hermit (Phaetornis malaris) Large hermits presumed to be this species were fairly common in the terra firme. There seems to be considerable debate as to how many and which species of large hermits occur here in northern Mato Grosso and it is possible that either P. supercilliosusor P. hispidus could also occur.

Reddish Hermit (Phaetornis rubber) Fairly common. Seen regularly along the Saleiro stream, and in the hotel fragment. Some Hermits appearing to be slightly larger were also thought to be this species, as plumage details (such as the dark chest crescent), were noted. Medium sized hermits were seen on occasion, but never displayed the white belly illustrated for P. longuemareus, which other observers have claimed occurs here. More work is required to understand which Phaetornis are truly present in the region.

Gray-breasted Sabrewing (Campylopterus largipennis) Fairly common.

White-necked Jacobin  (Florisuga mellivora) Uncommon. Seen more often in my first week at Cristalino, than in the following two months.

Black-throated Mango (Anthracothorax nigricollis) Common.

Festive Coquette (Lophornis chalybea) A pair seen up on the Serra 18/6.

Black-bellied Thorntail (Discosura langsdorffi) A female from the tower on the 10/6 attending flowering Inga trees, and a male watched - and filmed - for several minutes, preening on the Serra. A female seen up there subsequently.

Fork-tailed Woodnymph (Thalurania furcata) Common.

White-chinned Sapphire (Hylocharis cyanus) A bird was found regularly singing near the start of the Taboca, till about mid July, after which it was silent and never observed again. Others were seen occasionally on the Caja and up on the Serra.

Versicolored Emerald (Amazilia versicolor) Common, once I realised that it was not 'just another female hummingbird'

Black-eared Fairy (Heliothryx aurita) Seen far more commonly than 'the other white hummingbird',F. mellivora, particularly from the tower, up on the Serra, and on other occasions at Limao, on the Haffer, at the Saleiro stream, and from the clearing.

Long-billed Starthroat (Heliomaster longirostris) Fairly regular up on the Serra.

Amethyst Woodstar (Calliphlox amethystine) Seen several times up on the Serra, along the Caja and in the clearing.

Black-tailed Trogon (Trogon melanurus) Common.

White-tailed Trogon (Trogon viridis) Common.

Collared Trogon (Trogon collaris) Common.

Black-throated Trogon (Trogon rufus) This species is genuinely rare at Cristalino. Never heard, but seen finally on my penultimate day at CJL 18/8. A female seen well on the new trail, while a male a few feet away, was probably its partner, though only the lower back and tail could be observed.

Blue-crowned Trogon (Trogon curucui) Fairly common, and sedentary. Recorded on virtually every visit to the Saleiro, and pairs also observed around the Clearing, up on the Serra, and in Alta Floresta.

Violaceous Trogon (Trogon violaceus) Uncommon, seen most regularly from the Tower and around the Saliero.

Ringed Kingfisher (Ceryle torquata) Regular along the river.

Amazon Kingfisher (Chloroceryle amazona) The commonest kingfisher.

Green Kingfisher (Chloroceryle americana) Fairly common along the river.

Green-and-Rufous Kingfisher (Chloroceryle inda) Fairly common, though less often recorded than the above three species.

American Pygmy Kingfisher (Chloroceryle aenea) Fairly common, but inconspicuous. Seen occasionally flying across the river, and perched a couple of times.

Broad-billed Motmot (Electron platyrhynchum) Commonly seen along the Saleiro stream, and also observed in bamboo, along the Taboca and by the river, on the Cacao trail.

Blue-crowned Motmot (Momotus momota) Common.

Brown Jacamar (Brachygalba lugubris) One observed on several occasions on the island, up to mid july. Subsequently absent.

Blue-necked Jacamar (Galbula cyanicollis) Common. I didn't find any reason to confuse any individual of this species with Yellow-billed Jacamar - all individuals clearly displayed a red throat.

Rufous-tailed Jacamar  (Galbula ruficauda) Common along the river's edge, on the island and around secondary habitats.

Paradise Jacamar (Galbula dea) Common.

Great Jacamar (Jacamerops aurea) Uncommon. Only observed on the new trail and at the junction of the Rochas and Caja trails.

White-necked Puffbird (Notharchus macrorhynchus) Observed at the hotel in Alta Floresta, regularly from the tower, and also on the new trail.

Brown-banded Puffbird (Notharchus ordii) One by the river at the start of the Serra Trail 12/6. One down river 24/7, and a pair seen well up on the Serra 5/8

Pied Puffbird (Notharchus tectus) One bird seen several times up on the Serra, during the first six weeks of my stay, and one seen by the ponds in Alta Floresta.

Spotted Puffbird (Bucco tamatia) One bird seen on two consecutive visits up to the Serra 11/7 and 17/7.

Striolated Puffbird (Nystalus striolatus) Regularly seen up on the Serra, and by the bungalows, and also at Limao and on the Cacao trail. The individual on the Serra was observed twice, and the one by the bungalows once, displaying very large prey items, namely a lizard, a caterpillar and a grasshopper respectively, often for a period of a couple of hours.

Rufous-necked Puffibrd (Malacoptila rufa) A pair found near the start of the New trail 2/8, and a nestling observed a couple of times at a nest discovered on the Cacao trail, during the following two weeks. Activity at the nest was subsequently filmed, the first time any such behavior has been taped for this species.

Rufous-capped Nunlet (Nonnula ruficapilla) One on the Cacao trail 22/7.

Black-fronted Nunbird (Monasa nigrifrons) Abundant, in clearings and near water.

White-fronted Nunbird (Monasa morphoeus) Common in the forest.

Swallow-wing Puffbird (Chelidoptera tenebrosa) Abundant.

Black-girdled Barbet (Capito dayi) Fairly common, usually at fruiting cercropia. Most regularly observed from the tower, but also commonly in the clearing, and once in Alta Floresta.

