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A Report from

Sulawesi and Halmahera, August 14th- September 5th 2009,

Jan Vermeulen


General Information
Itinerary (summary)

* Lore Lindu National Park
* Karaenta Reserve
* Makassar area 
* Tangkoko National Park
* Bogani Nani Wartabone National Park
* Gunung Ambang Nature Reserve
* Halmahera

Daily Log 
Systematic List of Birds
Systematic List of Mammals 


In August/September 2009, we undertook a birding trip to the Indonesian islands of Sulawesi and Halmahera. Our main goal was to see as many different bird species as possible (especially the endemics) and to enjoy the nature in general. Vital van Gorp, Luc van Gompel and Marc van Herck, birding friends for many years, accompanied me.

Sulawesi and Halmahera are a foremost destination for the international birdwatcher. For two main reasons: few places in the world are more threatened than these Indonesian Islands and both are part of a totally different avian area that is known as Wallacea. The percentage of endemism of birds is most amazing for Islands in the middle of the Indonesian archipelago. T

The prime birding locations are being destroyed at the moment! If you’re a birdwatcher and you have not been there yet, then go there within the next few years!

Indonesia lies within Asia and Australasia. The four-legged island of Sulawesi lies to the east of the famous Wallace’s Line, an imaginary boundary between distinct faunal regions. Sulawesi has the highest number of endemic bird species of any of the Indonesian islands. It is the largest and geographically most complex Wallacean island with an amazing avifauna which is so different from the islands of the Greater Sundas to the west, including up to 70 species found nowhere else on earth.

The province of Sulawesi (formerly Celebes) in Indonesia is the large, rather odd-shaped island, variously described as shaped like an orchid or spider, to the east of Borneo and west of New Guinea.

One of the great attractions of birding in Indonesia is the large number of species of birds, which are found nowhere else on earth and nowhere is this more marked than on the islands of Sulawesi and Halmahera.

Halmahera, the largest of the Moluccas or the fabled “Spice Islands”, lies just a short distance to the east and has a similar odd shape, but a totally different avifauna

The Moluccas are much drier and have more affinities with the Australasian region than Sulawesi, but an equally rich selection of endemics, including the famous Wallace's Standardwing, certainly one of the strangest of the birds-of-paradise. The much smaller island of Halmahera is home to 24 endemic species of birds.


We booked our flight from Düsseldorf to Jakarta for €715 with Emirates Airlines. We travelled to Indonesia via Dubai. The flying time was roughly 6 hours to Dubai, a 4 hours stop and then 8 hours on to Jakarta. The flights were punctual and trouble free. We used Batavia Air, Lion Air, Expressair and Garuda for internal flights (air tax US$5). The time difference in Sulawesi with the Netherlands was six hours.

A permit valid for a less than 31 days stay is issued free on arrival at the airport; otherwise you do need a visa for Sulawesi & Halmahera. Visas valid for 30 days are available on arrival at Jakarta or Manado airport for US$ 5, 60 days is the maximum visa time. As few people speak English, it is very useful to take a phrase book.


If you plan to visit Sulawesi & Halmahera you just need to contact Royke Mananta ( who has been running tours here for many years at very reasonable cost.


The official currency of Indonesia is the Indonesian rupiah. The exchange rate at the airport was 10.000 Rp to US$100 or 14.000 Rp to €100. In most of the hotels you can pay by credit card.

One can easily change US Dollars and Euros everywhere in the cities, although this is unnecessary, because there are many ATM machines in the main towns. The only trouble with most ATM machines is that they will not give you more than 1.000.000 Rp. So you may have to repeat the transaction which may cost you more transaction costs. Some ATM can make you a millionaire instantly (2.000.000 Rp.).


Accommodation varied from very basic to good and was in general clean. Guesthouses and hotels were arranged by Royke Mananta. All hotels had air-conditioning and hot showers in the rooms.


Many birdwatchers rule out third world destinations as options for holidays fearing strange food, language barriers, sickness, bugs and intense heat. They needn’t have any such reservations about Sulawesi & Halmahera however. Bottled mineral water you can buy nearly everywhere; stick to this and bottled soft drinks or Bintang beer. The food is generally good and inexpensive.


Theft is really not a problem in Sulawesi & Halmahera unless you are careless. We encountered no problems and met only friendly, helpful and hospitable people. They smile and greet you and almost without exception respond to a greeting or smile. They have no objection to birdwatchers on their land, just don’t trample crops and treat their land with respect.


For vaccinations consult your own doctor for up to date advice. Generally you should be immunised or “topped up” against hepatitis A and B, Tetanus, Typhoid and Polio. Sulawesi and Halmahera have malaria (unlike some people will tell you) the risk is somewhat lower if you travel in the dry period but I would not take any chances if I were you. In addition to this you are recommended to take malaria tablets. We did not suffer much from the mosquitoes, only in our guesthouse rooms were sometimes a few mosquitoes. Unbelievably I did not see leeches for the entire trip! This is a first for me in Southeast Asia - it may have been due to the dryish conditions. On the down side chiggers were found to be prevalent. For some reason Vital received hardly any bites, but the rest of us were almost eaten alive. Chiggers attack wherever clothes fit tightly, such as around the belt line and sock tops, but also at other places of your body, no matter how private. Although there is no complete answer to the problem, as precaution wear long trousers tucked securely into your socks and spray insect repellent liberally on your clothing and shoes!


As English is not widely spoken, it would be helpful to learn some Indonesian (supposedly easy, though none of us managed any, except Luc) unless you intend to use guides most of the time, which is certainly possible on Sulawesi.


Sulawesi & Halmahera has a typically tropical climate and it is hot and humid year-around. We visited the country in the ‘dry’ season. Most days in the lowlands were very hot, dry and sunny and the humidity was often rather high. In montane areas temperature ranged from warm to cool and we had some heavy rain in Lore Lindu.


A small iPod and the bird call sets of the Sulawesi & Halmaheran endemics are useful for drawing in birds. Our guide had tapes of the endemics and they are absolutely essential, without these some species will not be seen.

A good torch is a must. A telescope is useful at lakes and very useful for viewing canopy species especially from roadsides. Photography is NOT difficult, as birds are easy to approach and light conditions are good.


Many Indonesian birds have two or more English names, which stems from history. I have decided to follow the English names of James F. Clements (Birds of the World, A Check List, Sixth Edition, 2007), including July 2007 – December 2009).


The following list of birds we saw frequently and if you spend any sort of time in the right habitats you will too:

Javan Pond-Heron, Cattle Egret, Brahminy Kite, Spotted Dove, Yellow-billed Malkoha, Uniform Swiftlet, Moluccan Swiftlet, Glossy Swiftlet, Collared Kingfisher, Knobbed Hornbill, Pacific Swallow, Sooty-headed Bulbul, Hair-crested Drongo, Slender-billed Crow, Yellow-bellied White-eye, Black-crowned White-eye, White-breasted Woodswallow, Fiery-browed Myna, Finch-billed Myna, Brown-throated Sunbird, Black Sunbird, Olive-backed Sunbird, Tree Sparrow, Grey-sided Flowerpecker, Black-faced Munia and Chestnut Munia.

For a detailed report of species and numbers please refer to the systematic list at the end of this report.


I cannot praise Royke Mananta enough – it was an absolutely fabulous trip without any significant

difficulty. Royke tried his utmost to find all the birds in the areas that we were visiting. He is a very professional guide and his ability with voices must be amongst the best in this area and he has a deep knowledge of the birds and the birding scene. Having Sulawesi and Halmahera Bird Watching Tours arrange our trip was by far the best decision we could have made.



Brian J. Coates and K. David Bishop. A Guide to the Birds of Wallacea.
James F. Clements. Birds of the World. A Check List.
Derek Holmes & Karen Phillipps. The Birds of Sulawesi.
Paul Jepson. Birding Indonesia. A Bird-watcher’s Guide. Published in 1997, some of its indications (at least for the areas we visited) are inevitably outdated.
Michael Walters. Complete Checklist. Vogels van de Wereld.
Nigel Wheatley. Where to watch birds in Asia.


Erwin Collaerts. Birding Trip Report to Sulawesi and Halmahera August 1st– 31st 2008.
Henk Hendriks. Indonesia 1993 South Sumatra, West Java, Sulawesi & Halmahera 10th July – 24th August.
Eddie Myers. Wallacea. A report on the birds seen during a trip made to Sulawesi & Halmahera 16th January to 3rdMarch 1997.
Oriental Bird Club. Bulletin 32, December 2000. Jon Riley. Birdwatching Areas: Gunung Ambang Nature Reserve, North Sulawesi: 1
Ignacio Yufera. Sulawesi & Halmahera, 8 - 27 August, 2008.



I use this software to keep track of the birds I have seen and to make lists of any country, labelling endemics and birds previously seen in that country, outside it, or both. BirdArea can produce checklists of the birds of any country of Clements’ world birds.


Royke Mananta
BTN Baliase Blok P2 No.4
Palu – Central Sulawesi
Phone: +62 (0)451 488755
HP: +62 (0)81 145 6468
alternative email:


August 14   Chaam * Arendonk * Düsseldorf * Dubai
August 15   Dubai * Jakarta (Java)


August 16   Jakarta * Palu * Lore Lindu National Park
August 17   Lore Lindu National Park
August 18   Lore Lindu National Park
August 19   Lore Lindu National Park  
August 20   Lore Lindu National Park
August 21   Lore Lindu National Park * Palu.
August 22   Palu * Makassar * Karaenta Forest * Makassar


August 23   Makassar * Ternate * Halmahera (Sidangoli)
August 24   Sidangoli * Lame Forest * Sidangoli
August 25   Sidangoli
August 26   Sidangoli


August 27   Sidangoli * Ternate * Manado * Tangkoko National Park
August 28   Tangkoko National Park
August 29   Tangkoko National Park
August 30   Tangkoko National Park
August 31   Tangkoko National Park * Manado * Dumago Bone National Park
September 1  Dumago Bone National Park
September 2  Dumago Bone National Park
September 3  Dumago Bone National Park * Gunung Ambang
September 4  Dumago Bone National Park * Manado * Jakarta
September 5  Jakarta * Dubai * Düsseldorf * Arendonk * Chaam


Most of the sites, with the notable exception of Gunung Ambang, are detailed in Jepson and on the Oriental Bird Club website. The former is good for the Lesser Sundas, but not the Sulawesi region which is well-covered by the latter.



Accommodation: The best base for Lore Lindu NP is nowadays the village Wuasa. It is nearest to the best remaining accessible forest and the top site ‘Anaso Track’ and ‘Lake Tambing’. We slept at the Sandy Inn in Wuasa, a very basic accommodation.

Lore Lindu is the finest readily accessible birding site on Sulawesi, but sadly much of the forest on the lower slopes has been cleared by settlers. A public road goes through it and much of the forest near the road is being destroyed. Lore Lindu is home to nearly all of Sulawesi’s remarkable endemics.

The forest on the upper slopes is still mostly intact and on the slopes of Mount Rorekatimbu, the highest peak in the park a number of upper montane specialities can be seen. The track to Anaso, an old logging road, is the most important area of Mount Rorekatimbu. The track is home to 4 of the most wanted endemics: Purple Bee-eater, Diabolical Nightjar, Geomalia and Great Shortwing. It is worth mentioning that the track up to Anaso had a couple of serious-looking washouts that made the road impassable to vehicles. It is unclear whether the road will be repaired after these washouts. Future birders have to walk to Anaso from the main road (7 km), as we did. Lake Tambing, near the Anaso turn, is also worth a visit – we had Platen's Rail, Cinnabar Hawk-Owl, Piping Crow and White-backed Woodswallow in this area.

The lower valleys are largely cultivated, but the forest edges here were very productive, especially in the early morning.

