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A Report from

South Brazil, November 2010,

Gary and Marlene Babic


This report covers a 10-day birding trip starting in Rio de Janeiro and ending in Porto Alegre , Brazil. The focus of the trip was to see approximately 40 birds that are either endemic to Brazil or range-limited to Brazil and adjacent border regions of Argentina and/or Uruguay. Many of these birds are listed in the IUCN Red Book as being threatened or vulnerable.

Our guide for the trip was Ricardo Parrini, who is based in Rio de Janeiro, and we recommend him without reservation. His e-mail is: We flew into Rio, met Ricardo, picked up our rental car and followed the itinerary as detailed below. An important issue for our trip is that all rental car companies apply a very large surcharge if you want to drop off a car in a city other than where it is rented. Apparently each location is an individual business that has its own cars. It appears they have someone fly to the pickup city and drive the car back to the rental location! Consequently the rental car cost for this trip from Rio to Porto Alegre would have been significantly more expensive if Ricardo had not agreed to drive the car back to Rio for us – not a trivial request as it is more than 1600 km and would take much of two days.

We supplied Ricardo with our target list of birds a few weeks ahead of time, and he designed an itinerary that allowed us to try for all of them. Of our target birds, we only missed five: two tinamous (always requiring a bit of good luck), another species primarily due to unfavorable weather at its primary site, and the other two we simply did not see or hear. Ricardo obviously knew all sites and was proficient at spotting and drawing in birds with his tapes.

Our itinerary was flexible based on our progress at finding birds, so we did not make hotel reservations except during a holiday weekend. This worked out fine even though November is the prime birding season (spring). We often ate our lunches at large rest stops that had large buffet restaurants, selling food by weight. These were found on every main highway.

Prices were higher than on our previous trips to Brazil due to a stronger Brazilian real compared to US dollars: 1.78 reals per USD during our trip. Our major expenses were for the rental car and fuel. Unlike previous trips, all of the “branded” service stations accepted credit cards. Road tolls were surprisingly high – the main road, BR 116, is a toll road for much of its length. The amount of tolls varies by state. The cost just to cross Saõ Paulo state was over 50 reals in total (for a relatively short stretch), and we spent well over 100 reals for our total trip. Tolls are cash-only, but there are cash machines (ATMs) at every large rest area and mid-sized town. Hotels were reasonably priced, but it appeared Ricardo negotiated prices at most. A list of hotels is given below, along with an indication of pricing.

One surprise was that it was quite a bit cooler than we expected for late spring. High-elevation sites such as Urubici were below 10 C in the mornings and evenings. Perhaps as a result, mosquitoes were not a bother, except at Volta Velha.

Detailed Itinerary:

Day 1, November 7. Rio de Janeiro to Teresópolis. Our original intention was to go to a site about two hours north of Rio to try for Grey-winged Cotinga, however a flight change meant we arrived in Rio too late so we had to abort this plan and instead head directly to Teresópolis. We picked up our Avis rental car at the international airport (code GIG) and made the three hour drive at a leisurely pace, enjoying the fabulous scenery of the Serra dos Orgāos park. Upon arrival and check-in, we made a drive to the area where we would be birding the following morning to check out the logistics. The site is on BR 116, the main road from Rio, about 4.5 km past the traffic circle which branches to Teresópolis, on the east side of the road. It is a farm that is expected to become a park soon.  This turned out to be a wise move, as the gate to the area was locked but we found the farmer on the property who agreed to open it for us the next morning. 

Day 2, November 8. Teresópolis to Itatiaia. When we visited our birding site the previous day, we noticed there were several dogs on the property. Therefore, Ricardo prepared a “secret weapon” – he took some ham from our breakfast buffet and, when the dogs approached, gave it to them. Not only did the dogs not bark at us, they were now our best friends! We walked around the property, enjoying excellent views of Bare-throated Bellbirds. We also heard a Shrike-like Cotinga and eventually had one come in and perch directly over our heads!

