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A Report from

Peru - Central Valley, Southern Andes, Amazonia May-July 2004,


Greg Roberts

With Glenn Scherf for the whole trip and David Houghton and Kath Shurcliff for all but the first few days and the last week.  Most of the trip was organised through Gunnar Engblom's Kolibiri outfit,  which is highly recommended. The Iquitos Amazonia sector was managed by Explorama,, which again was superbly put together. We have no complaints.

With the exception of a bag snatching at Lima airport and a little altitude illness, we encountered no difficulties. We lost one-and-a-half days all up in Iquitos Amazonia due to rain but had no other rain. Snow fell on a couple of days in the Andes.

May 21. Arrived Lima late at night. Hotel Prince.

May 22. A day around the capital Lima sight-seeing.

May 23. With our driver Luis Adriano and guide Alejandro Tello, we traversed the dry, cactus-clad slopes of the Tinajas Valley before descending to the coast, searching wetlands and fields in the vicinity of Pucusana.

From May 24 to June 4 Glenn and I visited Ecuador - see separate report.

June 4. After flying from Guayaquil and meeting up with Kath and David in Lima we flew to Cusco 3400m. In the afternoon we walked up to the Sacsayhuaman ruins. Hotel Emperador Plaza.

June 5. We met our driver Julio Benires and drove to Haucarpay Lake, birding the ravine and tobacco plants at the lake's southern end before continuing to Pisac ruins and Ollantaytambo. El Albergue Hotel.

June 6. We birded shrubs on the dry west side of Abra Malaga before ascending the ridge before the pass and walking back to the road (strenous) through the famed and dwindling polylepis patches 3800m.

June 7. Abra Malaga east side - The puna at high elevations and elfin and cloud forests around Canchayoc and San Luis on the road to Quillabamba 2500-3800m. Camp behind the restaurant at San Luis 2600m.

June 8. Abra Malaga east side again, driving back to Ollantaytambo to catch the evening train to Aguas Calientes 2050m. Pachacute Hotel.

June 9. We caught a bus to the famed Machu Picchu ruins 2400m, which were every bit as spectacular as expected, and walked back to Aguas Calientes down steep switchbacks through forest.

June 10. We birded around the botanic gardens and railway track below Aguas Calientes before getting the afternoon train to Ollantaytambo and driving back to Cuzco.

June 11.  We teamed up with Gunnar and two of his American clients, Joe Church and Mike Bearce, and headed off through Paucartambo to the famed Manu Road, precipitous and not for the faint-hearted. We crossed over the Ajanaco Pass 3800m into the Manu Biosphere Reserve and birded the upper road before arriving at Pillahuata 2700m. Overnight in large roadside shed.

June 12. Birded upper and mid sections of the road to Cock-of-the-Rock Lodge 1500m.

June 13. Walking around Cock-of-the-Rock Lodge, descending to 1100m; trail behind lodge.

June 14. Walking and driving around Cock-of-the-Rock Lodge, ascending to 2400m; trail behind lodge.

June 15. We drove down the road, searching its lower sections and a couple of bamboo patches before reaching Pilcopata. Overnight in a basic hotel.

June 16. We drove through foothills, birding along the road, to Atalaya 650m and caught a boat across the Rio Madre De Dios to  Amazonia Lodge 250m. In the late afternoon we walked the ridge trail to the 21m tower.

June 17. Amazonia Lodge, a comfortable and pleasant place. We walked the lower tracks before parting company with Gunnar.

June 18. Amazonia Lodge, we visited a small river island covered in bamboo we were directed to by lodge owner Don Santiago.

June 19. Amazonia Lodge, walking the ridge track and returning to Cusco via the Manu Road.

June 20. A rest day in Cusco, where the annual Cusco Festival was coincidentally underway.

June 21. We flew to Lima and caught another flight to Iquitos, where we were met by our Explorama guide Lucio Pando, a native of the area who was superb at calling up birds. We motored up the Rio Ucalayi, which converges into the celebrated Rio Amazon before reaching Ceiba Tops, the first of three lodges we stayed at in Iquitos Amazonia.

June 22. Tracks around Ceiba Tops, a very comfortable lodge, and visits to nearby islands in the Amazon.

June 23. Tracks around Ceiba Tops before travelling to Explorama Lodge.

June 24. Tracks around the simple but comfortable Explorama Lodge, encountering a small antswarm, and visits to nearby islands in the Amazon, including Yanamono Island.