Chestnut-eared Aracari (Pteroglossus castanotis) Fairly common around clearings and by the river.

Black-necked Aracari (Pteroglossus aracari) I can confirm the presence of this species at Cristalino. A small group is present in the vicinity of the Haffer trail. A calling bird aroused the local guide, George's interest, and I saw the bird clearly, from the Haffer trail 10/7. A group of four birds seen well, by the river, on the opposite bank of the Haffer trail 24/7.

Lettered Aracari (Pteroglossus inscriptus) Common.

Red-necked Aracari (Pteroglossus bitorquatus) The commonest Pteroglossus.

Curl-crested Aracari (Pteroglossus beauharnaesii) Common, usually seen from the tower, along the river, near the Saleiro, up on the Serra or on the new trail.

Gould's Toucanet (Selenidera gouldii) Fairly common. Seen and heard from the Tower, up at Limao, on the Serra trail, and on the new trail.

Channel-billed Toucan (Ramphastos vitellinus) Common.

Red-billed Toucan (Ramphastos tucanus) Common - formerly known as Cuvier's Toucan (del Hoyo et al. 1999), and also known as White-throated Toucan.

Bar-breasted Piculet (Picumnus aurifrons) Fairly common, recorded, usually in pairs, with mixed flocks on a number of trails, and from the clearing.

Yellow-throated Woodpecker (Piculus flavigula) Fairly common.

Golden-green Woodpecker (Piculus chrysochloros) Uncommon, recorded on perhaps 5 occasions.

Chestnut Woodpecker (Celeus elegans) Uncommon

Scaly-breasted Woodpecker (Celeus grammicus) Uncommon

Cream-coloured Woodpecker (Celeus flavus) Having observed this species just once, a pair way up river 18/6; I wonder whether this is indicative of seasonal movements, seeing as my predecessor recorded this species on numerous occasions, much closer to the lodge.

Ringed Woodpecker (Celeus torquatus) Perhaps the commonest recorded Celeus, though certainly uncommon, and most records perhaps pertaining to the same pair, present near the Tower. 'Heard-only merchants' should beware of Lawrence's Thrush imitations of its distinctive call

Lineated Woodpecker (Dryocopus lineatus) Fairly common.

Yellow-tufted Woodpecker (Melanerpes cruentatus) Abundant.

Little Woodpecker (Veniliornis passerinus) A calling pair observed poorly in varzea on the island 7/8.

Red-stained Woodpecker (Veniliornis affinis) Common, often with mixed flocks. 

Crimson-crested Woodpecker  (Campephilus melanoleucos) Commonly observed up on the Serra, and also seen near the Teles Pires and on the Taboca trail.

Red-necked Woodpecker (Campephilus rubricollis) Fairly common.

Plain-crowned Spinetail (Synallaxis gujanensis) A pair seen, after pishing at Limao 22/6. Heard on every subsequent visit to Limao, once on the island, and a spinetail giving a single note call up on the Serra may also have been this species.

Ruddy Spinetail (Synallaxis rutilans) A pair seen on the New trail 30/7, where heard calling regularly. A Synallaxis seen in the hotel fragment six weeks earlier, was also probably this species.

Chestnut-throated Spinetail (Synallaxis cherriei) Common. Seen on the Haffer, Taboca, Rochas and Serra trails, usually in bamboo. 

Rusty-backed Spinetail (Cranioleuca vulpina) A pair seen in riverside vegetation near the floating deck 26/7.

Speckled Spinetail (Cranioleuca gutturata) A pair observed well in an understory mixed flock near the baranca on the Teles Pires Road 1/8, and one again in the same area 16/8. One also seen in a canopy flock at the Saleiro stream 2/8.

Point-tailed Palmcreeper (Berlepschia rikeri) After several failed attempts, I finally saw this bird well on 11/8 and 13/8 at the Mauritia Palm swamp on theTeles Pires Road.

Striped Woodhaunter (Hyloctistes subulatus) Uncommon. Seen twice in understory mixed flocks, once on the Haffer 15/7, and Taboca 25/7.

Chestnut-winged Hookbill  (Ancitrops strigilatus) Fairly common with canopy mixed flocks, sometimes around the clearing.

Rufous-rumped Foliage-Gleaner (Philydor erythrocercus) Fairly common in mixed understory flocks

Chestnut-winged Foliage-Gleaner (Philydor erythropterus) I found this to be rather uncommon, not seeing one till 30/7, in a canopy flock near the saleiro stream, and found probably the same bird a couple more times subsequently.

Rufous-tailed Foliage-Gleaner (Philydor ruficaudatus) Fairly common.

Olive-backed Foliage-Gleaner (Automolus infuscatus) Uncommon in the undergrowth. First seen on the saleiro loop 28/7 and then at the start of the new trail 9/8, where it was often heard vocalising.  A recent paper describes the race here as a new species: Pará Foliage-Gleaner (Automolus paraensis) (Zimmer 2002)

Buff-throated Foliage-Gleaner (Automolus ochrolaemus) Fairly common with understory mixed flocks, sometimes solitary, often very close to the ground in the undergrowth, where quite skulking. Has quite a repertoire of vocalisations, which regularly caused confusion.

Chestnut-crowned Foliage-Gleaner (Automolus rufipileatus) Fairly common though often hard to see in mixed flocks. Seen on various trails, and heard often.

Crested Foliage-Gleaner (Anabazenops dorsalis) Uncommon in the bamboo. First seen 2/7 on the Taboca, where seen two further times in the following two weeks. Note that this species is known by two other common names which are certainly more appropriate: Dusky-cheeked Foliage-Gleaner, and Bamboo Foliage-Gleaner (perhaps the most apt).

Plain Xenops (Xenops minutus) Common with and independent of mixed flocks.