Birds seen here during our trip:

Little Grebe, Purple Heron, Cattle Egret, Barred Honey-Buzzard, Sulawesi Serpent-Eagle, Spot-tailed Goshawk, Small Sparrowhawk, Rufous-bellied Eagle, Sulawesi Hawk-Eagle, Spotted Kestrel, Red-backed Buttonquail, Barred Rail, PLATEN’S RAIL, Slender-billed Cuckoo-Dove, Red-eared Fruit-Dove, Superb Fruit-Dove, White-bellied Imperial-Pigeon, Grey-headed Imperial-Pigeon, Ornate Lorikeet, Yellow-and-green Lorikeet, Golden-mantled Racquet-tail, Sulawesi Hanging-Parrot, Rusty-breasted Cuckoo, Gould’s Bronze-Cuckoo, Black-billed Koel, Yellow-billed Malkoha, Lesser Coucal, Sulawesi Scops-Owl, CINNABAR HAWK-OWL, Speckled Hawk-Owl, DIABOLICAL NIGHTJAR, Great-eared Nightjar, Glossy Swiftlet, Sulawesi Swiftlet, Uniform Swiftlet, House Swift, Grey-rumped Treeswift, Collared Kingfisher, PURPLE-BEARDED BEE-EATER, Purple-winged Roller, Knobbed Hornbill, Sulawesi Woodpecker, Ashy Woodpecker, Pacific Swallow, Cerulean Cuckoo-Shrike, Pygmy Cuckoo-Shrike, Sulawesi Cuckoo-Shrike, SULAWESI THRUSH, GREAT SHORTWING, Zitting Cisticola, Chestnut-backed Bush-Warbler, Mountain Tailorbird, Sulawesi Leaf-Warbler, Snowy-browed Flycatcher, RUFOUS-THROATED FLYCATCHER, Little Pied Flycatcher, Island Flycatcher, Blue-fronted Flycatcher, Sulawesi Blue-Flycatcher, Citrine Canary-Flycatcher, Pied Bushchat, Rusty-flanked Fantail, Pale-blue Monarch, Olive-flanked Whistler, MAROON-BACKED WHISTLER, Sulphur-bellied Whistler, Malia, Sulawesi Babbler, Golden-bellied Gerygone, Plain-throated Sunbird, Black Sunbird, Olive-backed Sunbird, Crimson Sunbird, Yellow-sided Flowerpecker, Crimson-crowned Flowerpecker, Grey-sided Flowerpecker, Mountain White-eye, Yellow-bellied White-eye, Black-crowned White-eye, Streak-headed White-eye, Sulawesi Myzomela, Dark-eared Honeyeater, Greater Streaked Honeyeater, Black-naped Oriole, Sulawesi Drongo, White-backed Woodswallow, White-breasted Woodswallow, Piping Crow, Asian Glossy Starling, Short-tailed Starling, Sulawesi Myna, White-necked Myna, Fiery-browed Myna, Finch-billed Myna, Tree Sparrow, Nutmeg Mannikin, Chestnut Munia, Mountain Serin.


Accommodation: Hotel Pantai Gapura Makassar or another hotel in Makassar

The Karaenta Forest is a birding site near Makassar where you can find the Black-ringed White-eye, an endemic bird restricted to the south of Sulawesi. Karaenta is about ten kilometres past a little place called Bantimurung. We spent only a few hours here.

Birds seen here during our trip:

Red-backed Buttonquail, Sulawesi Woodpecker, Sooty-headed Bulbul, Grey-spotted Flycatcher, Sulawesi Babbler, Pale-blue Monarch, Sulawesi Babbler, Golden-bellied Gerygone, Plain-throated Sunbird, Black Sunbird, Olive-backed Sunbird, Olive-backed Sunbird, Yellow-sided Flowerpecker, Grey-sided Flowerpecker, BLACK-RINGED WHITE-EYE, Nutmeg Mannikin.


Accommodation: Hotel Pantai Gapura Makassar or another hotel in Makassar.

We spent a few hours in the open area near Makassar and also visited the fishponds. We were too early (2 – 3 weeks) for large numbers of shorebirds.

Birds seen here during our trip:

Purple Heron, Great Egret, Intermediate Egret, Little Egret, Javan Pond-Heron, Cattle Egret, Striated Heron, SCHRENCK’S BITTERN, Black Kite, Barred Rail, White-headed Stilt, Bar-tailed Godwit, Common Redshank, Marsh Sandpiper, Common Greenshank, Wood Sandpiper, Common Sandpiper, Common Tern, Little Tern, BRIDLED TERN, Whiskered Tern, Spotted Dove, Savanna Nightjar, Uniform Swiftlet, White-throated Needletail, Sacred Kingfisher, Pacific Swallow, White-shouldered Triller, Sooty-headed Bulbul, Clamorous Reed-Warbler, Zitting Cisticola, Pied Bushchat, White-breasted Woodswallow, Slender-billed Crow, Eurasian Tree Sparrow, Chestnut Munia, Pale-headed Munia, Java Sparrow.


Accommodation: Mama Roos’ Guesthouse in the tiny hamlet of Batuputih on the edge of Tangkoko.

Tangkoko has fared rather better than many of Sulawesi’s lowland forests and much remains intact, although all forest along the access road from Manado to Tangkoko has been cleared. Birding now only seems worthwhile in the park itself. This was still apparently the most effectively protected park we visited, although within the park small-scale wood-cutting continues. However, we neither saw nor heard large scale logging, nor encountered any hunting. The park with its forest rising from coastal to submontane supports a large range of the region’s endemic birds. The highly sought-after endemic quartet of kingfishers; Lilac, Green-backed, Sulawesi and Scaly are all possible. A boat trip into the mangroves will probably produce the fifth endemic kingfisher, the huge Black-billed Kingfisher. A variety of other endemics are possible: the very rare Yellow-crested Cockatoo, Ornate Lorikeet, White Imperial Pigeon, White-faced Cuckoo-Dove, Yellow-billed Malkoha, Ashy Woodpecker to name just a few.
Walking up through the forest, close attention to the forest understory could produce skulkers such as Rusty-backed Thrush, Red-bellied, Elegant and Hooded Pitta and Stephan’s Dove.
Night-time forays are rewarding, with the surrounding grasslands and secondary forest home to three nocturnal endemics; Sulawesi Scops-Owl, Minnahassa Owl, Sulawesi Masked Owl and Sulawesi Nightjar.

Tangkoko is also an interesting place for mammals, with both the great-ape-like Celebes Crested Macaque and the diminutive Spectral Tarsier are likely to be seen.

Birds seen here during our trip:

Great-billed Heron, Pacific Reef-Heron, Cattle Egret, Striated Heron, Osprey, Brahminy Kite, White-bellied Sea-Eagle, Sulawesi Goshawk, Vinous-breasted Sparrowhawk, Sulawesi Hawk-Eagle, Tabon Scrubfowl, Red Junglefowl, Barred Buttonquail, Buff-banded Rail, Barred Rail, Isabelline Bush-hen, Whimbrel, Wood Sandpiper, Common Sandpiper, Black-naped Tern, Slender-billed Cuckoo-Dove, White-faced Cuckoo-Dove, Emerald Dove, Stephan’s Dove, Pink-necked Pigeon, Grey-cheeked Pigeon, Black-naped Fruit-Dove, Green Imperial-Pigeon, White Imperial-Pigeon, YELLOW-CRESTED COCKATOO, Ornate Lorikeet, Yellow-breasted Racquet-tail, Golden-mantled Racquet-tail, Azure-rumped Parrot, Sulawesi Hanging-Parrot, Pygmy Hanging-Parrot, Yellow-billed Malkoha, Bay Coucal, Lesser Coucal, Sulawesi Scops-Owl, OCHRE-BELLIED HAWK-OWL, Sulawesi Nightjar, Glossy Swiftlet, Sulawesi Swiftlet, Uniform Swiftlet, Fork-tailed Swift, Grey-rumped Treeswift, Common Kingfisher, Sulawesi Kingfisher, LILAC KINGFISHER, Black-billed Kingfisher, Ruddy Kingfisher, Collared Kingfisher, Sacred Kingfisher, GREEN-BACKED KINGFISHER, Rainbow Bee-eater,

Purple-winged Roller, Sulawesi Hornbill, Knobbed Hornbill, Ashy Woodpecker, Red-bellied Pitta, ELEGANT PITTA, Barn Swallow, Pacific Swallow, Pied Cuckoo-Shrike, White-rumped Cuckoo-Shrike, Cicadabird, Sooty-headed Bulbul, RUSTY-BACKED THRUSH, Pale-blue Monarch, Sulawesi Babbler, Plain-throated Sunbird, Black Sunbird, Olive-backed Sunbird, Yellow-sided Flowerpecker, Grey-sided Flowerpecker, Black-crowned White-eye, Black-naped Oriole, Hair-crested Drongo, Asian Glossy Starling, Slender-billed Crow, White-necked Myna, Finch-billed Myna, Eurasian Tree Sparrow.


Accommodation: The best base for Dumago Bone NP is probably the lodge at the park headquarters in Toraut.

It is nearest to the best remaining accessible forest. Another possibility is Hotel Patrajasa in Kota Mobagu.

Despite large-scale deforestation around the perimeter of the park the birds continue to hang-on and the list of possibilities is huge. The lowland and montane forests in this large park support over 30 endemics and plenty of near-endemics.

The nesting grounds of the unique Maleo, a large pied megapode are situated at Tambun. The Maleo buries its single large egg in the warm sand to be incubated by the heat of underground hot springs. A few years ago, seeing the Maleo at Tambun was a piece of cake. Now they are difficult as much trapping and collecting of eggs and disturbance is taking place. We were lucky to see three birds on the last morning we visited the site.

Serious logging persists here, and all day long we heard the chain saws. The forest behind the park headquarters at Toraut is pretty trashed from logging, though still holds good birds.

Amongst the birds that can be seen here are White-Faced Cuckoo-Dove, Sulawesi Ground-Dove, Maroon-chinned Fruit Dove,  Bay Coucal, Black-billed Koel Yellow-breasted Racquet-tail, , Sulawesi Triller, Pied Cuckoo-Shrike and both Large and Small Sulawesi Hanging-parrots. Night birding can be productive and Sulawesi Scops-Owl, Sulawesi Owl and both Speckled and Ochre-bellied Hawk-Owl can be seen.

Birds seen here during our trip:

Darter, Purple Heron, Great Egret, Intermediate Egret, Little Egret, Cattle Egret, Yellow Bittern Cinnamon Bittern, Wandering Whistling Duck, Sunda Teal, Black Kite, Brahminy Kite, Lesser Sea-Eagle, Spotted Harrier, Black Eagle, Oriental Hobby, Peregrine Falcon, MALEO, Buff-banded Rail, Barred Rail, Isabelline Bush-hen, White-breasted Waterhen, White-browed Crake, Purple Swamphen, Common Moorhen, Comb-crested Jacana, Wood Sandpiper, Ruff, Spotted Dove, Slender-billed Cuckoo-Dove, White-faced Cuckoo-Dove, SULAWESI GROUND-DOVE, Grey-cheeked Pigeon, Maroon-chinned Fruit-Dove, Superb Fruit-Dove, Black-naped Fruit-Dove, White-bellied Imperial-Pigeon, Green Imperial-Pigeon, White Imperial-Pigeon, Yellow-and-green Lorikeet, Sulawesi Hanging-Parrot, Rusty-breasted Cuckoo, Black-billed Koel, Yellow-billed Malkoha, Lesser Coucal, SULAWESI OWL, Sulawesi Scops-Owl, SPECKLED HAWK-OWL, Great Eared-Nightjar, Glossy Swiftlet, Sulawesi Swiftlet, Uniform Swiftlet, Purple Needletail, Fork-tailed Swift, Grey-rumped Treeswift, Common Kingfisher, Collared Kingfisher, Green-backed Kingfisher, Purple-winged Roller, Sulawesi Hornbill, Knobbed Hornbill, Ashy Woodpecker, Barn Swallow, Pacific Swallow, Pied Cuckoo-Shrike, White-rumped Cuckoo-Shrike, Cicadabird, White-rumped Triller, Sooty-headed Bulbul, Pale-blue Monarch, Golden-bellied Gerygone, Plain-throated Sunbird, Black Sunbird, Olive-backed Sunbird, Yellow-sided Flowerpecker, Grey-sided Flowerpecker, Black-crowned White-eye, Black-naped Oriole, Hair-crested Drongo, White-backed Woodswallow, Slender-billed Crow, Sulawesi Myna, White-necked Myna, Finch-billed Myna, Eurasian tree Sparrow, Black-faced Munia, Nutmeg Mannikin, Chestnut Munia.


Accommodation: Hotel Patrajasa in Kota Bomagu.

North of Kota Bomagu lies Gunung Ambang Nature Reserve. This park gives access to submontane forests that are rich in bird life. It was certainly the most disturbed area we visited. Logging and removal of wood is rife. Cows were being used to haul out cut planks. Though forest clearance is a severe threat to the park, some excellent tracts remain, holding some of Sulawesi’s least known and rarest species. They include the recently described Cinnabar Hawk-Owl, only known from here and a handful of other sites and the endemic Matinan Flycatcher, known only from the hill forests of the Minahassa Peninsula.

