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A Report from

Egypt October, 7th-20th 2002,

Mark & Sandra Dennis

Egypt contains the only remaining ancient wonder of the world in the shape of the Great Pyramids at Giza, a real 'must see' experience for many people. It also offers relaxed autumn birding and the chance to see species like Nile Valley Sunbird, Sooty Gull, Kittlitz's Plover and the endemic Egyptian races of Barn Swallow and Yellow Wagtail, both potentially good full species.  There is also the possibility of several other world ticks and so we decided to book a multi centre holiday comprising a few days in Luxor, a Nile cruise from Aswan, four days on the Red Sea and finished off with three nights in Cairo. As this was not going to be a birding holiday, and because we had Sandra's parents with us, we booked the whole package with Kuoni. They are not cheap, costing £1,750 per couple. This included B&B in Luxor. Full board on the Nile. B&B in Hurghada and Cairo. We also spent about £400 on food, drinks and sundries, excluding Red Sea car hire. The £400 included small change for the endless baksheesh (tips) although this is not compulsory, just 'expected'.

The flight was from Heathrow and off on time. The flight time to Luxor was just under five hours and we landed after dark. No birds were expected but, that was not exactly what happened as I saw an Egyptian Nightjar hawking around the hotel almost as soon as I got off the transfer bus. We stayed at the Hotel Mercure Coralia on the banks of the Nile and about 300m from Luxor Temple. We flew to Aswan from Luxor on an internal flight (flight time 30 minutes) and then spent five nights on The Nile Beauty, a luxurious cruise boat. We drove in convoy to Hurghada (four hours or so) and then flew to Cairo, again (flight time 40 minutes) on an internal flight. The return flight to Heathrow was one hour late getting off and took just under four and a half hours. All flights were comfortable apart from the usual grot food and the fact that smoking is allowed on Egypt Air, our carrier.


The currency is the Egyptian Pound (LE). We took 1700LE @6.8LE to the £. I would advise not changing money in the UK and taking Sterling. Even the hotel offered 7.2LE to the £ (costing us 100LE or £13.00). It was possible to find 7.35LE to the £ elsewhere. Food was generally cheap. typically 15LE for omelette and chips, 8-16LE for just under a pint of the local 'Stella' beer. Entry to archaeological sites was 20LE but extra was charged for video cameras and tripods. Some sites also charged extra for a camera to be used in a tomb. Don't bother taking a tripod to an archaeological site, even if it is for birding use only you might be charged for it. Fortunately our Egyptologist guide cleared me to take mine but it was only really of use on Agilka Island.


Tipping (baksheesh) is expected at most places. On the boat the tipping was done at the end of the cruise. The cash is put in envelopes for the staff and the guide and divided up fairly later. That way the cooks, and background crew get a share. We were told to tip 1.50-3.00GBP per day which we did. Guards, police, guides and scroungers will also try it on to squeeze a few LE's out of you. One trick is to call you away from the group and show you an exclusive bit of a temple. They then hold their hand out and you inevitably return to the group, only to find them on their way to look  at your 'exclusive bit' for free.


Not too much. Apart from the baksheesh merchants mentioned you get asked to get on camels at the Pyramids and in Hurghada taxi drivers slow down and hoot to see whether you want to use them. This gets a bit wearing, especially as you can wave one away only for the one tailgating him to do the same. In Cairo the hassle increased marginally but generally with good humour. I paid a visit to the Zoo in the hope of doing a bit of birding and was hassled continuously by one kid who asked for money. It was only when I mentioned feeding him to the Lions that a nearby Egyptian, possibly a family member, ushered him on. You will frequently be invited to enter endless shops full of tat. If you go in barter hard. At the Pyramids I offered such low prices that they gave up even though I pointed out that the whole bartering thing was their idea!

Car hire

We hired at car at Hurghada which turned out to be the best thing to do. It cost $62.00 per day with 100km per day, minimum hire three days. We used the Budget shop in the hotel and it took one and a quarter hours to complete the formalities. They asked for an International licence but I argued that I had used my licence in many countries and they changed their mind. Check the car thoroughly, count the existing dents, they do. Petrol is cheap and driving on the coast easy. Car hire should be possible in Cairo but sign posting is poor and the standard of driving challenging to us car proud Brits!