Streaked Xenops (Xenops rutilans) One seen well up on the serra 17/7. Other observers have claimed that the Streaked Xenops up on the Serra could be a new taxon lacking a malar streak. Having observed it carefully, it does have a clear white malar streak, though smaller and less conspicuous than that on Xenops minutus. I observed the bird again subsequently.  Braulio Carlos saw and confirmed the presence of X. rutilans up on the Serra, with small white malar streak 19/8 (pers. comm.). I am not aware whether the malar streak on X. rutilans elsewhere is more prominent, and therefore providing possible evidence for speciation.

Tawny-throated Leaftosser (Sclerurus mexicanus) One responded well to playback of its call on the new trail 15/8.

Short-billed Leaftosser (Sclerurus rufigularis) A pair first seen on the taboca 3/7, and again the following day. A singing bird seen at the saleiro stream 17/8, where at least three species of leaftosser had been recorded over a period of a couple of weeks.

Gray-throated Leaftosser (Sclerurus albigularis) One on a termite mound by the Rapel 16/7, and another bird seen and heard several times by the saleiro stream. Also heard at the beginning of the Serra.

Plain-brown Woodcreeper (Dendrocincla fuliginosa) Only recorded at ant swarms perhaps three times, on the Rochas, Taboca and Castanheira trails.

White-chinned Woodcreeper (Dendrocincla merula) Fairly common, and confiding, at ant swarms.

Spot-throated Woodcreeper (Deconychura stictolaema) One seen well in an understory mixed flock on the Taboca 16/7.

Long-tailed Woodcreeper (Deconychura longicauda) Seen four times. On the Caja, Cacao, New trail and along the Saleiro stream. Heard singing on virtually every visit to the tower.

Olivaceous Woodcreeper (Sittasomus griseicapillus) Fairly common, usually with mixed flocks. Seen on most visits to the Serra.

Wedge-billed Woodcreeper  (Glyphorhynchus spirurus) Common, a nest was located in mid June on the Rochas trail, situated in a large tree crevice about 70cm off the ground, by the Rapel, where I understand a brood was also discovered in mid April (Alex Lees pers. comm.). The adult was often flushed from here, and even observed 'wallcreeping' on the rocks.

Long-billed Woodcreeper (Nasica longirostris) First seen by the clearing 10/6, where heard often at dawn, and seen subsequently a couple of times at the Saleiro, once on the Cacao, at the Baranca, and along the river.

Strong-billed Woodcreeper (Xiphocolaptes promeropirhynchus) Scarce. First recorded 25/6 on the Haffer, but I now regard some of my records of this species as unsatisfactory, having had problems confusing it with Xiphorhynchus eytoni, before learning their respective vocalisations. Once seen in bad light perched more like a puffbird.

Cinnamon-throated Woodcreeper (Dendrexetastes rufigula) A pair seen in the Hotel fragment 4/8. Note that the race here has little if any spotting at all.

Uniform Woodcreeper (Hylexetastes uniformis) Rare. One observed for several minutes, and photographed, on the Rochas 26/6. Not seen again till 14/8, on the Saleiro loop.

Amazonian Barred Woodcreeper (Dendrocolaptes certhia) Fairly common.

Straight-billed Woodcreeper  (Xiphorhynchus picus) Seen regularly on the island.

Dusky-billed Woodcreeper (Xiphorhynchus eytoni) Very common. Certainly the commonest Woodcreeper by voice.

Striped Woodcreeper (Xiphorhynchus obsoletus) Regular along the river in igapo/varzea forest.

Spix's Woodcreeper (Xiphorhynchus spixii/elegans) Common.

Lineated Woodcreeper (Lepidocolaptes albolineatus) Common with canopy mixed flocks.

Red-billed Scythebill (Campylorhamphus trochilirostris) A scythebill foraging at midlevels with a mixed flock in the igapo of the Taboca Trail on the 17/6 was almost certainly this species. Not heard vocalising, but larger, with a longer bill than C. procurvoides. Further observation are certainly needed, and a recording of its voice is imperative.

Curve-billed Scythebill (Campylorhamphus procurvoides) Fairly common in bamboo. Often seen near the rocks on the Rochas, on the Saleiro loop, and on the Taboca trail. Both Andrew Whittaker and Braulio Carlos believe these birds appear to have smaller bills than other races of C. procurvoides. The voice is also very distinct from the nominate form. There is certainly much scope for work on the scythebills at Cristalino.

Fasciated Antshrike (Cymbilaimus lineatus) Common, usually with mixed flocks.

Great Antshrike (Taraba major) One with a mixed flock in varzea scrub on the south bank of the Teles Pires 10/6.

Glossy Antshrike (Sakesphorus luctuosus) Common along the River, on the Island, at Limao and at the Ciganas.

Chestnut-backed Antshrike (Thamnophilus palliatus) Seen with some regularity with mixed flocks in the bamboo of the Taboca and Haffer trails, but also often in varzea and secondary scrub, at Limao, on the island and along the river.

Natterer's Slaty Antshrike (Thamnophilus stictocephalus) Seen several times in suitable dry scrub on the Serra trail. Playback is usually required to see this inconspicuous antshrike, usually low down in the undergrowth.

White-shouldered Antshrike (Thamnophilus aethiops) Scarce and inconspicuous. A pair seen on three occasions in the Hotel fragment, and possibly once on the Taboca.

Plain-winged Antshrike (Thamnophilus schistaceus) Common, and sings all day. Usually quite sedentary, but also found moving around in mixed flocks on several occasions.

Amazonian Antshrike (Thamnophilus amazonicus) Uncommon, seen several times in bamboo and varzea, on the Haffer, Taboca and Borbolettas trails, and at the Ciganas.

Spot-winged Antshrike (Pygiptila stellaris) Fairly common in canopy flocks. I found this species to be far less common than my predecessor.

Cinereous Antshrike (Thamnomanes caesius) Invariably the flock leader of understory flocks, and the commonest antshrike recorded.