Birds seen here during our trip:

Spot-tailed Goshawk, Grey-cheeked Pigeon, Superb Fruit-Dove, White-bellied Imperial-Pigeon, Yellow-and-green Lorikeet, Sulawesi Hanging-Parrot, Black-billed Koel, Yellow-billed Malkoha, Purple Needletail, Grey-rumped Treeswift, SCALY KINGFISHER, PURPLE-BEARDED BEE-EATER, Chestnut-backed Bush-Warbler, Mountain White-eye, Black-crowned White-eye, Island Flycatcher, MATINAN FLYCATCHER, Citrine Canary-Flycatcher, Rusty-flanked Fantail, Sulphur-bellied Whistler, White-breasted Woodswallow, Yellow-sided Flowerpecker, Grey-sided Flowerpecker.


Accommodation: Guesthouse Sidangoli Indah Losmen in Sidangoli

The jumping-off point for Halmahera is the small island of Ternate. Dominated by a gently smoking volcano, it is the most important town of the fabled "Spice Islands." These islands are much drier and have more affinities with the Australasian region than Sulawesi, but an equally rich selection of endemics.

The small shaped K island of Halmahera lies on the north side of Wallacea region. It is the most northern part of the Moluccan Islands. Halmahera is the home of the two Birds of Paradise species (Wallace's Standardwing & Paradise-crow) that separated away from New Guinea and North Australia. Halmahera hosts 227 recorded species with 4 endemics to the island itself. An over all 38 are endemics to Moluccan Islands. Many of them are shared with other smaller neighbouring islands

Birds seen here during our trip:

Lesser Frigatebird, Striated Heron, Brahminy Kite, Moluccan Goshawk, Gurney’s Eagle, Spotted Kestrel, Dusky Scrubfowl, Spotted Dove, NICOBAR PIGEON, Blue-capped Fruit-Dove, Grey-headed Fruit-Dove, Cinnamon-bellied Imperial-Pigeon, White Cockatoo, Chattering Lory, Red-flanked Lorikeet, Red-cheeked Parrot, Great-billed Parrot, Eclectus Parrot, Moluccan Hanging-Parrot, Goliath Coucal, Moluccan Scops-Owl, Moluccan Hawk-Owl, Moluccan Owlet-Nightjar, Glossy Swiftlet, Halmahera Swiftlet, Uniform Swiftlet, Moustached Treeswift, Blue-and-white Kingfisher, Sombre Kingfisher, Beach Kingfisher, Common Paradise-Kingfisher, Rainbow Bee-eater, Purple Roller, Blyth’s Hornbill, IVORY-BREASTED PITTA, Pacific Swallow, Moluccan Cuckoo-Shrike, Rufous-bellied Triller, Golden Bulbul, Willie-Wagtail, Slaty Monarch, Spectacled Monarch, Shining Flycatcher, Golden Whistler, Drab Whistler, Plain-throated Sunbird, Black Sunbird, Olive-backed Sunbird, Flame-breasted Flowerpecker, Cream-throated White-eye, White-streaked Friarbird, Dusky Friarbird, Halmahera Oriole, Spangled Drongo, PARADISE-CROW, WALLACE’S STANDARDWING, Long-billed Crow, Metallic Starling, Moluccan Starling, Eurasian Tree Sparrow.


Friday/Saturday 14/15 August

Our trip started with an Emirates flight from Düsseldorf via Dubai to Jakarta on Java. The flight arrived in Dubai at 23.45. At 4.15 we joined the Emirates flight to Jakarta, arriving at 15.45 local time. It had been long and tiring. After purchasing the entry visa for €20 we went through and immediately we were engulfed in the thick humidity and warm air of the bustling big city. We left the airport and transferred towards the nearby Hotel FM7, where we all had a comfortable night after a tiring flight.

Sunday 16 August

Next morning found us at 6.00 at the airport. We had to wait a while for our Batavia Air flight and amongst the birds seen at the airport were Cave Swiftlet, Long-tailed Shrike and Javan Munia. Despite a slight delay on take off, we arrived almost on time in Palu in the centre of weird-shaped Sulawesi and met up with Royke Mananta, our guide during the trip.

We immediately started birding in the fields surrounding the airport. Amongst the birds seen here were a Spotted Kestrel hovering over the fields, White-shouldered Triller, Yellow-vented Bulbul, Golden-bellied Gerygone and Yellow-bellied White-eye.

Hereafter we set off on the three-hour journey up to the famous Lore Lindu NP with our Toyota Kijang Innova.

On the way we made a few stops in the open areas near Palu and here we soon found our first endemic, a Grey-sided Flowerpecker. Other birds we encountered were Barred Buttonquail, Savanna Nightjar, Blue-tailed Bee-eater and Black-faced & Chestnut Munia. As we headed towards Lore Lindu, a brief look in some fields produced a group of Pale-bellied Mynas, a poorly known south Sulawesi endemic and en route we also saw a Sulawesi Hanging-Parrot. We arrived at 20.30 in Wuasa village and checked into our guesthouse Sandy Inn.

It was hard to sleep that night as we eagerly waited for dawn to break.

Monday 17 August

Breakfast was at 5.00 and our guesthouse was within easy reach of the cool montane forests. We spent all morning in the lower valleys which were largely cultivated, but the forest edges here were very productive.

One of the first birds we saw was a Barred Rail, right in front of us on the tarmac road!

Our first stop gave good views of Yellow-billed Malkoha, Cerulean Cuckoo-Shrike, Citrine Canary-Flycatcher, Sulawesi Blue-Flycatcher, Black-crowned White-eye and Finch-billed Myna. The latter were especially conspicuous as they noisily gathered in stark dead trees riddled with their nest holes.

The fine weather brought out the raptors, first a pair of Sulawesi Serpent-Eagles and 4 Rufous-bellied Eagles and then 3 Sulawesi Hawk-Eagles put on a splendid aerial display. Pigeons were much in evidence and we added Slender-billed Cuckoo-Dove and White-bellied & Grey-headed Imperial Pigeon to our trip list.

Some of the other specialities gave themselves up quite easily and typical species of the mixed feeding flocks included Rusty-breasted Cuckoo, Sulawesi Woodpecker, Sulawesi Cuckoo-Shrike, Black-naped Oriole, Island Flycatcher, Pale-blue Monarch, Rusty-flanked Fantail and Yellow-sided Flowerpecker. We also found speedy flocks of Fiery-browed Mynas and a few Sulawesi Mynas.

By now we were all hungry and returned to our guesthouse for lunch. We now had a couple of hours to rest and relax, as we did not intend going out birding again until 3.00 p.m.

After lunch we headed to Lake Tambing (1750 m), where we spent the rest of day. The trees surrounding the lake were a hive of activity and held a wealth of birds amongst them Ornate and Yellow-and-green Lorikeets and the attractive White-backed Woodswallows, which were all the time around us. Memorable too were Gould’s Bronze-Cuckoo, the bizarre Piping Crow, Sulawesi Leaf-Warbler, the handsome Blue-fronted Flycatcher, Mountain White-eye, Sulphur-bellied Whistler, Short-tailed Starling and Dark-eared Honeyeater.

Our evening owl activity was quite successful and we eventually saw a beautiful Cinnabar Hawking-Owl, a recently described species and we also saw a couple of Great Eared-Nightjars.

My first full day birding was fantastic, with rare and endemic birds literally falling out of the trees and into my pockets.

Tuesday 18 August

Next morning found us for much of time in the higher altitudes of Lore Lindu. The main road was very productive and our forays along here frequently yielded flocks. We had spectacular views of a Small Sparrowhawk perched up in the scopes for us real close. We found obliging Chestnut-backed Bush-Warblers lurking in the undergrowth, and noisy flocks of Malias tugging at the epiphytes.  A Great Shortwing came very close while it circled around us and while we were looking at the Great Shortwing, a very obliging Rufous-throated Flycatcher came even closer. We did see no less than 6 Rufous-throated Flycatchers today, normally a difficult species to find.

Amongst the other goodies we saw today were a beautiful Red-eared Fruit-Dove, Superb Fruit-Dove, Ashy Woodpecker, Malia, Little Pied Flycatcher, Mountain Tailorbird and Greater Streaked Honeyeater. Best of all however was a Platen’s Rail, which crossed the road in the Lake Tambing area.

At dusk we found an obliging Sulawesi Scops-Owl and heard a Speckled Hawk-Owl, but alas we could not find the bird.

Wednesday 19 August

Next morning found us along the Anaso logging track. Fortunately, the logging company is no longer active here and it is one of the few areas where birders can easily gain access to high altitude habitats. We birded the track from early morning to lunch. The track was partially destroyed so we walked from bottom. Fairly easy was one of Sulawesi’s star attractions, the stunning Purple-bearded Bee-eater. Along the track were a host of other goodies seen. Pigeons were much in evidence and amongst the pigeons seen were Slender-billed Cuckoo-Dove, Red-eared Fruit-Dove, Grey-headed Imperial-Pigeon and best of all was a good but brief view of the very elusive and rare Sombre Pigeon. In spite of trying very hard for Geomalia we did not succeed, a disappointing miss!

Memorable other birds included Golden-mantled Racquet-tail, Pygmy Cuckoo-Shrike, Malia, Streak-headed White-eye, Olive-flanked Whistler, Sulawesi Myzomela and flight views of Mountain Serin.

However the ultimate bird had to be the Diabolical Nightjar. We did not find the bird at the usual open areas and finally we saw this stunning bird at the top of the track at less than 5 metres.

At mid-afternoon we decided to walk back to Lake Tambing. When we were halfway, dark storm clouds gathered overhead and then consistent heavy rain sabotaged further birding. When we finally arrived at the main road, everybody was soaking wet. We decided to head back to our guesthouse and change our clothes, but heavy rain washed out our owling.

Thursday 20 August

The next morning offered clear skies and excellent birding. We returned to the road in the Lake Tambing area, close to the Anaso track. We found a lot of birds, but most of them were the same ones already seen. Amongst the birds seen were Sulawesi Hawk-Eagle, Superb Fruit-Dove, Sulawesi Hanging-Parrot, Grey-rumped Tree-Swift, Knobbed Hornbill, Mountain Tailorbird, Island Flycatcher, Dark-eared Honeyeater, Crimson-crowned Flowerpecker and many others.

However we were treated to superb views of a Maroon-backed Whistler and three Sulawesi Thrushes, both ‘new’ ones and difficult species to find.

In the lower parts of Lore Lindu we heard the call of the Spot-tailed Goshawk, which finally gave superb views, perched on a low branch of a tree after many frustrating minutes of searching.

Non-avian highlights today included Whitish Dwarf Squirrel and Tonkean Macaque.

When it was almost dark we returned to our lodge, where we had dinner and drank a few Bintang.

Friday 21 August

Next morning found us in the fields surrounding Wuasa. In this open area we found amongst others Red-backed Buttonquail, Lesser Coucal, Collared Kingfisher, Pied Bushchat, White-breasted Woodswallow, Asian Glossy Starling and Nutmeg Mannikin.

We also walked along the edge of the forest, not a very pretty sight! Here we saw the scale of the large deforestation of Lore Lindu. While walking in the fields a pair of Barred Honey-Buzzards gave outstanding views as they circled over the road. Other birds of note we saw here were Sulawesi Serpent-Eagle, Spotted Kestrel, Ornate and Yellow-and-green Lorikeet, Black-billed Koel, Ruddy-breasted Cuckoo, Sulawesi Cuckoo-Shrike and Sulawesi Blue-Flycatcher.

At midday we left the Sandy Inn and headed back towards Palu. In the Kamarora area we made a very short stop and had good views of Purple-winged Roller and White-necked Myna.

Heading on, we again were introduced to paddyfields and associated bird species. Blue-tailed Bee-eaters sat on the wires - sites they shared with Pacific Swallows. Then there were quite a few Javan Pond-Herons and a large group of Glossy Ibis, a bird Royke had not seen the last 10 years in Sulawesi. The rice paddies yielded flocks of Black-faced, Chestnut & the beautiful Pale-headed Munias and a few Barred and Buff-banded Rails. We arrived at 17.00 hours at the luxurious Swiss-Bell Hotel in Palu.

Saturday 22 August

After a comfortable night at the hotel we left Palu and flew with Lion Air to Makassar (formerly Ujung Pandang).

A car was waiting at the airport and within 50 minutes we were at the limestone hills with the remaining forest patches of Karaenta Forest. Our prime target here was the rather localized Black-ringed White-eye which we saw with ease.

We spent only a short time at this reserve, but we saw some really close birds, including a pair of incredibly obliging Sulawesi Babblers hopping along the road right in front of us, a migrant Grey-spotted Flycatcher, Pale-blue Monarch and Red-backed Buttonquail.

As we headed back towards the airport, a brief look in some fields produced a group of Pale-headed Munias and 2 Java Sparrows, a species introduced to Sulawesi.