June 25. Boat to ExplorNapo Lodge, visits to Rio Napo islands and varzea forest upriver on the Rio Napo.

June 26. Tracks around ExplorNapo Lodge, encountering a big ant swarm.

June 27. Boat to ACTS Lodge, spending time on the canopy walk (up to 35m) before walking back to ExplorNapo.

June 28. Visited varzea forest upriver before returning by boat to Iquitos. Hotel Dorado Plaza.

June 29. We hired a car and drove to the white sands Mishana-Allpahuayo Reserve, walking the main trail and side trails and surprisingly cleaning up almost all the specialties before lunch.

June 30. We hired a boat and visited islands in the Ucalayi and Amazon before farewelling Kath and David.

July 1. Return to Lima.

July 2. We met up with driver Julio and guide Alejandro, we drove up the Santa Eulalia Valley 2500-3500m via Huanza, again on hair-raising roads little better than goat tracks, birding the shrubs above and below the narrow bridge, below San Pedro de Canasta. Overnight in the basic Hotel Kauquish in San Juan de Iris 3800m.

July 3. We drove 1 hour to the polylepis patch in the upper Santa Eulalia Valley, then on to Marcopomacocha and the cushion bogs of the Milloc Valley 4500m. Overnight in La Oroya.

July 4. We drove to Kolibri's new set-up by the shore of Junin Lake, spending 2 hours in the rubber dinghy before finding the grebe. We then drove on along the Central Highway to the polylepis woods around Quinua before birding roadside shrubs above San Raphael. Overnight Huanuco 2000m. Grand Hotel.

July 5. We drove through the Carpish Tunnel and spent the day on the Paty Trail 2000-2700m, returning to Huanuco.

July 6. We drove to Bosque Unchog 3400m and set up camp, birding the elfin forest up the road.

July 7. Morning birding the elfin forest before returning to Huanuco and birding the Paty Trail again.

July 8. We returned to Lima, stopping near Huariaca, again near Quinua, and the cushion bogs below the Ticlio Pass.

July 9. Sight-seeing around Lima.

July 10. Departed Lima for home.

Names as in A Field Guide to the Birds of Peru 2001 James Clements & Noam Shany (whom we met at St Luis, Abra Malaga). * denotes lifer. [] heard only. The term "Amazonia" refers to species seen across the lowlands visited in southern and northern Peru; "Iquitos Amazonia" refers to northern; "souther Amazonia" refers to southern. CTR Lodge = Cock-of-the-Rock Lodge.  