Drink lots of water. It is hot and got up to 106 Celsius on day. Water is cheaper in ordinary shops, usually 3LE for 1.5L. Taxi drivers seem honest but always negotiate the fare beforehand. They will wait if you wish and in some cases insist on returning for you at no extra charge. Most of the people we met were very friendly. We always took the opportunity to show local people the birds we were watching and, at El Gouna, a group of Coptic Christian workmen were amazed at their view of a Caspian Tern through the scope. Mobile phones work everywhere in Egypt with calls costing about 1GBP per minute.


We used Gosney's Egypt guide and read up on several trip reports from both the web and Steve Whitehouse. We also picked a bit of information from the birding Egypt web site. One book which claim to be able to supply but never did is The Pharaoh's Birds by John Miles, ISBN 977 424 490 7. It cost us 100LE from the hotel book shop in Luxor and is full of relevant information about Egypt's birds, habitats and conservation. We took the Collin's bird guide, the Macmillan Birder's Guide to European and Middle Eastern Birds and the Field Guide to the Birds of the Middle East by Porter, Christensen & Schiermacker-Hanson. In hind sight we should also have taken Birds of the Middle East & North Africa by Hollom, Porter, Christensen & Willis. It would have been useful.

Sites visited


It was possible to bird from the balconies. Our first night in the hotel gave a Nile view and birds like Glossy Ibis, egrets and herons, sunbirds etc. were seen. On arrival at the hotel at around 21.45 local time an Egyptian Nightjar hawking in the lights was very much unexpected. From Luxor we visited Crocodile Island twice. It cost 20LE each way and took ten minutes to get there from the hotel. We stopped short of the checkpoint and bridge which leads to the island, and birded the agricultural fields on the way. Birding the ground of the Movenpick Hotel which occupies most of the island was no problem and no hassle.

Aswan - Agilka Island

This island holds the recreated Temple of Philae. It also has trees at each end and offers a good vantage point for passing storks, raptors etc. We visited the high dam which had little bar a couple of White-crowned Black Wheatears.

Valley of the Kings/Queens etc.

Hot and rather barren. A few birds around but hard to come by.

Luxor & Karnak Temples.

Both in Luxor. Both had a few birds, especially away from the crowds.


Excellent birding with loads to look at both on the river and overhead. The best bit is from Aswan to Edfu but birds are present all the way to Luxor. Our cruise ship was faster than most which was a drawback, also we had a strong head wind which made viewing harder than it should be. A telescope on a tripod can be easily used but expect to be frustrated at times as birds can be just too far away.

Red Sea

We were based at Hurghada in the new southerly bit. Both Sooty and White-eyed Gulls were present around the small marina attached to the hotel. White-cheeked Terns were regular offshore, often perched on markers. Odd Lesser Crested Terns were also present. The site guide suggests the grounds of the Sheraton Hotel as being one of the best places to bird. Unfortunately it has been shut two years and the guards are not keen to let birders in the grounds. I got in four times for short walks and each time a few migrants were present. We visited the   Hotel which was much nicer than our impersonal but luxurious hotel. The grounds were extensive and would be good first thing in the morning. By accident we found Hurghada Tip. It held 3,000+ White-eyed Gulls on one date but was also home to packs of dogs and tip dwellers. The tip is off the inner ring road. From the Airport head towards old Hurghada. Look out for a statue with two figures, one of which is brandishing a machine gun. Double back across the carriage way onto the inner ring road. After 4Km or so there is a traffic island. 1Km further the tip appears on the right and there is a track onto it. On the opposite side of the road is a wet flush which had waders and wheatears. By continuing along this road for 20Km you eventually reach El Gouna. Gosney's guide also has a spit which was good for gulls and terns just north of Hurghada. It is no longer there.

El Gouna

This purpose built resort is excellent. It is about 20Km north of Hurghada off the main highway. It has an 18 hole golf course which attracts many birds i.e. 100+ Red-throated Pipits, Red-footed Falcon etc. There is also a tidal creek which had lots of waders. The whole area has hedges and trees and is easier to bird than Hurghada. It is worth investigating the options for stopping at El Gouna and only visiting Hurghada for gulls and offshore trips.

The Pyramids

The Giza Pyramids did not have many birds. The Step Pyramid at Saqquara was much better and has Pharaoh Eagle Owl on the east side (spring only I think, we did not see them). The area has desert species and the surrounding countryside also has lots of birds.