We explored some nearby fishponds and paddies, where we were amply rewarded with small numbers of eastern waders including White-headed Stilt, Common Redshank, Marsh Sandpiper and Wood Sandpiper. Best of all however was a Schrenck’s Bittern, a real surprise and a bird I had seen only once a long time ago in Thailand.

We spent some time along the coast, where we added Bridled Tern, Bar-tailed Godwit, Sacred Kingfisher and Clamorous Reed Warbler to keep the list going.

We then headed back to Makassar where we checked into Hotel Pantai Gapura Makassar in the centre of town.

Sunday 23 August

Next morning found us at the airport. We had to wait a while longer, because our flight was delayed. While waiting we had good views of a few White-throated Needletails and House Swifts, flying all the time in the airport area.

Finally at 10 o’clock we flew with Expressair to the tiny island of Ternate, which is dominated by its massive volcano.

A taxi took us across this busy little island to the harbour, where a small speedboat was waiting to take us across to Halmahera. Our luggage was stowed in the hold, while two of us positioned ourselves in the back of the boat, binoculars at the ready. Once we had left the shelter of the land, small numbers of Lesser Frigatebird floated overhead together and I had a tantalizing glimpse of a distant shearwater, probably a Wedge-tailed Shearwater, but it vanished in the sun’s glare, before it could be identified.

We landed at the small port of Sidangoli, a tranquil fishing village on the west coast of Halmahera. Hereafter a local boatman took us over the river to the mangroves on the opposite bank. We made a “stroll” into the mangroves, where our main quarry, Beach Kingfisher, eventually was found. We then checked into guesthouse Sidangoli Indah Losmen, our home for the next three days.

Monday 24 August

An early start the following day ensured that we were very early at Lame Forest. Our first exploration along the forest edge provided us with many new birds, most of which seemed to be endemic or nearly so.

We were impressed by the still large numbers of pigeons and parrots, species often the first to suffer when remote regions become ‘developed’. There were Blue-capped and Grey-headed Fruit-Doves, Chattering Lories, White Cockatoos, Eclectus Parrots and Red-cheeked Parrots.

A stroll into the forest on a logging track provided some good birding including sights of Dusky Scrubfowl, the huge Goliath Coucal, Golden Bulbul, Spectacled Monarch, Cream-throated White-eye, Rufous-bellied Triller and Golden Whistler.

Best of all however were a pair of Nicobar Pigeons which were on the ground and then perched just about ten meters in front of us on eyes level. We had scoop views of this beautiful species for more than 10 minutes. Overhead all the time Brahminy Kites were in view and we also saw 2 soaring Oriental Hobbies and the endemic Moluccan Goshawk.

After lunch and a siesta we ventured out again and birded in the Sidangoli area along the main road. Amongst the most noteworthy birds seen were Halmahera Swiftlet, Blue-and-white Kingfisher, Blyth’s Hornbill, Long-billed Crow, Halmahera Oriole, the rather plain looking Paradise-crow, Slaty Monarch and Moluccan Starling.

Night birding was one of the main features of our time at Halmahera, but our owl activity was not very successful, although we eventually managed to spotlight a Moluccan Scops-Owl and a Large-tailed Nightjar. Sadly we only heard Moluccan Hawk-Owl and Moluccan Owlet-Nightjar.

Tuesday 25 August

Next morning again found us in the forest not far from Sidangoli. This area still had good patches of forest along an easily accessible logging track. Birding in the forest was quite successful and especially the number of parrots were impressive. Amongst the parrots seen were Chattering Lory, Red-cheeked Parrot and Eclectus Parrot. We scoped up the impressive Great-billed Parrot and found a pair of Moluccan Hanging-Parrots.

Many other goodies were seen including Emerald Dove, scope views of Sombre Kingfisher, Common Paradise-Kingfisher, Spectacled Monarch, a very obliging Shining Flycatcher, Dusky Myzomela and Dusky Friarbird. Ivory-breasted Pitta was easy to hear but difficult to see. Persistence paid off eventually and when Royke played the tape, the pitta almost flew against my head and then perched in a tree.

In the late afternoon we again drove to Lame Forest. Stops en route were very productive with 2 impressive Gurney’s Eagles perched in a dead tree, no less than 6 Blue-and-white Kingfisher on the wires and most important of them all a Purple Roller in our telescope, a very difficult bird to see nowadays on Halmahera.

Other birds of note we saw this afternoon were many Rainbow Bee-eaters, Moluccan Cuckoo-Shrike, Spangled Drongo and Metallic Starling.

Unfortunately, our nocturnal forays were very frustrating and ultimately unproductive!

Wednesday 26 August

On waking at 3.00 a.m. we could hear the ominous noise of rain. At 3.15 we left our guesthouse. It had rained heavily and the trails to Kali Batu Putih were very slippery. At 4.00 we arrived at Pak Anu’s house and after a while his wife accompanied us to the Standardwing’s lek.

It was a very hard trip, a very slippery trail and we had to cross three rocky rivers in the dark, but eventually we arrived in the pre-dawn darkness at the lek. Of course I was soaking wet,

In silence, we all assumed our positions on an eastern-facing slope and were soon treated to the first distinctive call of the Standardwing before the metallic green breast feathers became visible. At least four of eight males then went about their display that involved frantic leaps more than five metres into the air, posturing and a great variety of calls. Then, two of them started to fight and fell and then wrestled on the ground for about 30 minutes and then flew away. The morning show lasted about an hour before the birds noisily disappeared into the forest to forage.

In addition to Wallace’s Standardwing diligent searching in the forest produced a number of other species, as we slowly walked back to the main road including Cinnamon-bellied Imperial-Pigeon, a large group of Red-flanked Lorikeets, Moluccan Hanging-Parrot, Dusky & White-streaked Friarbird and Flame-breasted Flowerpecker.

Exhausted, but very satisfied which what we had seen, we returned in Sidangoli. A leisurely afternoon in the village Sidangoli did not produce any interesting birds.

Thursday 27 August

Next morning we again positioned ourselves in the pre-dawn along the forest edge, where Royke had seen the Moluccan Owlet-Nightjar a few times. The calls of the bird were audible, but our last attempt at seeing one again ended in failure. Very disappointed we slowly headed back to Sidangoli, realizing that we would never see this bird. It was with some sadness that we finally left Halmahera. We then took a very fast speedboat over to Ternate, a quiet trip seeing hardly any birds.

At 9.30 we left Ternate with Lion Air for our short flight to Manado. Another Toyota Innova was waiting for us at the airport. En route to Tangkoko we made a stop and a Sulawesi Goshawk obligingly soared above our heads.

At 13.30 we arrived in tiny hamlet of Batuputih on the edge of Tangkoko National Park. We checked into Mama Roos’ Guesthouse.

After lunch and time to settle-in we made a stroll in Tangkoko in the company of Samuel and Jack, two very good birding guides. Here a wealth of species were to vie our attentions. It was very rewarding and several new and much wanted species were seen amongst them a pair of Yellow-crested Cockatoos. I really hadn’t been expecting to see this parrot in Sulawesi, where they are close to extinction. Next year I was planning to see the bird in Komodo on my Lesser Sundas trip.

Other noteworthy sightings included Green Imperial-Pigeon, White Imperial-Pigeon, Azure-rumped Parrot, Sulawesi Hanging-Parrot, the amazing Lilac(-backed) Kingfisher and at dusk we successfully taped out a Sulawesi Nightjar on a branch in the spotlight.

When we returned to the guesthouse we met Chris Gooddie, who had just seen his 25thpitta (Elegant Pitta) in Tangkoko on his quest to see and photograph all pittas of the world within a year.

Friday 28 August

After an early breakfast we visited the nearby lowland Tangkoko forest. We arrived soon after first light as the dawn chorus rang through the forest. The first bird we saw was a Ruddy Kingfisher sitting motionless on a branch over the water. The first birds we searched for were the rare Rusty-backed Thrush and Elegant Pitta, both seen at the same spot by Chris Gooddie. The thrush and the pitta were found more easily than we expected and we enjoyed great views of both birds.

Inside the forest we spent much time slowly working the good network of trails in search of the shyer inhabitants. We quickly amassed an impressive list of goodies. A Stephan’s Dove shot past at speed, however Red Junglefowl and Red-bellied Pitta were more amenable to lengthy looks. We did well on the forest kingfishers and saw Lilac (10) and Green-backed Kingfisher. Also seen were Black-naped Fruit-Dove, Bay Coucal, White-necked Myna, Pied & White-rumped Cuckoo-Shrike. The late afternoon saw us in the higher areas of Tangkoko. A meeting with a cobra scared the hell out of us. Several new species were seen and White-bellied Sea-Eagle, Pink-necked Green-Pigeon, Pygmy Hanging-Parrot and Yellow-breasted Racquet-tail were added to our list. On three occasions Tabon Scrubfowls were flushed, but eventually they were seen well on the ground.

Saturday 29 August

Dawn next morning saw us back in the stunning tall lowland forest of Tangkoko. Of course most of the birds we did see we had already seen, but inevitably we found a few new ones.

An extremely obliging Sulawesi Kingfisher was found by Samuel, a perched Vinous-breasted Sparrowhawk was scoped in the top of a tree and we also had good looks at a few White-faced Cuckoo-Doves.

There were not many mammals but we did see Bear Cuscus and a large party of  Celebes Crested Macaques.

In the afternoon we took a boat trip out to some mangroves. With the engine turned off we could float and enjoy a tremendous stillness and silence while we watched. Gliding through the quiet waters with high expectations of seeing Black-billed Kingfisher. We had to go very deep inside the mangroves to find our birds, a pair is residing here. It was a relief to all of us having gotten our bird as we had missed the mandatory Sulawesi Owls perched at the sea cave. Other birds encountered on the way were Great-billed Heron, Pacific Reef-Heron, Osprey, Whimbrel, Black-naped Tern and Sacred Kingfisher.

Sunday 30 August

We spent all day in Tangkoko. We walked along the trails encountering a rich variety of birds along the way, but most of course the same ones as we had seen before. Amongst the most noteworthy birds we saw were Barred Buttonquail, Grey-cheeked Pigeon, Azure-rumped Parrot, Sulawesi Nightjar on the nest with one egg,

Purple-winged Roller, Hair-crested Drongo, Rusty-backed Thrush, Black-fronted White-eye, Asian Glossy Starling and Plain-throated & Black Sunbird. Samuel found three Ochre-bellied Hawk-Owls perched in the lower canopy!

We also visited the Spectral Tarsier roost fig-tree and 2 tiny Tarsiers emerged and gave a good show.

Monday 31 August

Today was predominately a travelling day. The final part of the trip took us to Bogani Nani Wartabone National Park, the former Dumago Bone NP. We made a stop a few kilometres outside Tangkoko at a few patches of lowland forest. Pigeons were much in evidence and we saw Grey-cheeked Pigeon, Black-naped Fruit-Dove, Green Imperial-Pigeon and White Imperial-Pigeon. Most important however were the 2 Sulawesi Hornbills we scoped. Other birds of note were Golden-mantled Racquet-tail, Common Koel, Cicadabird, Black-naped Oriole, White-necked Myna and Grey-sided Flowerpecker.

We made a stop at the park headquarters at Kota Bomagu to get permission for staying in the park.

En route in Dumago Bone NP we made some fortuitous roadside stops needed in order to stretch limbs.

At a marshy area with a small lake Cinnamon & Yellow Bittern, the hoped-for Sunda Teal, White-browed Crake, White-breasted Waterhen and Comb-crested Jacana were amongst many species all seen well.

Overhead Brahminy Kite, Spotted Harrier, Black Eagle and Oriental Hobby put in an appearance. At 19.00 hours we arrived in Toraut, where we checked into the lodge at the park headquarters.

Tuesday 1 September

In the early morning we crossed a river behind the lodge on a bamboo raft. Along the river we saw Oriental Darter, Buff-banded & Barred Rail and Isabelline Waterhen, which finally gave good views after many frustrating minutes to some of us . Entering a healthy looking forest we started looking and listening for things: daytime views of a Sulawesi Owl roosting in a hole in a dead tree, the rare Sulawesi Ground-Dove was flushed from the ground and overhead soared three Lesser Fish-Eagles and a Peregrine Falcon.

We spent all day in the Toraut area and amongst the birds seen here were White-faced Cuckoo-Dove (Sulawesi Black Pigeon), Superb Fruit-Dove, Black-billed Koel, Great-eared Nightjar, Purple Needletail, Common Kingfisher, Purple-winged Roller, Cicadabird, White-rumped Triller, Grosbeak Starling and Black Sunbird.

Then the night fell and owling began. Armed with tapes and torches our team of 7 stayed alert. It took some time, but finally we saw 2 Speckled Hawk-Owls high in a tree.