Saturnine Antshrike (Thamnomanes saturninus) At least two pairs recorded at Cristalino. A pair at the Saleiro stream was seen or heard on most visits to the area during my last month, after first discovering it 30/6. A pair on the Caja extension, previously discovered by Alex Lees, was observed once, while another bird was seen along the Rochas once, but may be the same bird. Often heard singing from the tower. Also seen in the Hotel fragment.

Amazonian Streaked Antwren (Myrmotherula multostriata) Common at the river's edge, sometimes with mixed flocks.

White-flanked Antwren (Myrmotherula axillaries) Scarce at CJL. Recorded on both sides of the taboca (varzea and bamboo), on the Rochas, and on the new trail. Females look particularly bland and often caused much confusion (the wing spotting is either very inconspicuous, or totally absent).

Plain-throated Antwren (Myrmotherula hauxwelli) Common, often recorded associating with understory mixed flocks.

White-eyed Antwren (Myrmotherula leucophthalma) Fairly common member of understory mixed flocks.

Ornate Antwren (Myrmotherula ornate) Uncommon. Pairs seen on the Taboca, Cacao, Serra and New trails, occasionally in mixed flocks.

Pygmy Antwren (Myrmotherula brachyura) Common in the canopy.

Sclater's Antwren (Myrmotherula sclateri) Scarce. Finally identified this species 6/8 on the Rochas trail, where seen and heard. Heard singing on the Serra trail the previous day, and a sclater's/pygmy type was seen very briefly then, but M. brachyura also vocalised soon after and the identification could not be confirmed.

Long-winged Antwren (Myrmotherula longipennis) Common.

Gray Antwren (Myrmotherula menetriesii) I found this species far scarcer than my predecessor, though admittedly ignored females that are only subjectively separated from the above species (without isolating vocalisations). Seen first on 30/6 on the Saleiro loop and once more on the Caja extension 19/7.

Rufous-winged Antwren (Herpsilochmus rufimarginatus) Perhaps the same pair seen on several occasions from the Clearing and on the Caja Trail; while others often seen or heard up on the Serra.

Dot-winged Antwren (Microrhopias quixensis) I only observed the emiliae subspecies, which is common in the bamboo, often up in the canopy, sometimes in mixed flocks, sometimes in single species flocks. The nominate race does occur on the south side of the Teles Pires (and one was probably seen there poorly). Apparently soon to be split, Andrew Whittaker (pers. comm.).

Striated Antbird (Drymophila devillei) Fairly common in the bamboo, and quite sedentary - a pair always present at the rocks, on the Rochas. The race here is potentially a new species, Xingu Antbird.

Gray Antbird (Cercomacra cinerascens) Common in the canopy. Sings all day.

Manu Antbird (Cercomacra manu) Seen on every visit to the Haffer, and often on the Cacao trail in suitable bamboo, though strangely never seen or heard on the Taboca. The geographically distinct population in the Southern Amazon may soon be recognised as specifically distinct from the populations in Peru.

White-backed Fire-Eye (Pyriglena leuconota) Recorded following Eciton swarms on various trails, including commonly on the new trail.

White-browed Antbird (Myrmoborus leucophrys) Very common, and I found it to occur in various habitats, including varzea and terra firme, not only in bamboo.

Black-faced Antbird (Myrmoborus myotherinus) Less common, sometimes at antswarms.

Warbling Antbird (Hypocnemis cantator) Perhaps the commonest antbird.

Band-tailed Antbird (Hypocnemoides maculicauda) Fairly common along the Cristalino and Teles Pires.

Spot-winged Antbird (Schistocichla leucostigma) One pair by the Saleiro stream seen on several occasions.

Silvered Antbird (Sclateria naevia) Common along the river edge, especially at the Ciganas.

Black-throated Antbird (Myrmeciza atrothorax) Seen twice on the south bank of the Teles Pires, and once in the Hotel fragment.

Bare-eyed Antbird (Rhegmatorhina gymnops) The most common obligate antswarm follower. Unlike my predecessor, I found this bird to be bold, fearless even. Some individuals came right to my feet.

Spot-backed Antbird (Hylophylax naevia) Uncommon. Seen once on the Castanheira, Taboca and Serra trails, and a couple of times on the Saleiro loop. A pair also observed at a swarm on the new trail, with P. leuconota.

Scale-backed Antbird (Hylophylax poecilinota) The least common professional antbird, seen on just three occasions, once at a swarm 10/6, and twice a solitary male observed crossing the trail and vocalising, on the Taboca.

Dot-backed Antbird (Hylophylax punctulata) Seen only twice. Once on 13/7 at the Ciganas, where heard regularly, and once in the varzea at the end of the new trail 18/8.

Black-spotted Bare-eye (Phlegopsis nigromaculata) Fairly common, though less so than R. gymnops, and more shy.

Noble Antthrush (Chamaeza nobilis) After failing to observe this species using playback in the two territories discovered, at the Saleiro, and on the Cacao trail, I finally tried following the alarm call. This proved a really effective strategy, and I eventually located the roosting trees near the Saleiro, where the birds could be observed as long as one wished.

Rufous-capped Antthrush (Formicarius colma) Common. Often encountered along the trails, one individual seen three times at the same spot on the Saleiro loop. Playback not required.

Black-faced Antthrush (Formicarius analis) Heard on most trails and one seen very well on the Haffer 31/7, in response to playback. Responds well to whistled imitations of its song. Though how the individual near the Saleiro responds to the local Lawrence's Thrush's version of its song is not yet known.

Variegated Antpitta (Grallaria varia) One of the highlights of my stay, a bird was first heard in the afternoon of 1/8. After unsuccessful attempts to see the bird with the help of playback, the bird was stumbled upon at close range in the afternoon of 2/8, thanks to an alarming Grey-throated Leaftosser nearby. Thereafter, its haunting song was heard regularly at dawn and dusk near the Saleiro. The call can be heard at a great distance, such as from the Tower.