It is overcrowded with constant traffic, smoggy in the mornings and noisy, just like most capital cities. There is a lake opposite the city of the dead. We passed it on the way from the Airport, it had a few water birds. Yellow-billed Kites are regular and the Zoo has Ring-necked Parakeets, bulbuls etc. Unfortunately I could not get a taxi driver to take me to Wad El Natrun or anywhere else outside the city. I should really have contacted Mrs Mindy Baha El Din beforehand, she might have known of an amenable taxi driver. Gosney gives several sites within the city but after the Zoo visit, I didn't fancy them. Even viewing the Nile outside our hotel nearly got me arrested because the promenade overlooked a Police boat dock. Luckily I managed to spot few secrets. They use Avon inflatable dinghies with outboard motors and zoom around the river. Please keep this information confidential.


7th                          Luxor - Mercure Coralia hotel.
8th                          Luxor, Crocodile Island, Aswan.
9th                          Aswan, Agilka Island, Nile cruise.
10th-11th               Nile cruise to Luxor.
12th                        Luxor Mercure Coralia hotel, Crocodile Island.
13th                        Travel to Hurghada, Marriott hotel.
14th-17th               Hurghada, El Gouna.
17th                        Fly to Cairo, Sofitel Maardi Towers hotel.
18th-19th               Cairo, Pyramids at Giza and Saqquara, Cairo Zoo.
20th                        Fly to Heathrow.

Systematic list

The sequence, taxonomy and nomenclature follows The Birds of the Western Palearctic, Cramp et al 1994. Where possible all subspecies have been identified although some of the Yellow Wagtails were a bit tricky.

Little Grebe Tachybaptus ruficollis: Two in Cairo on the lake opposite the city of the dead.

White Pelican Pelecanus onocrotalus: A nice flock of 100+ birds south down the Nile on October 8th. Several seen between Aswan and Luxor from the boat.

Little Bittern Ixobrychus minutus: Several seen from the boat.

Night Heron Nycticorax nycticorax: Common along the Nile, especially at dusk.

Striated Heron  Butorides viriscens: Common along the Nile.

Squacco Heron Ardeola ralloides: Very common along the Nile.

Cattle Egret Bubulcus ibis: Common on agricultural land along the Nile. Also 10+ at El Gouna golf course.

Western Reef Egret Egretta gularis: Around six seen at both Hurghada and El Gouna, all white versions.

Little Egret  Egretta garzetta: Common along the Nile.

Great Egret Egretta alba: Only five seen dotted along the Nile.

Grey Heron Ardea cinerea: Common along the Nile and at El Gouna creeks.

Purple Heron Ardea purpurea: Seen along the Nile, c30 in total.

Black Stork Cicconia nigra: Three singles over the Nile. At Hurghada birds passed through most days with 150 on October 14th, 36th, October 15th, seven, October 16th.

White Stork Cicconia cicconia: Two flocks, one of 200+, one of 70+ at Aswan over Agilka Island, October 9th. Two were with Black Storks at Hurghada, October 15th.

Glossy Ibis Plegadis falcinellus: Seen daily on the lower Nile. Counts were 54, October 8th, two, October 9th, 30, October 10th, 21, October 11th, 22, October 12th.

Spoonbill Platelea leucorodia: Eight seen between Aswan and Luxor.

Egyptian Goose Alopechen aegyptiacus: Several flocks were around our moorings at Aswan for a total of c150 birds.

Gadwall Anas strepera: Two were seen on the Nile.

Teal Anas crecca: Common along the Nile.

Mallard Anas platyrhynchos: Singles at Aswan and Cairo.

Pintail Anas acuta: Several large flocks along the Nile.

Garganey Anas querquedula: Common along the Nile. Four at El Gouna.

Shoveler Anas clypeata: Common along the Nile.

Pochard Aythya ferina: Four seen on the Nile.

Ferruginous Duck Aythya nyroca: Two on the Nile with Tufteds.

Tufted Duck Aythya fuligula: Small numbers on the Nile, One in Cairo.

European Honey Buzzard Pernis apivorus: Single over the Nile, October 10th. One, Hurghada, October 13th & 15th.

Black-shouldered Kite Elanus caeruleus: Common along the Nile, 60+ seen.

Yellow-billed Kite Milvus migrans aegyptius : Small numbers at Luxor, Aswan and Cairo, all of the race.