Wednesday 2 September

The next morning saw us driving at 4.00 o’clock to Tambun. Finally we were on our way to the highlight of our trip on Sulawesi, a visit to the breeding ground of Sulawesi’s most enigmatic bird, the Maleo.

We were in for an exciting morning or that’s what we thought. The Maleo site was next to a forested hillside.

A good deal of time was spent scanning any movements in the early morning. This revealed a number of species, but no Maleo.

It produced however a wealth of other species such as Grey-cheeked Pigeon, Sulawesi Hanging-Parrot, Rusty-breasted Cuckoo, Great Eared-Nightjar, Knobbed Hornbill, Ashy Woodpecker, White-rumped Triller, Pale-blue Monarch and White-backed Woodswallow.

The rest of the day we spent at several places in the park seeing amongst others Maroon-chinned Fruit-Dove, Yellow-billed Malkoha, Fork-tailed Swift, Grey-rumped Treeswift, Green-backed Kingfisher, Black-naped Oriole and Crimson Sunbird.

Hereafter we headed to Kota Bomagu and checked into the very good Hotel Patrajasa.

Thursday 3 September

Our second visit the following morning to Tambun was no better and we failed to see the Maleo, although the local ranger told that he heard the bird. I was beginning to worry!

We then headed to the Gunung (=mountain) Ambang Reserve, where we had a very good lunch at the ranger’s house.

Julius, the ranger, accompanied us to the submontane forests. There were several small trails into the forest but they were mostly steep and slippery.

It took quite some time before we had good views of  the local speciality, the surprisingly attractive Matinan Flycatcher, known only from the hill forests of the Minahassa Peninsula. We sadly only heard the Scaly Kingfisher.

Other goodies seen here were scope views of an immature Spot-tailed Goshawk, Superb Fruit-Dove, Bay Coucal, Purple Needletail, Purple-bearded Bee-eater, Chestnut-backed Bush-Warbler, Island Flycatcher, Citrine Canary-Flycatcher, Rusty-flanked Fantail and Sulphur-bellied Whistler.

In the late afternoon we returned to Kota Bomagu.

Friday 4 September/ Saturday 5 September

Our final day dawned with a little fog. In a last desperate effort to see the Maleo we again headed at 4.00 a.m. to Tambun. Our third attempt struck gold within 5 minutes of our arrival, as a pair was watched at length on horizontal branches high in a big tree. A few minutes later we saw another male. This large megapode uses geothermal heat to brood its eggs in this communal breeding ground. The young are able to fly as soon as they dig their way out of the ground after hatching! Having finished with these spectacular birds and enjoying a stroll around the captive breeding program at the site, I released a young Maleo.

Other birds we met this last morning were Black-naped Fruit-Dove, Great Eared-Nightjar, White-backed Woodswallow, White-rumped Triller, Sulawesi Myna and Finch-billed Myna.

Hereafter we headed for Manado. The daily rush of birds was over and a very good trip had come to a close and after a leisurely lunch we set a course for home. We left Sulawesi at 15.30 and arrived at 17.30 in Jakarta.

In the middle of the night we said goodbye to Indonesia, returning after a long stopover at Dubai in Düsseldorf (Germany) at 13.30 and I was home at 18.00 hours.

Sulawesi and Halmahera had certainly been everything I had expected and more. We had seen a wonderful array of almost all-possible endemics and only dipped very few species. The final total for the 3 weeks trip was 258 species of birds, a fairly high figure when you consider we saw very few seabirds or waders.

With the rate of habitat destruction in this part of the world, we should feel blessed to have seen as many birds as we did. This has to be the world’s most threatened region and go now before it’s all gone!

With such a vast bird list picking out my ten best birds of the trip is almost meaningless, but here they are anyway: Maleo, Nicobar Pigeon, Yellow-crested Cockatoo, Cinnabar Hawk-Owl, Diabolical Nightjar, Ivory-breasted Pitta, Elegant Pitta, Rusty-backed Thrush, Wallace’s Standardwing and Great Shortwing, lifers all of course, but not all endemics.

Chaam, 28 November 2009, 

If you need any help or further information, contact me at the following address and I'll try and help if I can!

Jan Vermeulen
Bredaseweg 14
4861 AH Chaam
The Netherlands
Telephone: (031) – 161 – 491327


This list follows the taxonomy, names and sequence of James F. Clements (Birds of the World, A Check List, Sixth Edition, 2007, including updates July 2007 – December 2009). This sixth edition is based primarily on the higher taxonomic sequence outlined in the “Handbook of the Birds of the World” series published by Lynx Edicions.

Species in brackets are the English names in "A Field Guide to the Birds of Wallacea” by Brian J. Coates and K. David Bishop, but only mentioned when these differ substantially from the Clements Check List.

The Dutch names follow the translated "Complete Checklist of Birds of the World" (Complete Checklist van Vogels van de Wereld) of Michael Walters.

Numbers quoted are estimates of the minimum numbers seen.

The following abbreviations are used:

NP   = National Park
NR   = Nature Reserve
15+  = a minimum of 15 birds
*   = endemic to Sulawesi mainland plus satellite islands and Bangga and Sula Islands.
** =  endemic to the northern Moluccas

1.  Little Grebe, Tachybaptus ruficollis, Dodaars
A single sighting at Lake Tambing in Lore Lindu NP.

2.  DARTER, Anhinga melanogaster, Slangenhalsvogel
A single sighting in Dumago Bone NP at Toraut.

3.  LESSER FRIGATEBIRD, Fregata ariel, Kleine Fregatvogel
Small numbers between Ternate and Halmahera and 20+ at Sidangoli on Halmahera.

4.  GREAT-BILLED HERON, Ardea sumatrana, Sumatraanse Reiger
A single one of a splendid example standing on a fish platform at Tangkoko.

5.  Purple Heron, Ardea purpurea, Purperreiger
Up to 4 a day at Lore Lindu NP and a few at scattered sites on Sulawesi.

6.  Great Egret, Ardea alba, Grote Zilverreiger
1 on the Makassar fishponds, 6 en route Tangkoko – Dumago Bone and 2 at Dumago Bone NP.

7.  Intermediate Egret, Mesophoyx intermedia, Middelste Zilverreiger
A few on the Makassar fishponds and a few each day at Dumago Bone NP.

8.  Little Egret, Egretta garzetta, Kleine Zilverreiger
A single one on the Makassar fishponds, 10+ en route Tangkoko – Dumago Bone and a few at Dumago Bone NP.

9.  PACIFIC REEF-HERON (PACIFIC REEF-EGRET), Egretta sacra, Oostelijke Rifreiger
4 along the coast at Tangkoko, resting on fishing platforms.

10.   JAVAN Pond-Heron, Ardeola speciosa, Javaanse Ralreiger
A few on Java and common in the rice paddies and wetlands in Sulawesi.

11.   Cattle Egret, Bubulcus ibis, Koereiger
A common and widespread species in open country on Sulawesi.

12.   Striated Heron (LITTLE HERON), Butorides striatus, Mangrovereiger
4 on the Makassar fishponds, 1 at Sidangoli on Halmahera, 3 in the mangroves in Tangkoko NP.

13.   YELLOW Bittern, Ixobrychus sinensis, Chinese Woudaap
2 in a marshy area in Dumago Bone NP.

14.   SCHRENCK’S BITTERN, Ixobrychus eurhythmus, Mantsjoerijse Woudaap
Another surprise. A splendid observation of a bird on the Makassar fishponds.

15.   CINNAMON BITTERN, Ixobrychus cinnamomeus, Rossig Woudaapje
3 in a marshy area in Dumago Bone NP.

16.   GLOSSY IBIS, Plegadis falcinellus, Zwarte Ibis
A group of 40+ near Palu.

17.   WANDERING Whistling-Duck, Dendrocygna arcuata, Zwervende Fluiteend
2 at Dumago Bone NP at Toraut and also 2 at Kota Bomagu (Sulawesi).

18.   SUNDA Teal, Anas gibberifrons, Grijskeeltaling
A total of 22 birds seen at Dumago Bone NP.

19.   Osprey, Pandion haliaetus, Visarend
2 seen around the mangroves at Tangkoko NP.

20.   BARRED Honey-buzzard, Pernis celebensis, Celebeswespendief
A pair at Lore Lindu NP.

21.   Black Kite, Milvus migrans, Zwarte Wouw
3 in the Makassar area and 6 at Dumago Bone NP.

22.   Brahminy Kite, Haliastur indus, Brahmaanse Wouw
Frequently encountered in northern Sulawesi and Halmahera. The 24thAugust we counted 20 birds on Halmahera.

23.   White-bellied Sea-Eagle, Haliaeetus leucogaster, Witbuikzeearend
A pair at Tangkoko NP.

24.   LESSER FISH-EAGLE, Ichthyophaga humilis, Kleine Rivierarend
3 in Dumago Bone NP at Toraut.

25.   * sulawesi Serpent-Eagle, Spilornis rufipectus, Celebesslangenarend
3 at Lore Lindu NP.

26.   SPOTTED Harrier, Circus assimilis, Gevlekte Kiekendief
1 en route Tangkoko – Dumago Bone and 2 at Dumago Bone NP.

27.   * SULAWESI GOSHAWK, Accipiter griseiceps, Grijskophavik
2 at Tangkoko NP.

28.   * SPOT-TAILED GOSHAWK, Accipiter trinotatu, Vlekstaartsperwer
Excellent telescope observations of single birds at Lore Lindu NP and Gunung Ambang NR.

29.   ** Moluccan Goshawk, Accipiter henicogrammus, Halmaherahavik
A single one at Lame Forest at Halmahera.

30.   * SMALL SPARROWHAWK, Accipiter nanus, Celebesdwergsperwer
A splendid telescope observation near Lake Tambing in Lore Lindu NP.

31.   * VINOUS-BREASTED SPARROWHAWK, Accipiter rhodogaster, Wijnborstsperwer
Excellent telescope views of 2 birds in Tangkoko NP.

32.   Black Eagle, Ictinaetus malayensis, Indische Zwarte Arend
2 at Dumago Bone NP.

33.   Gurney's Eagle, Aquila gurneyi, Molukkenarend
A pair obliging perched in the top of a dead tree near Sidangoli on Halmahera.

34.   RUFOUS-BELLIED EAGLE, Lophotriochis kienerii, Roodbuikdwergarend
4 seen in Lore Lindu NP.

35.   * sulawesi HAWK-EAGLE, Nisaetus lanceolatus, Celebeskuifarend
4 at Lore Lindu NP and 1 at Tangkoko NP.

36.   SPOTTED KESTREL, Falco moluccensis, Molukkentorenvalk
1 at Palu, 4 at Lore Lindu NP and 2 on Halmahera.

37.   ORIENTAL HOBBY, Falco severus, Oosterse Boomvalk
2 near Lame Forest at Halmahera and 1 at Dumago Bone NP.

38.   PEREGRINE FALCON, Falco peregrinus, Slechtvalk
A single one at Dumago Bone NP at Toraut.

39.   * MALEO, Macrocephalon maleo, Hamerhoen
This species is becoming less and less reliable in Dumago Bone NP at Tambun.
We struggled. The first two mornings drew a blank and we saw nothing, although one of the guides claimed that he heard a bird. Only on the last morning of our trip, within 5 minutes of our arrival, we had located two roosting birds that showed very well and at length. A few minutes later we saw another male. Royke Mananta mailed me that he has found another very reliable place in eastern Sulawesi, where he saw no less than 10 birds in September.

40.   Tabon Scrubfowl (PHILIPPINE SCRUBFOWL), Megapodius cumingii, Filippijns Boshoen
Up to 5 a day at Tangkoko NP.

41.   Dusky Scrubfowl, Megapodius freycinet, Zwart Boshoen
3 in Lame Forest at Halmahera.

42.   RED JUNGLEFOWL, Gallus gallus, Bankivahoen
2 at Tangkoko NP.

43.   RED-BACKED BUTTONQUAIL, Turnix maculosa, Roodrugvechtkwartel
Singles in the open area near Wuasa in Lore Lindu NP and at Karaenta Forest.

44.   BARRED BUTTONQUAIL, Turnix suscitator, Zwartkeelvechtkwartel
2 in the Palu area and 3 at Tangkoko NP.

45.   BUFF-BANDED RAIL, Gallirallus philippensis, Geelbandral
3 in paddies near Palu, 2 at Tangkoko NP, 1 in paddies near Manado and 2 at Dumago Bone NP.

46.   BARRED RAIL, Gallirallus torquatus, Zebraral
A few times seen on the road in Lore Lindu NP, 1 at the fishponds near Makassar, 2 at Tangkoko NP and 3 at Dumago Bone NP.