Andean Tinamou (1 Haucarpay Lake), [Little Tinamou (Pilcopata)],
[Great Tinamou (Amazonia Lodge, Iquitos Amazonia)],
*White-throated Tinamou (1 Amazonia Lodge),
[Undulated Tinamou (Pilcopata, Iquitos Amazonia)],  [Black-capped Tinamou (Pilcopata)], [Cinerous Tinamou (common Amazonia)],
Peruvian Pelican (Pucasana),  Neotropic Cormorant,  White-tufted Grebe,
 Silvery Grebe (common Junin Lake, Milloc Valley),
*Junin Grebe (2 Junin Lake),
Great Egret,  Snowy Egret,  Cattle Egret,  Striated Heron,
Black-crowned Night-Heron,  Little Blue Heron (Iquitos Amazonia),
Capped Heron (Amazonia Lodge),  Cocoi Heron,  Rufescent Tiger-Heron (Amazonia Lodge),  Fasciated Tiger-Heron (1 Rio Madre De Dios),  Limpkin (1 Iquitos),  Hoatzin (common Amazonia Lodge),  Puna Ibis (high Andes),  Green Ibis (Iquitos Amazonia),  Sunbittern (2 ExplorNapo),  Torrent Duck (Aguas Calientes, Santa Eulalia),  Crested Duck (Junin Lake),  Puna Teal (common high Andes),  Speckled Teal,  Andean Duck (6 Huacarpay Lake),  Andean Goose (Central Highway),  Grey Gull (Pucasana),  Kelp Gull,  Andean Gull (common high Andes),  Band-tailed Gull (Lima),  Large-billed Tern (common Amazonia),  Yellow-billed Tern (common Iquitos Amazonia),  Inca Tern (6 Pucasana),
Greater Yellow-headed Vulture (common Amazonia),  Lesser Yellow-headed Vulture (Iquitos Amazonia),  Turkey Vulture,  Black Vulture,  King Vulture (1 Amazonia Lodge),  Andean Condor (2 Santa Eulalia, 1 perched),  Black-and-chesnut Eagle (2 mid Manu Road),  Grey-headed Kite (1 Ceiba Tops),  Double-toothed Kite,  Slate-coloured Hawk (2 Explorama islands),  Plumbeous Kite,  Variable Hawk (widespread; several Puna Hawk in high Andes),  Roadside Hawk,  Cinereous Harrier (Junin Lake),  Great Black-Hawk (1 Explorama islands),  Black Caracara (2 Ceiba Tops),  Red-throated Caracara (Pilcopata, Amazonia Lodge),  Mountain Caracara (common high Andes),  Crane Hawk (1 Iquitos),  American Kestrel,  [Laughing Falcon (ExplorNapo)],  Bat Falcon (1 ACTS Lodge),  Aplomado Falcon (1 Central Highway),  Yellow-headed Caracara,  Black-collared Hawk (Iquitos Amazonia),  Zone-tailed Hawk (1 ExplorNapo), 
*White-throated Hawk (2 Abra Malaga),
Speckled Chachalca (COT Lodge, Pilcopata, Iquitos Amazonia),  Blue-throated Pipuing-Guan (1 Amazonia Lodge),  Andean Guan (4 below Machu Picchu),  Spix's Guan (2 Amazonia Lodge),
*Puna Snipe (2 flushed Ticlio Pass),
 *Andean Snipe (1 flushed between polylepis patches Abra Malaga),
Giant Coot (Milloc Valley),  Andean Coot,  Grey-necked Wood-Rail,  Purple Gallinule,  *Azure Gallinule (1 Iquitos),  Common Moorhen,  [Plumbeous Rail (Huacarpay Lake],  Wattled Jacana,  Greater Yellowlegs,  Andean Lapwing (high Andes),
*Diademed Sandpiper-Plover (Milloc Valley - 2 adults found within minutes, as snow fell they were joined by 2 subadults before all four flew out of view),
Collared Plover,   Killdeer,  American Oystercatcher (Pucasana),  Blackish Oystercatcher (Pucasana),  Peruvian Thick-knee (1 roadkilled near Pucasana),
Grey-breasted Seedsnipe (4 Milloc Valley),
[Stripe-faced Wood-Quail (lower Manu Road)],
Spot-winged Pigeon (Santa Eulalia),  Rock Dove,  Plumbeous Pigeon (COT Lodge),  Ruddy Pigeon,  Pale-vented Pigeon,  Band-tailed Pigeon,  Pacific Dove (common on coast),  Eared Dove,  Black-winged Ground-Dove,  Bare-faced Ground-Dove (Huacarpay Lake, Santa Eulalia),  Croaking Ground-Dove (common on coast),  Ruddy Ground-Dove,  Blue Ground-Dove (Mishana),  Ruddy Quail-Dove (Amazonia),  White-tipped Dove,  Grey-fronted Dove,
*Blue-headed Macaw (pairs or small groups seen several times lower Manu Road and near Pilcopata),