Marsh Harrier Cicus aeroginosus: Common along the Nile.

Montagu's Harrier Circus pygargus: Two females over the Valley of the King's on October 11th.

Eurasian Sparrowhawk Accipiter nisus: Singles Luxor, October 9th and Cairo, October 11th.

Steppe Buzzard Buteo buteo vulpinus: Odd singles over the Nile. A small passage through Hurghada most days.

Long-legged Buzzard Buteo rufinus: Three seen over the Nile. One over the Valley of the Kings on October 11th.

Lesser Spotted Eagle Aquila pomarina: One over the Nile on October 10th. One at c100m overhead at El Gouna, October 16th, both immatures.

Spotted Eagle Aquila clanga: Two north of Luxor on October 13th.

Osprey Pandion haliaetus: A couple on the Nile and off Agilka Island, Aswan. Also seen at Hurghada.

Lesser Kestrel Falco naumanni: Eight at Luxor Temple, October 12th were migrating together south.

Kestrel Falco tinnunculus: Seen daily.

Red-footed Falcon Falco vespertinus: An adult female on El Gouna golf course, October 16th.

Eurasian Hobby Falco subbuteo: One Edfu, October 10th,

Sooty Falcon Falco concolor: An immature, Hurghada, October 15th.

Moorhen Gallinula chloropus: Common on the Nile.

Purple Gallinule Porphyrio porphyrio madagascarensis: Common on the Nile.

Coot Fulica atra: One on the pond opposite the city of the dead in Cairo.

Oystercatcher Haemantopus ostralegus: One at El Gouna, October 15th.

Black-winged Stilt Himantopus himantopus: Common along the Nile.

Senegal Thick-knee Burhinus senegalensis: Fairly common along the Nile. Easy to see on Crocodile island, Luxor.

Collared Pratincole Glareola pratincola: One, El Gouna, October 15th-16th.

Little Ringed Plover Charadrius dubius: Common along the Nile and at El Gouna. Also seen at Hurghada wet flush.

Ringed Plover Charadrius hiaticula: Common along the Nile and at El Gouna. Also seen at Hurghada wet flush.

Kittlitz's Plover Charadrius pecuarius: One near Luxor, October 10th.

Kentish Plover Charadrius alexandrinus: Fairly common along the Nile. Common at El Gouna

Lesser Sand Plover Charadrius mongolus: One, El Gouna, October 15th. Seen in direct comparison with Great Sand Plover and Kentish Plover.

Greater Sand Plover Charadrius leschenaultii: Seen on the beach at the Hurghada Sheraton. Several El Gouna creek.

Grey Plover Pluvialis squatrola: Two El Gouna creek.

Spur-winged Plover Hoplopterus spinosus: Common along the Nile.

Sanderling Calidris alba: Two near Aswan, October 8th.

Little Stint Calidris minuta: Common along the Nile.

Temminck's Stint Calidris temminckii: Fairly common along the Nile.

Dunlin Calidris alpina: Seen along the Nile and at El Gouna.

Broad-billed Sandpiper Limicola falcinellus: One was on El Gouna creek, October 15th.

Ruff Philomachus pugnax: Common along the Nile.

Common Snipe Gallinago gallinago: Seen along the Nile.

Black-tailed Godwit Limosa limosa: Common along the Nile.

Curlew Numenius arquata: Seen Hurghada and El Gouna.

Spotted Redshank Tringa erythropus: One on the Nile, October 9th. One El Gouna, October 16th.

Redshank Tringa totanus: Small numbers on the Nile and at El Gouna.

Marsh Sandpiper Tringa stagnitalis: Seen on the Nile on two dates.

Greenshank Tringa nebularia: Common on the Nile and at Hurghada/El Gouna.

Green Sandpiper Tringa ochropus: Seen on three dates on the Nile.

Wood Sandpiper Tringa glareola: Several seen along the Nile.

Common Sandpiper Actitis hypoleucos: Common along the Nile.

Sooty Gull Larus hemprichii: About ten different birds around the Marriott Marina during our stay.

White-eyed Gull Larus leucophthalmus: Common on the Red Sea. Up to 3,000 get on Hurghada tip.

Black-headed Gull Larus ridibundus: Seen along the Nile.

Slender-billed Gull Larus genei: Seen at El Gouna where up to nine present.

Lesser Black-backed Gull Larus fuscus: Seen flying down the Nile at Aswan and near Luxor. Not racially identified.