At about 9:30AM we began our drive to Itatiaia National Park. Although we did not have too many potential target birds there, it was a natural stop en route to Intervales. We arrived at Itatiaia in time for lunch, after which it rained for several hours. During a break in the rain, we went to the nearby Hotel Simón where Ricardo had heard that Swallow-tailed Cotingas had recently nested. However, we did not see any and the intermittent rain finally drove us back to our hotel. Despite the rain, the feeders at the Hotel do Ypê were busy as usual, with a wide range of hummingbirds and tanagers. A Brown Tanager was lurking in the nearby trees but did not come in to the feeders. Heavy rain began after dusk and continued overnight. As usual, Dusky-legged Guans were common around the grounds.

Day 3, November 9. Itatiaia to Intervales. By morning the rain had stopped and after an early breakfast we walked several the trails near the Hotel Simón. We heard two Such’s Antthrushes, one target bird here,  but none came close to the trails. The trails were quite birdy; among birds seen were Bertoni’s Antbird but there were many others we only heard during our antthrush search.

At 10AM we started the long drive to Intervales State Park, crossing into the state of Saõ Paulo. We arrived at about 4PM (the office closes at 5PM). After checking into our rooms, we had a short time for some birding. Almost immediately Ricardo heard a Rufous-tailed Attila, which came in and perched below eye level, giving fabulous views – unusual for this bird which often remains in the canopy. At dusk we began our night-birding, and well after dusk we had a male Long-trained Nightjar give us wonderful flight and perched views. We then checked slowly along the roads until we heard a Rusty-banded Owl. It took a while to locate him, but he eventually came in for nice spot-lit views. Overnight we had heavy rains and strong winds.

Day 4, November 10.  At Intervales. Despite threatening overcast skies, this turned out to be an almost magical birding day when we seemed to see something special everywhere we looked, greatly aided by our local guide, Luis. We first located a White-breasted Tapaculo. Luis cleared out some undergrowth and after a lot of scurrying around the bird eventually perched right into view, on an open branch just a few meters away. Not much later, we came upon a flock in which we had an excellent view of a male and female Black-legged Dacnis – it was fortunate to see the pair because otherwise it is difficult to positively identify the species. Soon after, a pair of Green-throated Euphonias perched high overhead. After these birds had departed, an uproar in the canopy led us to a Least Pygmy-Owl being mobbed. It seemed rain was imminent, so we loaded up the car. We were all inside except for Luis, when he suddenly  called out for us to come back. He had spotted a Buff-bellied Puffbird perched nearby, unnoticed by us as we watched the other birds. Eventually, a pair came very close. Finally, we decided we really did need to leave, so we began driving slowly back to the restaurant, stopping to listen at several places where we thought Such’s Antthrush might be possible, and playing a bit of tape to see if we got any response. At one location, we had already started driving away when Marlene heard a faint response. We stopped the car, jumped out and heard a Such’s Antthrush down a hill below us. Before playing any more tape, Luis again cleared a potential viewing area for us. After a long time of playing tape, we eventually got a good look at a Such’s Antthrush pacing back and forth about 25 meters below us. But it kept calling, and sounded as if it was getting closer – and it was. It eventually came all the way up the hill to our level, jumping into some branches in a shrub about 5 meters from us right where Luis had cleared our view. Unbelievable. At about 10AM the expected rain did begin, and continued through lunch and the early afternoon.  

At about 3PM, we took a trail to a waterfall where Luis had located a nest, and after a while we were treated to a visit by an Atlantic Royal Flycatcher which we viewed from a reasonable distance. During our walk back to the vehicle we had passable views of several Bay-ringed Tyrannulets. Then we took a longer 2km trail to another nest that Luis and the other guides had located, this one of a of a Helmeted Woodpecker. The nest was at eye-level, and we quietly watched the bird go in and out for about 15 minutes before backing away. Unfortunately, the nest is located very close to a busy trail leading to some caves, which is the main draw of this park, and a major holiday started within a few days. Luis felt pessimistic that the nest would remain occupied after all the busy foot traffic. During our walk back we had views of a Serro do Mar Tyrannulet, and great views of a perched Red-ruffed Fruitcrow.