(Spotted Antpitta (Hylopezus macularius) Less luck with this species, than the preceding one. A bird was also heard in the area of the Saleiro stream and the start of the new trail, but it called irregularly and did not respond to playback.)

Thrush-like Antpitta (Myrmothera campanisona) The commonest antpitta by voice, seen 17/6 on the Taboca, and heard singing there subsequently, as well as on the Cacao and Haffer trails, till about mid july. Thereafter, only its alarm call was heard, on the Cacao and New trails.

Chestnut-belted Gnateater (Conopophaga aurita) Another one of my finds at Cristalino was a pair of these Gnateaters, race snethlageae - probably a distinct species - around the same spot as the roosting C. nobilis. The pair were incredibly hard to see though, as they would, on cue, cross the trail at exactly the same spot every day at dusk. A non-vocalising female feeding a fledgling at the junction of the Caja and Rochas 25/7 was also thought to be this species.

White-lored Tyrannulet (Ornithion inerme) Often seen or heard from the tower, the Saleiro and the Serra, and occasionally along other trails.

Southern Beardless Tyrannulet (Camptostoma obsoletum) Common at edge habitats, particularly on the Serra, where a nest was found.

Mouse-coloured Tyrannulet (Phaeomyias murina) One on the island 12/7.

Southern Scrub Flycatcher (Sublegatus modestus) Migrants seen in June on the Serra, from the Tower and on the Island.

Yellow-crowned Tyrannulet (Tyrannulus elatus) One of the last birds I identified at Cristalino, finally catching up with it on 16/8 on the Island, though it had been heard there on several occasions previously.

Forest Elaenia (Myiopagis gaimardii) Common.

Gray Elaenia (Myiopagis caniceps) Only seen from the tower, where a pair was often present.

Large Elaenia (Elaenia spectabilis) One seen twice on the Island, 3/8 and 16/8. Three prominent wingbars noted.

Small-billed Elaenia (Elaenia parvirostris) One seen on two occasions on the island, 30/7 and 16/8.

Ochre-bellied Flycatcher (Mionectes oleaginous) Scarce. Seen on perhaps three occasions, and not after 1/7.

Sepia-capped Flycatcher (Leptopogon amaurocephalus) One with an understory mixed flock on the Taboca 14/7, and  one on the Cacao 15/8.

Ringed Antpipit (Corythopis torquata) A territory discovered at the Saleiro stream 27/7, and a calling bird seen there on virtually every subsequent morning visit.

Short-tailed Pygmy-Tyrant (Myiornis ecaudatus) Fairly common at edge habitats.

Helmeted Pygmy-Tyrant (Lophotriccus galeatus) Common, and always vocal. One bird seen raising its helmet in the form of a 'fleur-de-lis' on the new trail, in response to playback. There is some debate as to whether this species is sympatric with Hemitriccus minor, with some suggesting H. minor replaces L. galeatus on the other side of the Teles Pires. Why species from two different genera should be thought of as allopatric in this way, is difficult for me to comprehend, and I in this instance, have evidence to the contrary. I observed L. galeatus in the varzea on the south bank of the Teles Pires, where I was hoping to find H. minor, and Braulio Carlos believes he has seen H. minor on the north side of the Teles Pires (pers comm.).

White-eyed Tody-Tyrant (Hemitriccus zosterops) At least two territories located. One by the Saleiro, and one in the varzea at the end of the new trail, where an individual proved fearless, perching at arm's length, after responding to a recording of its call, played back accidentally while pursuing Dot-backed Antbird. Apparently split recently, and named White-bellied Tody-Tyrant (Hemitriccus griseipectus) (Cohn-Haft et al. 1997).

Zimmer's Tody-Tyrant (Hemitriccus aenigma) Seen perhaps three times on the Serra. On the 12/6 a calling bird was observed in what appeared to be aggressive territorial behavior towards another individual.

Spotted Tody-Flycatcher (Todirostrum maculatum) Common on the Island, at Limao, the Ciganas, and other suitable river edge habitat..

Rusty-fronted Tody-Flycatcher (Todirostrum latirostre) Identified for certain 26/7, in river-edge scrub near the floating deck. Another individual in a mixed flock on the south bank of the Teles Pires 10/6, observed with Alex Lees, and initially thought to be T. fumifrons, was probably also this species.

Yellow-browed Tody-Flycatcher (Todirostrum chrysocrotaphum) Uncommon. Seen once from the tower, and several times in the boat area by the lodge. A pair up at Limao were seen feeding, or perhaps collecting material from what appeared to be a wasp's nest.

Large-headed Flatbill (Ramphotrigon megacephala) Fairly common, usually in bamboo.

Dusky-tailed Flatbill (Ramphotrigon fuscicauda) Uncommon, and usually in bamboo. Sedentary - a bird was always present and vocal about 100m down the Taboca, while a couple more territories were found on the Cacao trail.

Rufous-tailed Flatbill (Ramphotrigon ruficauda) Uncommon. Seen in varzea on the Caja and Taboca trails.

Olivaceous Flatbill (Rhynchocyclus olivaceus) One observed in a mixed flock on the Taboca 1/7.

Gray-crowned Flycatcher (Tolmomyias poliocephalus) One always present around the clearing, and another seen on the island. Heard elsewhere. Much confusion exists between Tolmomyias that occur here, not least because of errors in Birds of South America, where Ridgely described a race of T. assimilis, as T. poliocephalus.

Yellow-margined Flycatcher (Tolmomyias assimilis) Fairly common. One seen or heard regularly from the tower, but also heard often around the clearing, so any Tolmomyias seen there would need to be heard vocalising to confirm the identification.

White-crested Spadebill (Platyrinchus platyrhyncos) Fairly common, once the call had been recognised.