47.   * PLATEN'S RAIL (SNORING RAIL), Aramidopsis plateni, Platens Ral
A single sighting of this rare bird on the road near Lake Tambing in Lore Lindu NP!

48.   * ISABELLINE BUSH-HEN, Amaurornis isabellinus, Sulawesiwaterhoen
A difficult bird to see. Heard at Tangkoko NP and eventually 2 seen in Dumago Bone NP at Toraut.

49.   White-breasted Waterhen, Amaurornis phoenicurus, Witborstwaterhoen
1 en route Tangkoko NP – Dumago Bone NP and 3 in Dumago Bone NP at Toraut.

50.   WHITE-BROWED CRAKE, Porzana cinerea, Wenkbrauwral
6 at a marshy area en route Tangkoko NP – Dumago Bone NP.

51.   PURPLE SWAMPHEN, Porphyrio porphyrio, Purperkoet
A single bird at a marshy area en route Tangkoko NP – Dumago Bone NP.

52.   Common Moorhen, Gallinula chloropus, Waterhoen
5 at a marshy area en route Tangkoko NP – Dumago Bone NP.

53.   COMB-CRESTED Jacana, Irediparra gallinacea, Australische Jacana
3 at a marshy area en route Tangkoko NP – Dumago Bone NP.

54.   WHITE-HEADED Stilt, Himantopus leucocephalus, Witkopsteltkluut
7 on the Makassar fishponds.

55.   BAR-TAILED GODWIT, Limosa lapponica, Rosse Grutto
A single one along the coast at Makassar.

56.   Whimbrel, Numenius phaeopus, Regenwulp
A single one along the coast at Tangkoko NP.

57.   Common Redshank, Tringa totanus, Tureluur
2 on the Makassar fishponds.

58.   Marsh Sandpiper, Tringa stagnatilis, Poelruiter
A single one on the Makassar fishponds.

59.   Common Greenshank, Tringa nebularia, Groenpootruiter
A single one on the Makassar fishponds.

60.   Wood Sandpiper, Tringa glareola, Bosruiter
3 in paddies near Palu, very common on the Makassar fishponds, 1 at Tangkoko NP and common in paddies en route Tangkoko NP – Dumago Bone NP.

61.   Common Sandpiper, Actites hypoleucos, Oeverloper
2 in paddies near Palu, 5 on the Makassar fishponds, 4 at Tangkoko NP and 5 in paddies near Manado.

62.   RUFF, Philomachus pugnax, Kemphaan
2 at Dumago Bone NP.

63.   BLACK-NAPED TERN, Sterna sumatrana, Zwartnekstern
3 were seen off Tangkoko during the boat trip to the mangroves.

64.   COMMON TERN, Sterna hirundo, Visdief
A single one on the Makassar fishponds.

65.   LITTLE TERN, Sterna albifrons, Dwergstern
A fair number were seen on the Makassar fishponds.

66.   BRIDLED TERN, Sterna anaethetus, Brilstern
A real surprise, a juvenile bird was seen along the coast at Makassar.

67.   WHISKERED TERN, Chlidonias hybridus, Witwangstern
100+ were seen on the Makassar fishponds.

68.   Rock Dove, Columba livia, Rotsduif
Feral pigeons were present in several of the towns we went through.

69.   RED-COLLARED DOVE, Streptopelia tranquebarica, Rode Tortel
4 near Palu on Sulawesi.

70.   Spotted Dove, Streptopelia chinensis, Parelhalstortel
Regularly encountered in open habitats on both islands.

71.   SLENDER-BILLED (BROWN) CUCKOO-DOVE, Macropygia amboinensis, Tortelkoekoeksduif
Up to 6 a day at Lore Lindu NP, 1 at Tangkoko NP and 3 at Dumago Bone NP.

72.   * WHITE-FACED CUCKOO-DOVE (SULAWESI BLACK PIGEON), Turacoena manadensis, Witmaskerduif
3 at Tangkoko NP and 3 at Dumago Bone NP.

73.   Emerald Dove, Chalcophaps indica, Smaragdduif
2 near Sidangoli on Halmahera.

74.   STEPHAN’S DOVE, Chalcophaps stephani, Stephans Smaragdduif
A single sighting at Tangkoko NP.

75.   NICOBAR PIGEON, Caloenas nicobarica, Manenduif
Excellent telescope views of a pair at Lame Forest at Halmahera.

76.   * SULAWESI GROUND-DOVE, Gallicolumba tristigmata, Sulawesipatrijsduif
A single sighting at Dumago Bone NP at Toraut.

77.   PINK-NECKED (GREEN) PIGEON, Treron vernans, Maleise Papegaaiduif
A total of 7 seen at Tangkoko NP.

78.   Grey-cheeked (GREEN) Pigeon, Treron griseicauda, Bonapartes Papegaaiduif
2 at Tangkoko NP and up to 10+ a day at Dumago Bone NP.

79.   * RED-EARED FRUIT-DOVE, Ptilinopus fischeri, Fischers Jufferduif
Often heard and finally excellent views (10+) on the Anaso track at Lore Lindu NP.

80.   * Maroon-chinned Fruit-Dove, Ptilinopus subgularis, Zwartkinjufferduif
Only heard at Dumago Bone NP (H).

81.   Superb Fruit-Dove, Ptilinopus superbus, Kleine Prachtjufferduif
3 at Lore Lindu NP and 2 at Dumago Bone NP.

82.   ** BLUE-CAPPED FRUIT-DOVE, Ptilinopus monacha, Halmaherajufferduif
25+ at Lame Forest on Halmahera.

83.   ** GREY-HEADED FRUIT-DOVE, Ptilinopus hyogastra, Grijskopjufferduif
35+ at Lame Forest & Sidangoli on Halmahera.

84.   BLACK-NAPED FRUIT-DOVE, Ptilinopus melanospila, Zwartnekjufferduif
1 at Tangkoko NP and 4 at Dumago Bone NP.

85.   * WHITE-BELLIED IMPERIAL-PIGEON, Ducula forsteni, Celebesmuskaatduif
15+ at Lore Lindu NP and 4 at Gunung Ambang NR.

86.   * GREY-HEADED IMPERIAL-PIGEON, Ducula radiate, Kleine Muskaatduif
20+ at Lore Lindu NP.

87.   GREEN IMPERIAL-PIGEON, Ducula aenea, Groene Muskaatduif
Fairly common at Tangkoko NP and small numbers in Dumago Bone NP at Toraut.

88.   ** CINNAMON-BELLIED IMPERIAL-PIGEON, Ducula basilica, Molukse Muskaatduif
A single bird at Kali Batu Putih near the lek of Wallace’s Standardwing at Halmahera.

89.   * WHITE (SILVER-TIPPED) IMPERIAL-PIGEON, Ducula luctuosa, Witte Muskaatduif
Up to 5 a day at Tangkoko NP and up to 6 a day in Dumago Bone NP at Toraut.

90.   * SOMBRE PIGEON, Cryptophaps poecilorrhoa, Notenduif
We heard the bird before we saw it along the Anaso Track in Lore Lindu NP. Then two flew crossing in front of us to inside the canopy, but we could not find the place where they perched.

91.   Yellow-crested Cockatoo, Cacatua sulphurea, Kleine Geelkuifkaketoe
A surprise write-in. I did not expect to find the bird here and I thought I had to travel to Komodo. On three days we saw a pair (probably the same one each day) at Tangkoko NP.

92.   ** White Cockatoo, Cacatua alba, Witte Kaketoe
4 at Lame Forest and 1 at Sidangoli on Halmahera.

93.   * Ornate Lorikeet, Trichoglossus ornatus, Ornaatlori
Small numbers daily at Lore Lindu NP and a few at Tangkoko NP.

94.   * Yellow-and-green Lorikeet, Trichoglossus flavoviridis, Geelgroene Lori
Up to 10+ a day at Lore Lindu NP and 10+ at Dumago Bone NP.

95.   ** CHATTERING LORY, Lorius garrulus, Molukkenlori
Small numbers at Lame Forest and near Sidangoli at Halmahera.

96.   Red-flanked Lorikeet, Charmosyna placentis, Prachtlori
A group of 40+ at Kali Batu Putih near the lek of Wallace’s Standardwing on Halmahera

97.   RED-CHEEKED PARROT, Geoffroyus geoffroyi, Roodwangpapegaai
Small numbers every day on Halmahera.

98.   * Yellowish-breasted Racquet-tail, Prioniturus flavicans, Cassins Vlagstaartpapegaai
Only one bird seen at Tangkoko NP.

99.   * GOLDEN-MANTLED RACQUET-TAIL, Prioniturus platurus, Goudrugvlagstaartpapegaai
Up to 20+ a day at Lore Lindu NP. We often saw this species flying over and calling. They were most common on the Anaso Track. We also saw 6 birds at Tangkoko NP.

100.   GREAT-BILLED PARROT, Tanygnathus megalorhynchos, Dibekpapegaai
2 at Lame Forest on Halmahera.

101.   AZURE-RUMPED (BLUE-BACKED) PARROT, Tanygnathus sumatranus, Müllers Papegaai
6 birds seen at Tangkoko NP.

102.   ECLECTUS PARROT, Eclectus roratus, Edelpapegaai
6 seen at Lame Forest and near Sidangoli at Halmahera.

103.   * (LARGE) SULAWESI HANGING-PARROT, Loriculus stigmatus, Roodkroontje
4 at Lore Lindu NP, 2 at Tangkoko NP, 9 at Dumago Bone NP and 3 at Gunung Ambang NR.

104.   ** MOLUCCAN HANGING-PARROT, Loriculus amabilis, Molukse Vleermuisparkiet
2 near Sidangoli and 1 at Kali Batu Putih on Halmahera.

105.   * PYGMY (SMALL SULAWESI) HANGING-PARROT, Loriculus exilis, Groene Vleermuisparkiet
Excellent views of 3 birds in a tree at Tangkoko NP.

106.   BRUSH CUCKOO, Cacomantis variolosus, Treurkoekoek
4 at Lore Lindu NP and 1 Dumago Bone NP. This form is sometimes considered a separate species: Rusty-breasted Cuckoo, Cacomantis sepulcralis.

107.   LITTLE BRONZE-CUCKOO, Chrysococcyx minutillus, Kleine Bronskoekoek
2 at Lore Lindu NP. This form is sometimes considered a separate species: Gould’s Bronze-Cuckoo, Chrysococcy russatus.

108.   * black-billed Koel, Eudynamys melanorhyncha, Sulawesikoel
Often heard in all national parks in Sulawesi. 2 seen at Lore Lindu NP and also 2 in Dumago Bone NP at Toraut.

109.   * Yellow-billed Malkoha, Phaenicophaeus calyorhynchus, Sulawesimalkoha
5 at Lore Lindu NP, common at Tangkoko NP, small numbers each day at Dumago Bone NP

110.   * BAY COUCAL, Centropus celebensis, Sulawesispoorkoekoek
6 at Tangkoko NP and 1 at Gunung Ambang NR.

111.   ** GOLIATH COUCAL, Centropus goliath, Goliathspoorkoekoek
Up to 10+ sightings a day on Halmahera of this huge northern Moluccan endemic.

112.   LESSER Coucal, Centropus bengalensis, Bengaalse Spoorkoekoek
4 at Lore Lindu NP, 5 at Tangkoko NP and 5 at Dumago Bone NP.

113.   * SULAWESI OWL (SULAWESI MASKED OWL), Tyto rosenbergii, Sulawesikerkuil
Fantastic views of 2 birds roosting in a hole in a tree in Dumago Bone NP at Toraut.

114.   MOLUCCAN SCOPS-OWL, Otus magicus, Molukse Dwergooruil
A few heard and great views of this large scops-owl near Sidangoli at Halmahera.

115.   * Sulawesi Scops-Owl, Otus manadensis, Sulawesidwergooruil
2 seen very well in Lore Lindu NP and a few heard in Tangkoko NP and Dumago Bone NP.

116.   * Ochre-bellied Hawk-Owl (OCHRE-BELLIED BOOBOOK), Ninox ochracea, Geelbuikvalkuil
Excellent views in broad daylight of 3 birds in Tangkoko NP.

117.   * Cinnabar Hawk-Owl, Ninox ios, Kaneelvalkuil
We spotlighted one bird at Lore Lindu NP and also heard a few birds calling.

118.   ** MOLUCCAN HAWK-OWL (MOLUCCAN BOOBOOK), Ninox squamipila, Molukse Valkuil
Heard a couple of times near Sidangoli at Halmahera (H).

119.   Speckled Hawk-Owl (SPECKLED BOOBOOK), Ninox punctulata, Gespikkelde Valkuil
1 at Lore Lindu NP and excellent views of 2 birds in Dumago Bone NP at Toraut.