Armenian Gull Larus armenicus: One was off the Marriott hotel on October 13th and was presumably the same bird seen on Hurghada Tip, October 15th.

Gull-billed Tern Sterna nilotica: Common on the Nile.

Caspian Tern Sterna caspia: Ten at El Gouna, both visits. Two at Hurghada, October 16th-17th.

Lesser Crested Tern Sterna bengalensis: Seen off Hurghada, October 14th and 16th.

Common Tern Sterna hirundo: One down the Nile at Aswan with Gull-billed Terns, October 9th. One off Hurghada, October 15th. Probably more missed.

White-cheeked Tern Sterna repressa: Seen of Hurghada, some perch on buoys giving good views.

Whiskered Tern Chlidonias hybridus: Common on the Nile.

Black Tern Chlidonias niger: Common on the Nile.

White-winged Black Tern Chlidonias leucopterus: Common on the Nile.

Rock Dove Columba livia: Common feral bird.

(African Collared Dove Streptopelia roseogrisea): Birds showing pale bellies and undertail coverts were in the dove roost at Hurghada on October 15th-16th. The views did not fully confirm this species.

Collared Dove Streptopelia decaocto: Up to 20 roosting in the grounds of the old Sheraton, Hurghada, October 15th-16th.

Turtle Dove Streptopelia turtur: Fairly common along the Nile.

Laughing Dove Streptopelia senegalensis: Very common.

Ring-necked Parakeet Psittacula krameri: Small numbers around Cairo Zoo.

Egyptian Nightjar Caprimulgus aegyptus: One was hawking around the Mercure Coralia hotel in Luxor, October 7th. What may have been this bird (or another) was glimpsed at the Karnak Temple during an evening Lights and Sound visit. On our return to the Mercure Coralis on October 12th, Sandra saw a pale bird around the hotel briefly which may also have been this species.

Pallid Swift Apus pallidus: Singles seen Crocodile Island, October 8th and Edfu, October 10th.

Common Kingfisher Alcedo atthis: One, El Gouna, October 16th.

Pied Kingfisher Ceryle rudis: Very common along the Nile.

Little Green Bee-eater Merops orientalis: Common along the Nile around agriculture.

Blue-cheeked Bee-eater Merops superciliosus: One along the Nile, October 9th.

European Bee-eater Merops apiaster: 60+ on Crocodile Island, Luxor, October 12th. One, El Gouna, October 15th.

Hoopoe Upupa epops: Common along the Nile.

Desert Lark Ammomanes deserti: One, the Valley of the Kings, October 11th had a deformed bill which was long and decurved like that on a Hoopoe Lark but longer. One was around the Step Pyramid at Saqquara.

Short-toed Lark Calandrella brachydatyla: One, El Gouna, October 16th.

Lesser Short-toed Lark Calandrella rufescens: A flock of ten, Hurghada wet flush, October 15th.

Crested Lark Galerida cristata: Common along the Nile.

Sand Martin Riparia riparia: Several around the Nile. One at Hurghada wet flush.

Rock Martin Ptyonopogne fuligula: Several seen around most archaeological sites along the Nile.

Crag Martin Ptyonoprogne rupestris: Two at Philae Temple, Agilka Island, October 9th. One at Karnak temple, Luxor, October 12th.

Barn Swallow Hirundo rustica: Common along the Nile and on the Red Sea.

Egyptian Swallow Hirundo rustica savignii: Common along the Nile.

Red-rumped Swallow Hirundo daurica: One around Crocodile island, October 12th.

House Martin Delichon urbica: A few at Memphis near Saqquara, October 18th.

Tawny Pipit Anthus campestris: One in the grounds of the old Sheraton hotel, Hurghada, October 14th. Another El Gouna, October 16th.

Tree Pipit Anthus trivialis: Common on El Gouna golf course.

Red-throated Pipit Anthus cervinus: Several heard and seen around the Nile. At El Gouna each fairway had c10 birds.

Blue-headed Wagtail Motacilla flava: Birds showing characteristics with other 'yellows' around Crocodile Island.

Egyptian Wagtail Motacilla flava pygmaea: Common around agricultural land on the Nile.

Yellow Wagtail Motacilla flave flavissima: Birds showing characteristics with other 'yellows' around Crocodile Island.