Royal Flycatcher (Onychorhynchus coronatus) Scarce. A territory present along the Saleiro stream, while other individuals seen on the Haffer and new trails. Possibly split, and renamed Amazonian Royal Flycatcher.

Ruddy-tailed Flycatcher (Terenotriccus erythrurus) Fairly common, sometimes consorting with understory mixed flocks.

Sulphur-rumped Flycatcher (Myiobius barbatus) One seen taking food to a nest (about 75cm above ground) in the varzea up at the Ciganas 13/7. Apparently to be split, and renamed Whiskered Flycatcher.

Euler's Flycatcher (Lathrotriccus euleri) Fairly common, noted on the Taboca, around the Saleiro stream, and along the New trail - two distinct vocalisations recorded.

Drab Water-Tyrant (Ochthornis littoralis) Common along the Teles Pires. I found one individual along the Cristalino, close to the lodge, so cannot confirm Alex Lees' assumption that they avoid black-water rivers.

Long-tailed Tyrant (Colonia colonus) A pair were seen daily from the Tower with another pair located along the Castanheira Trail

Bright-rumped Attila (Attila spadiceus) Fairly common. Seen twice on the Cacao trail, and heard often along the Rochas and Serra trails.

Cinnamon Attila (Attila cinnamomeus) Fairly common but hard to see, usually along the river. One seen 20/6 by the bungalows.

Rufous Casiornis (Casiornis rufa) One individual seen on several occasions up on the Serra

Grayish Mourner (Rhytipterna simplex) Common.

Cinereous Mourner (Laniocera hypopyrrha) Fairly common, but hard to see. Seen on the Haffer and Taboca trails, and also heard at Limao.

Sirystes (Sirystes sibilator) Seen once on the Serra 18/6.

Short-crested Flycatcher (Myiarchus ferox) Common along the river edge, at large clearings and on the Island.

Brown-crested Flycatcher (Myiarchus tyrannulus) One individual seen on a couple of occasions on the Serra.

Swainson's Flycatcher (Myiarchus swainsoni) One individual seen several times on the Serra, discovered a couple of weeks before my arrival, by Alex Lees.

Dusky-capped Flycatcher (Myiarchus tuberculifer) Fairly common.

Great Kiskadee (Pitangus sulphuratus) Common around Alta Floresta but scarce along the Cristalino.

Lesser Kiskadee (Philohydor lictor) Common near ponds and lagoons.

Boat-billed Flycatcher (Megarynchus pitangua) Pairs noted on the Serra, the island and in Alta Floresta.

Social Flycatcher (Myiozetetes similes) Only identified for certain at the Ciganas. Possibly also on the island.

Rusty-margined Flycatcher (Myiozetetes cayanensis) Common, usually near water.

Dusky-chested Flycatcher (Myiozetetes luteiventris) Scarce. One seen on the Taboca 24/6, and one heard on the Rochas.

Streaked Flycatcher (Myiodynastes maculates) One up on the Serra 5/8.

Piratic Flycatcher (Legatus leucophaius) Seen a few times up on the Serra.

Variegated Flycatcher (Empidonomus varius) Seen on numerous visits up to the Serra, and once along the river.

Crowned Slaty-Flycatcher (Griseotyrannus aurantioatrocristatus) Always seen from the Tower, and occasionally on the Serra and at Limao.

Fork-tailed Flycatcher (Tyrannus savana) A pair seen by the Hotel in Alta Floresta 4/8, and four birds by the river 14/8.

Tropical Kingbird (Tyrannus melancholicus) Common.

White-winged Becard (Pachyramphus polychopterus) Only seen in a mixed flock by the bungalows.

Black-capped Becard (Pachyramphus marginatus) Seen twice in mixed flocks. A male by the Saleiro stream 9/7, and a female 27/7 on the Taboca.

Pink-throated Becard (Pachyramphus minor) Rare. Seen well in a canopy mixed flock on the Cacao 29/7.

Masked Tityra (Tityra semifasciata) Common.

Black-crowned Tityra (Tityra inquisitor) Seen on a few occasions, from the Tower, on the Serra and in Alta Floresta.

Red-headed Manakin (Pipra rubrocapilla) Probably the commonest manakin, leks on most trails.

Snow-capped Manakin (Pipra nattereri) Fairly common. During my first month or so, only one territory was known - on the Cacao trail. I subsequently found birds on the Rochas and Taboca, and most reliably along the Saleiro stream / start of new trail, where there were several birds present, even seen bathing in the stream.

Band-tailed Manakin (Pipra fasciicauda) Seen regularly at leks on the Taboca and Cacao Trails.

White-crowned Manakin (Pipra pipra) A female first found on the Caja Trail 16/6. Subsequently, I found a lek in the varzea at the end of the new trail, where several males and females could be reliably seen.

Blue-backed Manakin (Chiroxiphia pareola) Usually hard to see, but often heard. Seen on the Cacao and new trails, and often heard on the Saleiro loop and all the way along the new trail before reaching the steep incline.

Fiery-capped Manakin (Machaeropterus pyrocephalus) Only seen once, a pair in fruiting trees at the Saleiro 28/7. Several birds always heard along the Saleiro stream, and sometimes on other trails, such as the Caja and Haffer.

Flame-crested Manakin (Heterocercus linteatus) Leks located in igapo forest of the Caja and Kawalli trails, and birds heard calling from the other side of the river, somewhere along the Tapiri trail.

Dwarf-Tyrant Manakin (Tyranneutes stolzmanni) Common.

Thrush-like Mourner (Schiffornis turdinus) Fairly common, vocal, and sedentary.

Varzea Mourner (Schiffornis major) Common upriver at the Ciganas where responds to playback by zipping across the lagoon. Once seen, without the use of playback, sitting in plain view on a fallen log at the first lagoon.