120.   Moluccan Owlet-Nightjar, Aegotheles crinifrons, Molukse Dwergnachtzwaluw
A nightmare. We heard the bird a couple of times near Sidangoli at Halmahera, but could not find the bird.

121.   * DIABOLICAL (HEINRICH’S) NIGHTJAR, Eurostopodus diabolicus, Duivelsnachtzwaluw
Fantastic views of 2 birds when we flushed the birds high on the Anaso Track in Lore Lindu NP.

122.   GREAT EARED-NIGHTJAR, Eurostopodus macrotis, Grote Nachtzwaluw
A few at Lore Lindu NP and also a few at Tambun in Dumago Bone NP.

123.   LARGE-TAILED NIGHTJAR, Caprimulgus macrurus, Horsfields Nachtzwaluw
A single bird near Sidangoli on Halmahera.

124.   SULAWESI NIGHTJAR, Caprimulgus celebensis, Sulawesinachtzwaluw
A total of 4 birds seen at Tangkoko NP. Scope views of a perched bird in a tree, 2 birds seen flying and one bird on the nest!

125.   SAVANNA NIGHTJAR, Caprimulgus affinis, Savannenachtzwaluw
5 near Palu on Sulawesi and 1 in the Makassar area.

126.   GLOSSY SWIFTLET, Collocalia esculenta, Witbuikdwergsalangaan
The commonest swiftlet throughout the trip on both islands.

127.   Cave Swiftlet, Collocalia linchi, Linchidwergsalangaan
A few were seen around the Jakarta airport on Java.

128.   Moluccan Swiftlet, Aerodramus infuscata, Molukse Salangaan
Fairly common on Sulawesi and also seen in good numbers on Halmahera.
Some authors split this species in * Sulawesi Swiftlet, Areodramus sororum and ** Halmahera Swiftlet, Aerodramus infuscata.

129.   UNIFORM SWIFTLET, Aerodramus vanikorensis, Grijze Salangaan
A fairly common and widespread species on both islands.

130.   WHITE-THROATED NEEDLETAIL, Hirundapus caudacautus, Stekelstaartgierzwaluw
A total of 7 whizzed past us at the Makassar airport

131.   PURPLE NEEDLETAIL, Hirundapus celebensis, Zwarte Stekelstaartgierzwaluw
1 in Dumago Bone NP at Toraut and 4 were seen over the forest at Gunung Ambang NR.

132.   FORK-TAILED SWIFT, Apus pacificus, Siberische Gierzwaluw
2 at Tangkoko NP and 3 at Dumago Bone NP.

133.   House Swift, Apus nipalensis, Aziatische Huisgierzwaluw
15+ at Lore Lindu NP and a few near the Makassar airport.

134.   Grey-rumped Treeswift, Hemiprocne longipennis, Gekuifde Boomgierzwaluw
Up to 15+ a day at Lore Lindu NP, small numbers at Tangkoko NP and 30+ at Dumago Bone NP.

135.   Moustached Treeswift, Hemiprocne mystacea, Witsnorboomgierzwaluw
4 at Lame Forest on Halmahera.

136.   Common Kingfisher, Alcedo atthis, IJsvogel
1 in the mangroves at Tangkoko NP, 3 en route Tangkoko NP – Dumago Bone NP and 2 in Dumago Bone NP at Toraut.

137.   * Sulawesi (sulawesi dwarf) Kingfisher, Ceyx fallax, Sulawesidwergijsvogel
A splendid observation of a single bird at Tangkoko NP.

138.   * Lilac (lilac-cheeked) Kingfisher, Cittura cyanotis, Blauwoorijsvogel
A total of 7 birds seen at Tangkoko NP.

139.   * Black-billed (great-billed) Kingfisher, Pelargopsis melanorhyncha, Grootsnavelijsvogel
Amazing views of 2 birds during a boat trip in the mangrove channels at Tangkoko NP.

140.   Ruddy Kingfisher, Halcyon coromanda, Rosse IJsvogel
Great scope views of a single bird at Tangkoko NP.

141.   Blue-and-white Kingfisher, Todirhamphus diops, Noord-Molukse IJsvogel
A total of 9 birds were seen on Halmahera. 6 birds were seen on wires en route to Lame Forest.

142.   Collared Kingfisher, Todirhamphus chloris, Witkraagijsvogel
Up to 5 a day at Lore Lindu NP, small numbers at Tangkoko NP and Dumago Bone NP.

143.   ** SOMBRE KINGFISHER, Todirhamphus funebris, Halmaheraijsvogel
Great scope views of 3 birds near Sidangoli on Halmahera.

144.   Beach Kingfisher, Todirhamphus saurophaga, Hagedisijsvogel
2 were seen in the mangroves on a small island near Sidangoli.

145.   Sacred Kingfisher, Todirhamphus sanctus, Heilige IJsvogel
2 at the fishponds near Makassar, 2 at Sidangoli at Halmahera, 2 at Tangkoko NP and 1 en route Tangkoko NP – Dumago Bone NP.

146.   * Green-backed Kingfisher, Actenoides monachus, Blauwkopbosijsvogel
Fantastic scope views a few times of this bird at Tangkoko NP. Up to 10 a day at Tangkoko NP.
A single bird was seen at Dumago Bone NP.

147.   * Scaly (scaly-breasted) Kingfisher, Actenoides princeps, Streepkopbosijsvogel
A single one at Gunung Ambang NR.(H).

148.   Common Paradise-Kingfisher, Tanysiptera galatea, Vlagstaartijsvogel
A single bird near Sidangoli at Halmahera.

149.   * Purple-bearded Bee-eater, Meropogon forsteni, Sulawesibijeneter
2 pairs along the Anaso Track in Lore Lindu NP and a single one at Gunung Ambang NR.

150.   Blue-tailed Bee-eater, Merops philippinus, Blauwstaartbijeneter
20+ in the Palu area at Sulawesi.

151.   rainbow Bee-eater, Merops ornatus, Regenboogbijeneter
Up to 40+ a day at Halmahera and up to 20+ a day at Tangkoko NP.

152.   * Purple-winged Roller, Coracias temminckii, Sulawesischarrelaar
A single one at Lore Lindu NP, up to 3 a day at Tangkoko NP, 3 at Toraut and 1 at Tambun in Dumago Bone NP.

153.   ** Purple Roller (purple dollarbird), Eurystomus azureus, Azuurscharrelaar
Scope views of a single bird en route to Lame Forest at Halmahera.

154.   * Sulawesi Hornbill (sulawesi dwarf hornbill), Penelopides exarhatus, Sulawesineushoornvogel
2 just outside Tangkoko NP and 4 at Tambun in Dumago Bone NP.

155.   * Knobbed Hornbill, Aceros cassidix, Sulawesi-jaarvogel
15+ at Lore Lindu NP, up to 4 a day at Tangkoko NP and up to 20+ a day at Dumago Bone NP.

156.   Blyth's Hornbill, Aceros plicatus, Papoeajaarvogel
Fairly common at Halmahera.

157.   * Sulawesi Woodpecker (sulawesi pygmy woodpecker), Dendrocopos temminckii, Temmincks Specht
6 at Lore Lindu NP and 1 at Karaenta Forest.

158.   * ASHY Woodpecker, Mulleripicus fulvus, Sulawesispecht
A pair near Lake Tambing in Lore Lindu NP, 3 at Tangkoko NP and 4 at Dumago Bone NP.

159.   ** Ivory-breasted Pitta, Pitta maxima, Grote Pitta
We did hear the bird calling all the time and had trouble finding the bird. After Royke played the tape we had a spectacular fly-by, when the bird almost flew against my head. Then we had good looks as the bird perched in a tree.

160.   Red-bellied (blue-breasted) Pitta, Pitta erythrogaster, Roodbuikpitta
We tracked down a bird at Tangkoko NP and we watched the bird at very close range.

161.   Elegant Pitta, Pitta elegans, Ornaatpitta
A splendid observation of a bird in the company of 2 Rusty-backed Thrushes.

162.   BARN SWALLOW, Hirundo rustica, Boerenzwaluw
4 in the Palu area, a few near Sidangoli at Halmahera, small numbers at Tangkoko NP and 10+ en route Tangkoko NP – Dumago Bone NP.

163.   PACIFIC SWALLOW, Hirundo tahitica, Zuidzeezwaluw
A common and widespread species on both islands.

164.   * Pied Cuckoo-shrike, Coracina bicolor, Bonte Rupsvogel
A pair at Tangkoko NP and 8 in Dumago Bone NP at Toraut.

165.   ** Moluccan Cuckoo-shrike, Coracina atriceps, Molukse Rupsvogel
A single bird seen at Lame Forest at Halmahera.

166.   * Cerulean Cuckoo-shrike, Coracina temminckii, Donkerblauwe Rupsvogel
Seen frequently (up to 8 a day) at Lore Lindu NP.

167.   * White-rumped Cuckoo-shrike, Coracina leucopygia, Witstuitrupsvogel
Up to 8 a day at Tangkoko NP and 3 en route Tangkoko NP – Dumago Bone NP.

168.   * Pygmy Cuckoo-shrike, Coracina abbotti, Abbotts Rupsvogel
2 along the Anaso track and also 2 lower down in Lore Lindu NP.

169.   (common) Cicadabird, Coracina tenuirostris, Monniksrupsvogel
3 just outside Tangkoko NP and 1 in Dumago Bone NP at Toraut.

170.   * Sulawesi Cuckoo-shrike (sulawesi cicadabird), Coracina morio, Müllers Rupsvogel
Up to 8 a day at Lore Lindu NP.

171.   * WHITE-RUMPED (SULAWESI) TRILLER, Lalage leucopygialis, Witstuittriller
Up to 2 a day at Dumago Bone NP.

172.   White-shouldered Triller, Lalage sueurii, Witvleugeltriller
6 in the Palu area and 3 on the Makassar fishponds.

173.   ** Rufous-bellied Triller, Lalage aurea, Roodbuiktriller
Commonly encountered on Halmahera.

174.   Sooty-headed Bulbul, Pycnonotus aurigaster, Roetkopbuulbuul
Common around Palu, Makassar, Tangkoko NP and Dumago Bone NP.

175.   Yellow-vented Bulbul, Pycnonotus goiavier, Wenkbrauwbuulbuul
Only 2 seen at the airport in Palu. According to Royke is this the only place on Sulawesi, where you can see this bulbul.

176.   GOLDEN BULBUL, Alophoixus affinis, Molukse Buulbuul
Regularly encountered at Lame Forest and near Sidangoli at Halmahera.

177.   * Rusty-backed (red-backed) Thrush, Zoothera erythronota, Roodruglijster
Splendid observations of 4 birds in Tangkoko NP.

178.   * Sulawesi Thrush, Cataponera turdoides, Cataponeralijster
3 at Lore Lindu NP.

179.   * GREAT SHORTWING, Heinrichia calligyna, Sulawesikortvleugel
A fantastic encounter at Lore Lindu NP, when the bird approached us at less than 2 metres.

180.   ZITTING CISTICOLA, Cisticola juncidis, Graszanger
3 in Lore Lindu NP and 1 around the fishponds at Makassar.

181.   CHESTNUT-BACKED BUSH-WARBLER, Bradypterus castaneus, Kastanjerugstruikzanger
4 seen at Lore Lindu NP and excellent looks at a bird at Gunung Ambang NR.

182.   Clamorous Reed-Warbler, Acrocephalus stentoreus, Indische Karekiet
3 in the mangroves along the coast near Makassar.

183.   Mountain Tailorbird, Phyllergates cuculatus, Bergsnijdervogel
Up to 3 a day at Lore Lindu NP.

184.   * Sulawesi Leaf-Warbler, Phylloscopus sarasinorum, Sulawesiboszanger
Fairly common at Lore Lindu NP.

185.   Grey-spotted Flycatcher, Muscicapa griseisticta, Gestreepte Vliegenvanger
A single observation at Karaenta Forest.

186.   Snowy-browed Flycatcher, Ficedula hyperythra, Witbrauwvliegenvanger
A single bird at Lore Lindu NP.

187.   Rufous-throated Flycatcher, Ficedula rufigula, Roodkeelvliegenvanger
Excellent views of no less than 7 birds at Lore Lindu NP.

188.   Little Pied Flycatcher, Ficedula westermanni, Ekstervliegenvanger
Up to 4 a day at Lore Lindu NP.

189.   ISLAND FLYCATCHER (ISLAND VERDITER FLYCATCHER), Eumyias panayensis, Panayvliegenvanger
Fairly common at Lore Lindu NP and 2 at Gunung Ambang NR.