Day 5, November 11. Intervales to Curitiba. Our original plan was to bird at Intervales this morning. But we had seen all our target birds the previous day, so we decided to leave before breakfast and move along. The road from Intervales passes through another park near the town of Sete Barras. Among birds seen well along this road was a Black-throated Piping-guan. Our first destination was Cananeia, a port city. The birding area is an island of the same name reached by car ferry from the main town. The main (dirt) road on the island is directly across from the car ferry port, and we drove it a few times. We had excellent views of Restinga Tyrannulet and Azure Jay along this road. At about 3PM we were surprised to hear the call of a Red-tailed Parrot, our key target bird here. We did not expect to hear it until at least 5PM as the birds return to roost on the island. We later speculated that the overcast weather may have kept some birds on the island or encouraged some to return early. In any case, we were eventually able to get good scope views of at least six perched Red-tailed Parrots. Ironically, we were able to see all field marks well – except a red tail! 

Because we had not expected to see the parrot until much later, our plan had been to stay overnight in Cananeia. However, we were now able to leave early. The car ferry makes the short crossing every thirty minutes, so soon we were en route to Curitiba in Paraná state, where we spent the night.

Day 6, November 12. Curitiba to Itapoã. This was the first time the weather affected our birding. We visited a park outside Curitiba but fog and heavy rain made this futile. During breaks in the rain we did see an Olive Spinetail and later had excellent views of Thick-billed Saltator. We did not have any luck with Blackish-blue Seedeater, our main target bird here. Eventually we decided the weather was not going to significantly improve so we drove down to the coast to the town of Garuva, entering the state of Santa Catarina. Among banana plantations, we saw Paraná Antwren. After a delicious lunch in Garuva we headed over to Itapoā.

Upon arrival and check-in, we drove to a nearby reserve called Volta Velha. On the drive in, we had excellent perched views of Scaled Chachalaca. Ricardo told us that many visitors here miss this bird because they look for it inside the reserve, when in fact it is only found along the access road. This area has two nice tracts of forest with good trails. The reserve charges an entrance fee of 25 reals per person per day. During our first walk, we heard two Yellow-legged Tinamous calling, but they did not appear to be moving and the trails did not go close to them. We then went on a second trail where we eventually had good views of an active Kaempfer’s Tody-tyrant. As dusk approached, we observed the platform fruit feeders but nothing unusual visited.

Day 7, November 13. Itapoã to Urubici. Early this morning we arrived at the Volta Velha reserve and tried to intercept the Yellow-legged Tinamous. Although they were still calling a lot, and seemed to be more mobile then the previous afternoon, they still remained away from the trails. Our main target, however, was Russet-winged Spadebill, which we learned from the reserve manager had been seen along this trail a week earlier. However, we walked the trails slowly several times, and never got any kind of response to the tape. We then went to observe the fruit feeders, where the manager told us that Black-backed Tanagers regularly feed. But, only normal tanagers such as Azure-shouldered and Green-headed Tanagers visited.

At about 11AM we decided we had to move along and headed up the mountains to Urubici. This day was the first day of a three-day holiday weekend, and Urubici is a popular tourist destination because the surrounding mountains are the highest spots in Brazil – some actually receive snow several times a year. We arrived mid-afternoon and secured a room but did not do any birding until just before dusk. We then drove high up into the mountains and stopped at several places to listen for owls, eventually finding and getting great views of a pair of Long-Tufted Screech-Owls.

Day 8, November 14. Urubici to Bom Jesus. We left early to head up the highest nearby mountain, Morro da Igreja, where several target species were located. However, halfway up the mountain we hit fog that continued all the way to the end of the road. Even though the only traffic was the occasional motorcycle or truck, the fog made it too dangerous to walk along the road birding even when there was a small break in the fog. We gradually worked our way down, hearing Planalto Tapaculo regularly but having no chance to see one. Eventually, we reached a place where the fog broke and a Planato Tapaculo was singing and got excellent views. Soon after, tourist traffic became very heavy and we decided to quit as the tapaculo was the only one of our target birds we could not see elsewhere.