Grey-headed Wagtail Motacilla flava thunbergii: A couple which seem to be of this subspecies with other 'yellows' around Crocodile Island

Black-headed Wagtail Motacilla flava feldegg: Birds of this subspecies seen at Crocodile Island.

White Wagtail Motacilla alba: Fairly common, especially around Cairo.

Common Bulbul Pycnonotus barbatus: Common along the Nile.

Bluethroat Luscinia svecica: One at El Gouna in a flower bed on the golf course, October 16th.

Common Redstart Phoenicurus phoenicurus: Seen Luxor, Hurghada and El Gouna. Common on the Red Sea.

Whinchat Saxicola rubetra: Two, Hurghada, October 14th.

Isabelline Wheatear Oenanthe isabellina: Two, Hurghada tip area, October 15th. Two, El Gouna, October 16th.

Northern Wheatear Oenanthe oenanthe: Singles Hurghada tip and El Gouna, October 16th.

Western Black-eared Wheatear Oenanthe hispanica hispanica One adult, Luxor Temple, October 12th.

Eastern Black-eared Wheatear Oenanthe hispanica melanoleuca: One adult, El Gouna, October 16th.

Desert Wheatear Oenanthe deserti: A female, Hurghada tip, October 15th, a different on near there, October 16th. One, El Gouna, October 16th.

Mourning Wheatear Oenanthe lugens: One 20Km south of Hurghada at a checkpoint, October 13th. Several probables seen from the coach between Luxor and Hurghada.

White-crowned Black Wheatear Oenanthe leucopyga: Several around Agilka Island and Aswan Dam, October 9th.

Fan-tailed Warbler Cisticola juncidis: Common in agricultural areas along the Nile.

Graceful Warbler Prinia gracilis: Common along the Nile.

Sedge Warbler Acrocephalus schoenobaenus: One, El Gouna golf course, October 16th.

Clamorous Reed Warbler Acrocephalus stentorus: Several along the Nile, especially in the margins viewed from the bridge to Crocodile Island.

Olivaceous Warbler Hippolais pallida: Seen Luxor, Crocodile Island and Aswan.

Sardinian Warbler Sylvia melanocephala: Two, Hurghada, October 15th.

Lesser Whitethroat Sylvia curruca: Very common.

Garden Warbler Sylvia borin: One, Agilka Island, October 9th.

Blackcap Sylvia atracapilla: Three, Hurghada, 15th-16th October.

Wood Warbler Phylloscopus sibilatrix: One, Agilka Island, October 9th.

Chiffchaff Pyhlloscopus collybita: Small numbers around Hurghada, El Gouna.

Willow Warbler Phylloscopus trochilus: One, October 13th, Hurghada.

Spotted Flycatcher Muscicapa striata: Seen Crocodile Island, Aswan, Red Sea.

Nile Valley Sunbird Anthreptes metallicus: Several seen on Crocodile Island around flowering trees. Also seen Luxor and Agilka Island.

Golden Oriole Oriolus oriolus: Three, Crocodile Island, October 12th.

Red-backed Shrike Lanius collurio: Two, Hurghada, October 15th-16th.

Southern Grey Shrike Lanius meridionalis elegans: One near Saqquara, October 19th.

Masked Shrike Lanius nubicus: Several seen on Crocodile Island on both visits. One, Agilka Island, October 9th.

Hooded Crow Corvus cornix: Common.

Brown-necked Raven Corvus ruficollis: Fairly common in desert areas, especially the rest stop between Luxor and Hurghada. Common on Hurghada tip.

House Sparrow Passer domesticus: Very common along the Nile with thousands in Luxor at dawn.

Ortolan Bunting Emberiza hortulana: One, Crocodile Island, October 12th.

Cretzschmar's Bunting Emberiza caesia: One, El Gouna, October 15th.

Other wildlife

Jackal: One on Saqquara Pyramid, October 19th. Definitely not one of the feral dogs.

Nile Monitor: One between Edfu-Esna

Bat sps: At Edfu Temple large numbers of bats roost in quieter passages. Just inside the main open area an orange grilled door to the left has them roosting at close quarters. They were sand brown in colour with paler bellies and a longish tail. Bigger bats were seen flying around the temples at night.

Various lizards and some cracking fish in the Red Sea

Butterflies (identified)

Plain Tiger
Large White
Lang's Short-tailed Blue
Painted Lady

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