Red-bellied Macaw (Ceiba Tops),  Military Macaw (6 lower Manu Road),  Blue-and-yellow Macaw (Ceiba Tops),  Scarlet Macaw (Amazonia Lodge, Iquitos Amazonia),  Chesnut-fronted Macaw (Amazonia Lodge),  Mitred Parakeet (common  Aguas Calientes),  White-eyed Parakeet (Pilcopata, Iquitos Amazonia),  [Scarlet-fronted Parakeet (Santa Eulalia)],  Dusky-headed Parakeet (Iquitos Amazonia),  Cobalt-winged Parakeet (common Amazonia),
  *Canary-winged Parakeet (small parties about Lima and common Iquitos Amazonia),
*Tui Parakeet (common Explorama, islands off Iquitos),
*Scarlet-shouldered Parrotlet (flock ACTS canopy walk),
Blue-winged Parrotlet (Ceiba Tops),  Blue-headed Parrot (Amazonia),
*Short-tailed Parrot (small flocks Ceiba Tops islands, Explorama),
Black-headed Parrot (Explorama),  Scaly-naped Parrot (Manu Road),  Orange-winged Parrot (Iquitos Amazonia),   Mealy Parrot (Amazonia), 
*Festive Parrot (several Explorama islands),
[Pheasant Cuckoo (ExplorNapo)],  Squirrel Cuckoo,  Little Cuckoo (1 ACTS Lodge),  Black-bellied Cuckoo (1 ACTS canopy walk),  Dark-billed Cuckoo (Iquitos),  Smooth-billed Ani,  Groove-billed Ani,  Greater Ani (Iquitos Amazonia),  Burrowing Owl, 
*Rufescent Screech-Owl (1 seen briefly, calling well COT Lodge),
*Tawny-bellied Screech-Owl (1 Explorama; others heard Iquitos Amazonia, Amazonia Lodge),
[Vermiculated Screech-owl (Amazonia Lodge)],  Tropical Screech-Owl (1 Explorama, others heard Iquitos Amazonia),   [Rufous-banded Owl (Pillahuata)], [Spectacled Owl (Explorama)],  [Crested Owl (ExplorNapo)],  [Black-banded Owl (ExplorNapo)],  Peruvian Pygmy-Owl (2 Santa Eulalia),  [Ferruginous Pymy-Owl (ExplorNapo)],
*Yungas Pygmy-Owl (1 seen from vehicle upper Manu Road),
Lesser Nighhawk (Pucusana),  Sand-coloured Nighthawk (ExplorNapo islands),  Ladder-tailed Nightjar (ExplorNapo islands),  Rufous-bellied Nighthawk (Pillahuata, COT Lodge),  Short-tailed Nighthawk (Ceiba Tops),  Pauraque,
*Swallow-tailed Nightjar (1 seen briefly Pillahuata; several heard Bosque Unchog),  [Grey Potoo (Amazonia Lodge)],  Great Potoo (Amazonia Lodge, Ceiba Tops)],  White-collared Swift,  Chesnut-collared Swift (Manu Road),  Andean Swift (Pisac),  Short-tailed Swfit (Amazonia Lodge),  Fork-tailed Palm-Swift,  Grey-rumped Swift (Amazonia),
*Koepcke's Hermit (2 Amazonia Lodge),
Great-billed Hermit (Mishana),  White-beared Hermit (Amazonia Lodge),  Reddish Hermit (Explorama),
*White-browed Hermit (1 Pilcopata),
*Many-spotted Hummingbird (1 lower Manu Road, 1 COT Lodge),
*Peruvian Piedtail (1 lower Manu Road),
Olive-spotted Hummingbird (common islands Iquitos Amazonia),  Amazilia Hummingbird (common behind Peurto Viejo),
*Green-and-white Hummingbird (common Machu Picchu),
*Rufous-crested Coquette (several Amazonia Lodge),
Wire-crested Thorntail (2 lower Manu Road),  Blue-tailed Emerald (Amazonia Lodge),  Fork-tailed Woodnymph (common Amazonia),  Golden-tailed Sapphire (Amazonia Lodge),  Speckled Hummingbird (Manu Road),  Sword-billed Hummingbird (2 Abra Malaga, 1 upper Manu Road, 1 Bosque Unchog),  Sapphire-spangled Emerald (Amazonia Lodge),  Glittering-throated Emerald (1 Explorama),
*Rufous-capped Thornbill (1 Abra Malaga),
*Olivaceous Thornbill (2 Milloc Valley),
*Black-breasted Hillstar (1 Milloc Valley),
Andean Hillstar (2 near polylepis Abra Malaga),  Giant Hummingbird (1 Huacarpay Lake, several Santa Eulalia),  Great Sapphirewing (upper Manu Road, Bosque Unchog),  White-necked Jacobin (ExplorNapo),
*Buff-tailed Sicklebill (1 Paty Trail),
Sparkling Violetear,  Green Violetear (Abra Malaga),  Black-throated Mango (Pilcopata),  Shining Sunbeam (Abra Malaga),
*White-tufted Sunbeam (common west side Abra Malaga),