We returned to the hotel for a nice “second breakfast” as there had not been much out when we had first left the hotel. We drove to Saõ Joaquim, making several stops along the way before arriving there for lunch. Birds seen en route included excellent close-up views of Long-tailed Cinclodes and Black-and-white Monjita. After lunch we took the terrible dirt road to Bom Jesus, entering the state of Rio Grande do Sul. It took us over six hours to get through this terrible 30 km dirt road. Along the way, however, we had some nice birds: a nice Glaucous-blue Grosbeak, a flock of  Saffron-cowled Blackbirds, and a single male Black-bellied Seedeater.


Saffron-cowled Blackbirds  Glaucous-blue Grosbeak

Day 9, November 15. Bom Jesus to Saõ Francisco. A key reason we stayed in Bom Jesus was that Red-spectacled Parrot can be seen along roads between Bom Jesus and Vacaria. We went up and down this road twice in the early morning without hearing or seeing any parrots, and then Marlene suggested we try a side road that appeared to lead through some araucaria forest (which the parrots like). Soon after we heard two parrots very far away; however, instead of flying away as they typically seem to do, these flew right at and above us, giving great views. We then drove back to Bom Jesus to Saõ Francisco de Paula on another terrible dirt road (so bad that we were not sure we were even on a road). Along the way, we stopped at a marsh and had a Straight-billed Reedhaunter (which, according to the DeSouza guide, does not occur here). 

We arrived in Saõ Francisco and had lunch, then checked into our hotel. Unfortunately, it then began raining hard the rest of the day. While staring longingly at the rainy skies, hoping for a break in the rain, we were pleasantly surprised to see a pair of Red-spectacled Parrots fly by. And then more. Eventually we saw about 30 parrots, sometimes in flocks of 10+ birds, continuing right until darkness fell.

Day 10, November 16. Saõ Francisco to Porto Alegre. Because we had seen the parrots the previous evening, we decided to also watch for them as we had our excellent breakfast. We were fortunate to see several pairs of Red-spectacled Parrots, as well as several Vinaceous Parrots, fly over from the hotel grounds. We then drove to the nearby Hotel Veraneoi, on RS 020 about 5 Km outside Saõ Francisco de Paula. The hotel appeared to be closed but the manager graciously let us wander the grounds. There are several araucaria trees around the hotel parking lot, and these held both Striolated Tit-Spinetail and Araucaria Tit-Spinetail. We then walked some of the trails around the hotel property. These were very birdy, but the highlight was an obliging male Mottled Piculet which gave us very close, eye-level views as it foraged. At about 10AM we left the hotel grounds and walked along a dirt road adjacent to the hotel which went through secondary forest. Along this road we saw a large number of species including Chestnut-backed Tanager, heard several Speckle-breasted Antpittas (though none were close), and amazingly had a Brown Tinamou slowly walk across the road just a few meters ahead of us. It entered the forest but did not go in too deep, and as we walked by it we had excellent close-up views before it flushed.

After lunch we made the drive to Porto Alegre, seeing an Eastern Slaty Thrush en route. Upon arrival in Porto Alegre, we tried to find a reasonably-priced hotel near the airport. Ricardo had made reservations for us at the Canoas Parque Hotel, about 5 km from the airport, but we wanted something closer so there would be minimum potential issues with traffic getting to our flight the following day. However, everything was full and even if available would have been very expensive. So we ended up at the Canoas Parque which turned out to be perfectly fine. After checking in and a break, we decided to drive around marshes near the Guaiba area, close to the airport, to see if we could find some to go to the following morning for a few hours before our flight to look for Curve-billed Reedhaunter. We found several nice marshes but they were along the highway and too noisy. We also found some nice marshes along some back roads but this area was very poor and Ricardo felt it was too dangerous for us to get out and walk (we agreed). So we decided we would not do any birding the next morning and instead relax and head to the airport without any rush, which we did.


Where possible, we stayed at mid-priced hotels (also called pousadas); in some cases, we did not have many choices. All of those listed below accepted credit cards except where noted. In all cases a breakfast buffet was included, but due to our early departures we sometimes did not get as full a breakfast as would have been available a bit later. Sometimes we were able to return to the hotel after early-morning birding for a “second breakfast”. At Intervales an early breakfast was available but at an additional charge. All included a private bathroom and hot-water shower. Most hotels in cities had Wi-Fi available, but only a few had a computer available for use.  