Spangled Cotinga (Cotinga cayana) Fairly common. Usually seen from the tower, and occasionally along the river, and up at Limao.

Pompadour Cotinga (Xipholena punicea) A female seen twice up on the Serra in mid July, and a group of stunning males seen chasing each other in a fascinating contest, up at Limao 18/7.

White-browed Purpletuft (Iodopleura isabellae) Seen frequently on the Serra and from the tower. Responds well to calls of Glaucidium hardyii

Screaming Piha (Lipaugus vociferans) Common. Has been noted twice responding to taped calls of Micrastur semitorquatus.

Amazonian Umbrellabird (Cephalopterus ornatus) Seen on numerous occasions along the river, from the clearing and at the Orchidea trail.

Bare-necked Fruitcrow (Gymnoderus foetidus) Common

Wing-barred Piprites (Piprites chloris) Fairly common, usually in the canopy with mixed flocks.

White-winged Swallow (Tachycineta albiventer) Common around CJL and in Alta Floresta.

Brown-chested Martin (Phaeoprogne tapera) Scarce. Seen twice along the river.

Gray-breasted Martin (Progne chalybea) Common, particularly in Alta Floresta.

White-banded Swallow (Atticora fasciata) Common along the river.

White-thighed Swallow (Neochelidon tibialis) Regularly seen from the Serra.

Southern Rough-winged Swallow (Stelgidopteryx ruficollis) Common.

Thrush-like Wren (Campylorhynchus turdinus) Common around Alta Floresta, uncommon at Cristalino.

Black-capped Donacobius (Donacobius atricapillus) Common at the Ciganas.

Tooth-billed Wren (Odontorchilus cinereus) Common till mid July, after which it became unreliable, and hard to find. Most commonly seen on the Serra, and occasionally from the tower, the saleiro, and in the clearing, usually in canopy flocks.

Moustached Wren (Thryothorus genibarbis) Fairly common around bamboo, though hard to see.

Buff-breasted Wren (Thryothorus leucotis) Very common along the river and at the Island.

House Wren (Troglodytes aedon) Common around Alta Floresta and in secondary habitats such as the Island and Limao.

Southern Nightingale-Wren (Microcerculus marginatus) Fairly common. Seen on the Taboca (2), Rochas, Caja and Cacao trails.

Musician Wren (Cyphorhinus aradus) Scarce. Stopped vocalising soon after my arrival. One seen on the Saleiro loop 1/7, and a pair recorded and seen very well in the same area 18/8.

Long-billed Gnatwren (Ramphocaenus melanurus) Very common member of understory flocks.

Guianan Gnatcatcher (Polioptila guianensis) Twice seen foraging in high canopy on the Haffer trail.

Lawrence's Thrush (Turdus lawrencii) Seen on the Taboca 16/7 and from the tower 16/8. A bird present along the Saleiro stream was recorded mimicking numerous other birds, including Ringed Woodpecker, Warbling Antbird, Black-spotted Bare-eye, Black-faced Antthrush, Grayish Mourner and even Chestnut-tailed Antbird, which I understand has not been known to occur north of the Teles Pires.

Cocoa Thrush (Turdus fumigatus) Seen several times at the Saleiro, even attending an Eciton swarm there; and heard often on most trails. There still exists some debate as to whether it is T. fumigatus or T. hauxwelli that occurs at Cristalino but my personal opinion was that the birds more closely resembled T. fumigatus.

White-necked Thrush (Turdus albicollis) One seen several times at the Saleiro stream.

Rufous-browed Peppershrike (Cyclarhis gujanensis) Common on the Island and also seen in a mixed flock by the bungalows.

Slaty-capped Shrike-Vireo (Smaragdolanius leucotis) Scarce, seen from the Tower, and Rochas Trails and in the Hotel fragment.

Red-eyed Vireo (Vireo olivaceus) Seen on the Serra 10/8, and new trail 14/8. Perhaps a distinct species: Chivi Vireo (Vireo chivi)

Gray-chested Greenlet (Hylophilus semicinereus) Uncommon, seen several times by the river, near the boat area, and on the island.

Dusky-capped Greenlet (Hylophilus hypoxanthus) Perhaps overlooked for my first two months, but after learning the song, it was subsequently heard often, leading canopy flocks, and seen once on the Serra 10/8.

Tawny-crowned Greenlet (Hylophilus ochraceiceps) Only seen once, in the area of the Saleiro stream / start of new trail 18/8, and heard there the following day. The race here looks nothing like the race I saw in southern Mexico, and I'm surprised they are considered the same species.

Rose-breasted Chat (Granatellus pelzeni) Common in and around bamboo patches.

Bananaquit (Coereba flaveola) Common on the Serra and on the Island.

Red-billed Pied-Tanager (Lamprospiza melanoleuca) Fairly common though unpredictable, usually in single species flocks, most often seen up on the Serra, though occasionally also from the tower, at Limao and towards the end of my stay, most reliably on the new trail.

Magpie Tanager (Cissopis leveriana) Fairly common around Alta Floresta.

Yellow-backed Tanager (Hemithraupis flavicollis) Uncommon with canopy mixed flocks, most reliably at the Saleiro.

White-winged Shrike-Tanager (Lanio versicolor) Fairly common leader of canopy mixed flocks. Also observed coming down to drink at the Saleiro stream.

Flame-crested Tanager (Tachyphonus cristatus) Common with canopy mixed flocks.

White-shouldered Tanager (Tachyphonus luctuosus) Common, usually with canopy mixed flocks.

Red-crowned Ant-Tanager (Habia rubica) Seen on the Caja trail and several times a group seen moving and vocalising around the start of the new trail.

Silver-beaked Tanager (Ramphocelus carbo) Common in secondary habitat.

Blue-gray Tanager (Thraupis episcopus) Common around Alta Floresta and seen at CJL at Limao and the Island.