190.   * MATINAN FLYCATCHER, Cyornis sanfordi, Sanfords Niltava
Splendid looks of a single bird in Gunung Ambang NR.

191.   * Blue-fronted Flycatcher, Cyornis hoevelli, Hoevells Niltava
Up to 6 a day at Lore Lindu NP.

192.   * SULAWESI BLUE-FLYCATCHER, Cyornis omissus, Sulawesiniltava
3 at Lore Lindu NP. This form is formerly lumped in Mangrove Blue-Flycatcher,Cyornis rufigastra.

193.   CITRINE CANARY-FLYCATCHER (CITRINE FLYCATCHER), Culicicapa helianthea, Kanarievliegenvanger
Common in Lore Lindu NP and 3 in Gunung Ambang NR.

194.   Pied Bushchat (pied chat), Saxicola caprata, Zwarte Roodborsttapuit
3 in the open area near Wuasa in Lore Lindu NP and also 3 at the fishponds near Makassar.

195.   Willie-wagtail, Rhipidura leucophrys, Tuinwaaierstaart
9 birds seen on Halmahera.

196.   * Rusty-flanked (RUSTY-BELLIED) Fantail, Rhipidura teysmanni, Sulawesiwaaierstaart
Up to 5 a day in Lore Lindu NP and 4 at Gunung Ambang NR.

197.   * Pale-blue Monarch, Hypothymis puella, Bleekblauwe Monarch
2 at Lore Lindu NP, 1 at Karaenta Forest and small numbers at Tangkoko NP, Dumago Bone NP and Gunung Ambang NR.

198.   ** SLATY MONARCH (SLATY FLYCATCHER), Mayrornis lessoni, Zwartstaartmonarch
5 at Lame Forest and Sidangoli on Halmahera.

199.   SPECTACLED MONARCH, Monarcha trivirgatus, Brilmonarch
Up to 15+ a day at Halmahera.

200.   Shining Flycatcher, Myiagra alecto, Zwarte Monarch
2 near Sidangoli on Halmahera.

201.   * Olive-flanked (YELLOW-FLANKED) Whistler, Hylocitrea bonensis, Bessendikkop
4 along the Anaso Track in Lore Lindu NP.

202.   * Maroon-backed Whistler, Coracornis raveni, Roodrugfluiter
A splendid observation of a single bird at Lore Lindu NP.

203.   * SULPHUR-BELLIED (YELLOW-VENTED) WHISTLER, Pachycephala sulfuriventer, Zwavelbuikfluiter
Up to 4 a day at Lore Lindu NP and 1 at Gunung Ambang NR.

204.   (COMMON) GOLDEN WHISTLER, Pachycephala pectoralis, Gouden Fluiter
Singles at Lame Forest, near Sidangoli and Kali Batu Putih on Halmahera.

205.   ** DRAB WHISTLER, Pachycephala griseonota, Molukse Fluiter
A single one at Kali Batu Putih at Halmahera (H).

206.   * MALIA, Malia grata, Malia
10+ at Lore Lindu NP.

207.   * Sulawesi Babbler, Trichastoma celebense, Witkeelmuistimalia
2 at Lore Lindu NP, 4 at Karaenta Forest and 7 at Tangkoko NP.

208.   Golden-bellied Gerygone (flyeater), Gerygone sulphurea, Goudbuikmangrovezanger
Small numbers daily at Lore Lindu NP, Palu and en route Tangkoko NP – Dumago Bone NP.

209.   Plain-throated (BROWN-THROATED) Sunbird, Anthreptes malacensis, Bruinkeelhoningzuiger
Fairly common with many good views, especially on Halmahera.

210.   BLACK SUNBIRD, Leptocoma sericea, Fluweelhoningzuiger
Fairly common with many good views, especially on Halmahera.

211.   Olive-backed Sunbird, Cinnirys jugularis, Staalborsthoningzuiger
Fairly common on Sulawesi & Halmahera.

212.   Crimson Sunbird, Aethopyga siparaja, Geelrughoningzuiger
7 at Lore Lindu NP.

213.   * Yellow-sided Flowerpecker, Dicaeum aureolimbatum, Geelflankhoningvogel
A rather common flowerpecker in the lower forest of Sulawesi.

214.   ** FLAME-BREASTED FLOWERPECKER, Dicaeum erythrothorax, Buruhoningvogel
A single observation at Kali Batu Putih on Halmahera.

215.   * CRIMSON-CROWNED FLOWERPECKER, Dicaeum nehrkorni, Nehrkorns Honingvogel
3 seen in Lore Lindu NP.

216.   * Grey-sided Flowerpecker, Dicaeum celebicum, Zwartflankhoningvogel
Fairly common on Sulawesi.

217.   Mountain White-eye, Zosterops montanus, Bergbrilvogel
Fairly common in the higher parts of Lore Lindu NP and 1 at Gunung Ambang NR.

218.   Yellow-bellied (LEMON-BELLIED) White-eye, Zosterops chloris, Molukse Brilvogel
Common in Lore Lindu NP.

219.   * Black-ringed White-eye, Zosterops anomalus, Makassarbrilvogel
8 at Karaenta Forest.

220.   * Black-crowned White-eye, Zosterops atrifrons, Zwartvoorhoofdbrilvogel
Fairly common at Lore Lindu NP, Tangkoko NP, Dumago Bone NP and Gunung Ambang NR.

221.   ** Cream-throated White-eye, Zosterops atriceps, Bruinkapbrilvogel
7 en route Sidangoli – Lame on Halmahera.

222.   * Streak-headed White-eye (sTREAK-HEADED DARK-EYE), Lophozosterops squamiceps, Sulawesibergbrilvogel
7 seen in the higher parts of Lore Lindu NP.

223.   DUSKY MYZOMELA, Myzomela obscura, Bruine Dwerghoningeter
A single one near Sidangoli on Halmahera.

224.   Sulawesi Myzomela, Myzomela chloroptera, Sulawesidwerghoningeter
2 along the Anaso Track in Lore Lindu NP.

225.   ** White-streaked Friarbird, Melitograis gilolensis, Halmaheralederkop
A single one at Kali Batu Putih on Halmahera.

226.   ** Dusky Friarbird, Philemon fuscicapillus, Morotailederkop
2 near Sidangoli at Halmahera.

227.   * Dark-eared (LESSER SULAWESI) Honeyeater, Myza celebensis, Sulawesihoningeter
7 at Lore Lindu NP.

228.   * Greater Streaked (GREATER SULAWESI) Honeyeater, Myza sarasinorum, Mengkoka Honingzuiger
7 seen in the higher parts of Lore Lindu NP.

229.   ** Halmahera (dusky-brown) Oriole, Oriolus phaeochromus, Halmaherawielewaal
2 at Sidangoli on Halmahera.

230.   Black-naped Oriole, Oriolus chinensis, Chinese Wielewaal
Rather common in forest and forest edge on Sulawesi.

231.   Long-tailed SHRIKE, Lanius schach, Langstaartklauwier
A single one at the airport in Jakarta (Java).

232.   Hair-crested Drongo, Dicrurus hottentottus, Haarkuifdrongo
Fairly common in northern Sulawesi.

233.   * Sulawesi Drongo, Dicrurus montanus, Sulawesidrongo
Rather common in the higher parts of Lore Lindu NP.

234.   Spangled Drongo, Dicrurus bracteatus, Glansvlekdrongo
Small numbers daily on Halmahera.

235.   * White-backed (IVORY-BACKED) Woodswallow, Artamus monachus, Witrugspitsvogel
A daily maximum seen of 6 near Lake Tambing at Lore Lindu NP and 10+ at Tambun in Dumago Bone NP.

236.   White-breasted Woodswallow, Artamus leucorhynchus, Witborstspitsvogel
Seen nearly every day of the trip in good numbers.

237.   ** PARADISE-CROW, Lycocorax pyrrhopterus, Bruine Paradijskraai
5 near Sidangoli on Halmahera.

238.   ** Wallace's Standardwing (standardwing bird of paradise), Semioptera wallacii, Wallace' Paradijsvogel
The range of Wallace’s Standardwing marks the westernmost extremity of this unique family.
A total of 8 birds were seen at the lek at Kali Batu Putih on Halmahera.
The display was one of those onforgettable experiences and was truly an awesome sight.

239.   Slender-billed Crow, Corvus enca, Soendakraai
4 near Makassar and fairly common in northern Sulawesi.

240.   * Piping Crow, Corvus typicus, Sulawesikraai
Up to 6 a day in the higher reaches of Lore Lindu NP.

241.   ** LONG-BILLED CROW, Corvus validus, Molukse Kraai
2 near Lame Forest on Halmahera.

242.   Metallic Starling, Aplonis metallica, Violette Purperspreeuw
Common on Halmahera.

243.   ASIAN GLOSSY STARLING, Aplonis panayensis, Maleise Purperspreeuw
Fairly common near Wuasa in Lore Lindu NP and 30+ at Tangkoko NP.

244.   Moluccan Starling, Aplonis mysolensis, Molukse Purperspreeuw
10+ near Lame Forest on Halmahera.

245.   Short-tailed Starling, Aplonis minor, Kleine Purperspreeuw
4 in Lore Lindu NP.

246.   * Sulawesi Myna (SULAWESI CRESTED MYNA), Basilornis celebensis, Sulawesikoningsspreeuw
10+ at Lore Lindu NP and 8 at Dumago Bone NP.

247.   * White-necked Myna, Streptocitta albicollis, Witnekmaina
1 at Lore Lindu NP, 2 at Tangkoko NP and 5 at Dumago Bone NP.

248.   * FIERY-BROWED MYNA (FIERY-BROWED STARLING), Enodes erythrophris, Roodbrauwspreeuw
Rather common in the higher reaches of Lore Lindu NP and 10+ Gunung Ambang NR.

249.   * Finch-billed Myna (GROSBEAK STARLING), Scissirostrum dubium, Roodstuitspreeuw
Up to 10+ a day in Lore Lindu NP, common at Tangkoko NP and Dumago Bone NP.

250.   * PALE-BELLIED MYNA, Acridotheres cinereus, Bleekbuik Maina
10+, a great find in the paddies near Palu.

251.   EURASIAN TREE SPARROW, Passer montanus, Ringmus
A common and widespread species in open areas on both islands.

252.   JAVAN MUNIA, Lonchura leucogastroides, Javaans Bronzemannetje
A pair at the Jakarta airport (Java).

253.   BLACK-FACED MUNIA, Lonchura molucca, Moluks Bronzemannetje
30+ in the Palu area, 5 at Sidangoli on Halmahera, 10+ en route Tangkoko NP – Dumago Bone NP and 10+ at Dumago Bone NP.

254.   Nutmeg Mannikin (SCALY-BREASTED MUNIA), Lonchura punctulata, Muskaatvink
25+ at Wuasa in Lore Lindu NP and a few en route Tangkoko NP – Dumago Bone NP.

255.   CHESTNUT MUNIA, Lonchura atricapilla, Kastanjenon
Common in the Palu area, at Wuasa in Lore Lindu NP and near Makassar, rather common en route Tangkoko NP – Dumago Bone NP.

256.   PALE-HEADED MUNIA, Lonchura pallida, Bleekkopnon
15+ in the paddies near Palu and 10+ in the paddies near Makassar.

257.   JAVA SPARROW, Padda oryzivora, Rijstvogel
Introduced species. 2 in the paddies near Makassar.

258.   MOUNTAIN SERIN, Serinus estherae, Indische Kanarie
We heard the birds and then we had a fly-by of 3 birds along the Anaso Track in Lore Lindu NP.


This list follows the taxonomy, names and sequence of the Mammal Data by BirdBase & BirdArea by Andrew Duff and Ann Lawson. Numbers quoted are estimates of the minimum numbers seen.

1.  BEAR CUSCUS, Ailurops ursinus
A total of 5 seen at Tangkoko NP.

2.  WHITISH DWARF SQUIRREL, Prosciurillus leucomus.
A  few at Lore Lindu NP and at Dumago Bone NP

3.  CELEBES DWARF SQUIRREL, Prosciurillus murinus
With a fair amount of presumption over the identity of these to the lack of a mammal guide we saw a few at Lore Lindu NP and Tangkoko NP.

4.  SPECTRAL TARSIER, Tarsius spectrum
2 of these strange-looking nocturnal creatures were seen roosting in a huge fig tree at Tangkoko NP.

A large troop (70+) in the beach forest at Tangkoko NP.

6.  TONKEAN MACAQUE, Macaca tonkena
A group of 10 or so at Lore Lindu NP.

7.  GORONTALO MACAQUE Macaca nigrescensWe heard a group at Dumago Bone NP, but did not see them.

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