Hotel Vale Verde, Teresópolis.

Because it is a major tourist destination, there are dozens of pousadas around town. This one was nothing special but perfectly acceptable and well-priced. One important consideration when selecting lodging here is that anything close to the town square is also close to the main bus depot, which appears to operate around the clock and is a noisy and busy place.

Hotel do Ypê, Itatiaia National Park, This is the only lodging within the park. A great feature is its many feeders, which attract a wide range of hummingbirds and tanagers. The hotel is expensive, but includes very nice breakfast and dinner buffets. Another hotel inside the park, which is usually know by the name Hotel Simon although is has been renamed several times, remains closed after over a year. There are several nice trails around the Hotel Simón property, which is close to the Hotel do Ypê. There appears to be some caretakers around the Hotel Simón but no one ever questioned our presence.

Parque Estudual de Intervales, Ribierao Grande,, tel (15) 3542-1511. There are several pousadas, small villas with multiple rooms and private bathroom and shower facilities, within the park available at very reasonable per person prices. Ours had nice rooms, heated showers, etc. There is also a restaurant on the grounds. One oddity is that, in order to have breakfast served before the normal 7:30AM starting time, they charge a 10 reals per person surcharge. That is more than the cost of the breakfast itself, which is 7 reals  per person. One cost-saving strategy could be to bring along your own breakfasts and only have lunch and supper at  the restaurant. No credit cards accepted here. 

Bela Vista Hotel and Churrascaria, Curitiba,, tel (41) 3666-6615; fax (41) 3306-0070. This is a large hotel with attached churrascaria, popular with truck drivers – which gives a good indication that the food is pretty good! The hotel is right on the main highway so rooms near the front can be noisy. Because so many early-rising truck drivers stay here, a full breakfast was available very early – quite a treat. The main advantage of this hotel is its location – most of the hotels in Curitiba are closer to the city center. We recommend this hotel if you intend to avoid downtown Curitiba, but otherwise from the billboard advertising there appear to be many hotels available closer to town.

Hotel Nil’s, Itapoā,, tel (47)3443-6117. Itapoā is a beach resort and therefore there are many hotels and condos available. This was a good choice with an on-site pizzeria / restaurant. A good room at a good price.

Urubici Park Hotel, Urubici,, tel (49) 3278-5300. Urubici is a tourist destination due to its mountains and scenery, and there are many smaller hotels and lodges in the town. This hotel is among the largest and one of the few that takes credit cards. We felt it was over-priced but were here on a holiday so did not have many options. Meals are included but only adequate.

Hotel Village da Serra, Saõ Francisco de Paula,, tel (54) 3244-2853, fax (54) 3244-3689. A very nice hotel close to the center of town, nice breakfast buffet. Highly recommended. The alternative here is the Hotel Veraneoi, where we did some birding (see text), but which was not open during our visit.

Hotel e Restaurant Recanto das Camelias, Bom Jesus,, tel (54) 3237-1288. This is a nice hotel, and perhaps the only real tourist hotel, in Bom Jesus. Despite its name, there was not a functioning restaurant when we were there, although they did put out a nice breakfast buffet.

Canoas Parque Hotel, Porto Alegre,, tel (51) 3052-2400 fax (51) 3052-2120.  Most of the hotels near the Porto Alegre airport are very expensive; this one, which is about 5 km from the airport, is reasonably priced and has a full restaurant (with menus in English!). Some of the staff are English-speaking as well.

Bird List

This list includes the key birds we saw on the trip, as well as a few we only heard to show the birds are at that location, plus the few targets we missed altogether. The list follows Clements. Potential splits are noted when appropriate. Only “special” birds are listed – those that are endemic, limited-range, or threatened / endangered. Limited info is given in this species account when more details have been given in the itinerary section. Species noted with an asterisk (*) indicate those birds that are listed in the IUCN Red Book, along with the relevant category.

*Solitary Tinamou (Tinamus solitarius) – heard only at Volta Velha but not as close as Yellow-legged. IUCN status: Near-threatened.