Palm Tanager (Thraupis palmarum) Very common.

Purple-throated Euphonia (Euphonia chlorotica) Uncommon, reliable only on the island. Identification of non-vocalising birds almost impossible.

White-lored Euphonia (Euphonia chrysopasta) Common.

White-vented Euphonia (Euphonia minuta) Rare. One seen well on the Caja 13/6, and a single species group seen and heard in high canopy on the Cacao 26/6.

Orange-bellied Euphonia (Euphonia xanthogaster) A single species group seen near the Saleiro stream 23/7, and one individual on the Serra trail 10/8. I found this species very hard to separate from E. chlorotica, and only vocalising birds of each species were identified.

Rufous-bellied Euphonia (Euphonia rufiventris) Very common.

Turquoise Tanager (Tangara mexicana) Common.

Paradise Tanager (Tangara chilensis) Seemingly uncommon. Seen at Limao and at the Saleiro

Green-and-Gold Tanager (Tangara schrankii) Uncommon. Seen on the Haffer and Castanheira trails and at the Saleiro

Bay-headed Tanager (Tangara gyrola) Common, usually with mixed flocks.

Masked Tanager (Tangara nigrocincta) The most reliably seen Tangara, always on the summit of the Serra Trail and also seen at Limao

Opal-rumped Tanager (Tangara velia) Uncommon, seen at Limao, the Serra, and the Saleiro.

Black-faced Dacnis (Dacnis lineata) Fairly common.

Yellow-bellied Dacnis (Dacnis flaviventer) Fairly common along the river.

Blue Dacnis (Dacnis cayana) Common.

Green Honeycreeper (Chlorophanes spiza) Fairly common, most reliably up on the Serra.

Short-billed Honeycreeper (Cyanerpes nitidus) Finally seen on 15/8 up on the Serra, where two pairs were seen in one tree with a pair of C. caeruleus.

Purple Honeycreeper (Cyanerpes caeruleus) Fairly common, usually up on the Serra.

Chestnut-vented Conebill (Conirostrum speciosum) Unpredictable. Seen twice up on the Serra, once involving a large single species flock.

Swallow Tanager (Tersina viridis) Often seen along the river.

Grassland Sparrow (Ammodramus humeralis) This find represents a new species for the region. One bird scoped at close range in fields near the aiport in Alta Floresta 21/7.

Pectoral Sparrow (Arremons taciturnus) Seen first on 28/7 at the Saleiro stream, and subsequently along the Cacao and new trails.

Blue-black Grassquit (Volatinia jacarina) Common at Limao, on the Island, the Serra and around Alta Floresta. Also seen in the clearing.

Lined Seedeater (Sporophila lineola) One male on 14/6 at Limao.

Red-capped Cardinal (Paroaria gularis) Common along the river and on the Island.

Yellow-shouldered Grosbeak (Parkerthraustes humeralis) Seen on numerous visits to the tower, both with and independently of mixed flocks. Seen carrying nesting material - whole green leaves - in late June. Occasionally seen in the canopy along the trails.

Slate-coloured Grosbeak (Pitylus grossus) Fairly common, but often hard to see. Another with a variety of vocalisations, which often confused.

Buff-throated Saltator (Saltator maximus) One seen and heard in the Hotel fragment 12/8.

Crested Oropendola (Psarocolius decumanus) Common.

Amazonian Oropendola (Gymnostinops bifasciatus) Common

Yellow-rumped Cacique (Cacicus cela) Common.

Red-rumped Cacique (Cacicus haemorrhous) One in the Hotel fragment 12/8, consorting with the above species.

Epaulet Oriole (Icterius cayanensis) Common. Most often seen around the clearing, from the Tower and in Alta Floresta.

Giant Cowbird (Scaphidura oryzivora) Common. Most often seen from the island, Limao and sometimes from the Tower.

House Sparrow (Passer domesticus) Fairly common in Alta Floresta.


I must firstly thank Vitoria Da Riva Carvalho for inviting me to Cristalino and offering me the role. Donna Vitoria was always very kind and helpful to me throughout my stay, and I am eternally grateful. All the staff at the Hotel were always very friendly and helpful, particularly Zuleico Melo and Andre; while at the Lodge it was a pleasure having people like Nair and Rosalli providing wonderful food. I enjoyed interacting with the boatmen / guides, enjoying a bit of a rivalry with George over bird sightings. I must reserve a special mention for Francisco, a remarkable man, with a heart of gold. He ran everything at the lodge, always worked very hard, and even had time to find lots of birds and mammals for the clients.

I would also like to thank some of the visiting guides and tourists who helped me with ornithological information. For the first week or so of my stay, I was very lucky to be with Alex Lees who taught me a lot in a very short space of time. Thereafter, particular thanks must go to Braulio Carlos, who I thoroughly enjoyed interacting with on three occasions. Andrew Whittaker's knowledge of the birds is perhaps unsurpassed, and I am very grateful to him for his help, particularly with vocalisations (though I recommend he refrains from putting his hand down the throat of dangerous caimen.) Further thanks go to Judy Davis, John Penhallurick, Mike Moore, and Mark Van Biers of Birdquest - who I joined forces with to manage his large group.


Hilty, S.L. 2003. Birds of Venezuela. Christopher Helm Ltd.

Lees, A. 2003. Alta Floresta and cristalino report.

Ridgely, R.S. & Tudor G. 1994. The Birds of South America, Volume II: The Subocine Passerines. Oxford University Press.

Ridgely, R.S. & Greenfield P.J.. 2001. The Birds of Ecuador. Cornell University Press

Sick, H. 1994. Birds in Brazil. Princeton University Press

Whittaker, A. 2003. A New Species of Forest-Falcon (Falconidae: Micrastur) from Southeastern Amazonia and the Atlantic Rainforests of Brazil. Wilson Bulletin 114: 421-561

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