Brown Tinamou (Crypturellus obsoletus) – remarkable views of a single bird crossing a dirt road and then remaining alongside the road as we walked by, in Saõ Francisco.

*Yellow-legged Tinamou (Crypturellus noctivagus) – we were optimistic we’d see this bird at Volta Velha as it called close to the trails, but we never did. IUCN status: Near-threatened.  Heard only.

Scaled Chachalaca (Ortalis squamata) – seen very well along the entry road to Volta Velha.

Dusky-legged Guan (Penelope obscura) – common at Hotel do Ypê but still fun to see strutting across the lawns.

*Black-fronted Piping-Guan (Pipile jacutinga) – a single bird perched in a roadside tree between Intervales and Sete Barras. IUCN status: Vulnerable.

Rufous-thighed Kite (Harpagus diodon) – close-up perched views of one, until it was displaced on the same limb by a Roadside Hawk, along the road to Porto Alegre.

Red-legged Seriema (Cariama cristata) – several seen in open areas in the southern areas.

Maroon-bellied Parakeet (Pyrrhura frontalis) - great views at lower elevations of Morro da Igreja near Urubici.

*Red-spectacled Parrot (Amazona pretrei) – fly-over views of 30+ birds, some very close, on two days near Saõ Francisco. IUCN status: Vulnerable.

*Red-tailed Parrot (Amazona brasiliensis) – distant perched scope views of 6 or so birds on Ilha de Cananeia. IUCN status: Endangered.

Least Pygmy-Owl (Glaucidium minutissimum) - nice low perched views of a single bird being mobbed, at Intervales.

Long-tufted Screech-Owl (Megascops sanctaecatarinae) – great views of a pair at dusk in hills above Urubici along the road to Saõ Joaquim, near the sign “54 km to Saõ Joaquim”.

Rusty-barred Owl (Strix hylophila) – one viewed calling after dark at Intervales.

Long-trained Nightjar (Macropsalis forcipata) – great views of an acrobatic male, flying and perched on the ground, at Intervales.

Buff-bellied Puffbird (Notharchus swainsoni) – a pair, at Intervales.

*Mottled Piculet (Picumnus nebulosus) – great low-level views of a single male feeding, at Hotel Veraneoi in Saõ Francisco. IUCN status: Near-threatened.

*Helmeted Woodpecker (Dryocopus galeatus) – a male at its nest, in Intervales.  IUCN status: Vulnerable.

Long-tailed Cinclodes (Cinclodes pabsti) – several responsive birds along the road from Urubici to Saõ Joaquim.

*Straight-billed Reedhaunter (Limnoctites rectirostris) – after trying at many marshes, we finally found one furtive bird along the road between Bom Jesus and Saõ Francisco. IUCN status: Near-threatened.

Striolated Tit-Spinetail (Leptasthenura striolata) – excellent views in araucaria trees on the grounds of the Hotel Veraneoi in Saõ Francisco.

*Araucaria Tit-Spinetail (Leptasthenura setaria) - excellent views in araucaria trees on the grounds of the Hotel Veraneoi in Saõ Francisco. IUCN status: Near-threatened.

Olive Spinetail (Cranioleuca obsoleta) – a single bird, in the rain, near Curitiba.

*Paraná Antwren (Stymphalornis acutirostris) – a pair in a banana plantation outside Garuva. IUCN status: Endangered.

Such's Antthrush (Chamaeza meruloides) – unbelievable views at Intervales.

Speckle-breasted Antpitta (Hylopezus nattereri) – heard only, but often and sometimes nearby, near the Hotel Veraneoi in Saõ Francisco. But, always in difficult terrain.

White-breasted Tapaculo (Eleoscytalopus indigoticus) – nice, close-up views of a perched singing bird, at Intervales.

Planalto Tapaculo (Scytalopus pachecoi) – common above the 10km mark at Morro da Igreja, outside Urubici. Because of fog, we only saw one but heard at least 10.

Gray-hooded Flycatcher (Mionectes rufiventris) – nice views at Volta Velha.

Serra do Mar Tyrannulet (Phylloscartes difficilis) – passable views of this hard-to-see skulking bird, at Intervales. IUCN status: Near-threatened.

*Bay-ringed Tyrannulet (Phylloscartes sylviolus) – several birds, most high in the canopy but eventually a couple came low enough for good views, at Intervales. IUCN status: Near-threatened.

*Restinga Tyrannulet (Phylloscartes kronei) – common on Ilha de Cananeia. IUCN status: Vulnerable.

*Kaempfer's Tody-Tyrant (Hemitriccus kaempferi) – “active” is a good description of this bird, which was difficult to see as it flitted through bamboo, at Volta Velha. But we eventually got it. IUCN status: Endangered

Russet-winged Spadebill (Platyrinchus leucoryphus) – one of the few target birds for which we had no luck at all. It had been seen at Volta Verde soon before our trip but we never had any response despite covering the area thoroughly several times. Not heard or seen.

Royal Flycatcher (Onychorhynchus coronatus)- the “Atlantic” subspecies is often split as a separate species. Seen on its nest, at Intervales.

*Black-and-white Monjita (Xolmis dominicanus) two pairs, very close, along the road from Urubici to Saõ Joaquim. IUCN status: Vulnerable.

Rufous-tailed Attila (Attila phoenicurus) – seen well, low-down, at Intervales.

Red-ruffed Fruitcrow (Pyroderus scutatus) – great perched views at Intervales.

*Bare-throated Bellbird (Procnias nudicollis) – many calling birds in the Teresopolis and Itatiaia areas. Several seen well near Teresoplis. IUCN status: Near-threatened.

*Swallow-tailed Cotinga (Phibalura flavirostris) One of our prime targets, which we did not see. We checked every bare branch from Itatiaia onwards without success. A pair had nested near Hotel Simón a few weeks before our arrival but obviously had dispersed. None had been seen near the Hotel do Ypê for several months. IUCN status: Near-threatened. Not heard or seen.

*Shrike-like Cotinga (Laniisoma elegans) – excellent views of a perched male, near Tereopolis. IUCN status: Vulnerable.

*Azure Jay (Cyanocorax caeruleus) – first seen well at Ilha de Cananeia but fairly common at many places in the south. IUCN status: Near-threatened.

Slaty Thrush (Turdus nigriceps) – “Eastern Slaty Thrush” is often split. Seen near a bridge close to Porto Alegre.

*Brown Tanager (Orchesticus abeillei) – a few seen around the Hotel do Ypê at Itatiaia.  IUCN status: Near-threatened.

Chestnut-headed Tanager (Pyrrhocoma ruficeps) – several near the Hotel Veraneoi in Saõ Francisco.

Diademed Tanager (Stephanophorus diadematus) – several at lower levels of Morro da Igreja, outside Urubici.

Green-headed Tanager (Tangara seledon) – the most common tanager at the feeders at Volta Velha.

Azure-shouldered Tanager (Thraupis cyanoptera) – the second-most common tanager at the feeders at Volta Velha.

*Black-legged Dacnis (Dacnis nigripes) – nice views of a pair, at Intervales. IUCN status: Vulnerable.

Thick-billed Saltator (Saltator maxillosus) – despite rain, we saw several around Curitiba.

*Black-bellied Seedeater (Sporophila melanogaster) – after checking many marshes, we finally saw one in a bush, on the road between Saõ Joaquim and Bom Jesus. Also, several flying birds the following day but heavy wind blew them away! IUCN status: Near-threatened.

*Blackish-blue Seedeater (Amaurospiza moesta) - we missed this at the main target location, near Curitiba, due to heavy rain. IUCN status: Near-threatened. Not seen or heard.

Glaucous-blue Grosbeak (Cyanoloxia glaucocaerulea) – a nice male was very responsive, perching in reeds, on the road between Saõ Joaquim and Bom Jesus.

*Saffron-cowled Blackbird (Xanthopsar flavus). A distant flock seen well along the road from Saõ Joaquim to Bom Jesus. Two close perched birds the following day at a marsh near Bom Jesus. IUCN status: Vulnerable.

*Green-throated Euphonia (Euphonia chalybea) – excellent view of a pair, at Intervales. IUCN status: Near-threatened.


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