*Violet-throated Starfrontlet (common Abra Malaga, upper Manu Road, Carpish Tunnel),
*Bronze-tailed Comet (common Santa Eulalia),
*Bearded Mountaineer (3 Huacarpay Lake including 1 juvenile being fed),
Violet-fronted Brilliant (common Manu Road),  Chesnut-breasted Coronet (below Machu Picchu, Paty Trail),
Bronzy Inca (Paty Trail),  Collared Inca (Paty Trail),
*Gould's Inca (several Abra Malaga, upper Manu Road),
Amethyst-throated Sunangel (Abra Malaga, Carpish Tunnel),
*Coppery-naped Puffleg (2 Abra Malaga),
*Emerald-bellied Puffleg (2 Paty Trail),
*Black Metaltail (common upper Santa Eulalia Valley),
*Coppery Metaltail (common Bosque Unchog),
*Scaled Metaltail (2 upper Manu Road),
Tyrian Metlatail (Abra Malaga),  Booted Racket-tail (COT Lodge),  Grey-breasted Sabrewing (Amazonia Lodge),  Oasis Hummingbird (Santa Eulalia),  Peruvian Sheartail (Santa Eulalia), Black-eared Fairy (Amazonia),  Long-tailed Sylph (mid Manu Road),
White-bellied Woodstar (Aguas Calientes, mid Manu Road), 
*Purple-collared Woodstar (several Santa Eulalia),
*Wedge-billed Hummingbird (1 COT Lodge, 1 Paty Trail),
*Pavonine Quetzal (1 ExplorNapo),
 Golden-headed Quetzal (mid Manu Road),  Masked Trogon (Manu Road),  Blue-crowned Trogon (Amazonia Lodge),  Black-tailed Trogon (Amazonia Lodge, Explorama),  Violaceous Trogon,  Amazonian White-tailed Trogon (Amazonia Lodge),  Black-throated Trogon (ExplorNapo),  Highland Motmot (1 Aguas Calientes),  Blue-crowned Motmot (ExplorNapo),  Green Kingfisher,  Green-and-rufous Kingfisher (Iquitos Amazonia),  American Pygmy Kingfisher (Explorama),  Amazon Kingfisher,  Ringed Kingfisher,  Gilded Barbet (Iquitos Amazonia),  Lemon-throated Barbet (Pilcopata, Iquitos Amazonia),  Scarlet-crowned Barbet (Explorama),
*Versicoloured Barbet (several mid Manu Road),
Paradise Jacamar (Mishana),  [White-chinned Jacamar (Ceiba Tops)],  White-eared Jacamar (1 Explorama),  Yellow-billed Jacamar (ExplorNapo), 
*Bluish-fronted Jacamar (several lower Manu Road, COT Lodge, near Pilcopata),  *Yellow-billed Nunbird (1 Pilcopata),
Black-fronted Nunbird (Amazonia),  Swallow-wing (Pilcopata, Iquitos Amazonia),
White-necked Puffbird (1 ACTS canopy walk),
*Pied Puffbird (1 Mishana),
*Chesnut-capped Puffbird (1 ACTS Lodge),
*Striolated Puffbird (1 Amazonia Lodge),
Black-streaked Puffbird (1 below Aguas Calientes),
Rusty-breasted Nunlet (1 ExplorNapo),
*Plain-breasted Piculet (several Ceiba Tops islands),
*Ocellated Piculet (several Machu Picchu and below ruins),
Bar-breasted Piculet (Pilcopata),
*Black-necked Woodpecker (several Santa Eulalia),
Smoky-brown Woodpecker (lower Manu Road),  Little Woodpecker (Amazonia),  Red-stained Woodpecker (ExplorNapo),  Golden-olive Woodpecker,  Spot-breasted Woodpecker (Amazonia),  Yellow-tufted Woodpecker,  Chesnut Woodpecker (Explorama),  Cream-coloured Woodpecker (Explorama),
*Scaly-breasted Woodpecker (1 Mishana),
Crimson-mantled Woodpecker (Paty Trail),  Crimson-crested Woodpecker (Amazonia),  Lineated Woodpecker (Explorama),  Andean Flicker (high Andes),
*Blue-banded Toucanet (2 mid Manu Road),
*Golden-collared Toucanet (1 ExplorNapo),
*Ivory-billed Aracari (2 ACTS canopy walk),
Chesnut-eared Aracari,  Many-banded Aracari (ACTS canopy walk),  White-throated (Cuvier's) Toucan (common Amazonia),  Channel-billed (Yellow-ridged) Toucan (Amazonia Lodge),  [Grey-breasted Mountain-Toucan (upper Manu Road)],
*Coastal Miner (common Pucasana),
Common Miner (Junin Lake),  Greyish Miner (common Tinajas Valley), 
*Dark-winged Miner (2 Milloc Valley),
*Slender-billed Miner (2 Milloc Valley),
*Striated Earthcreeper (5 polylepis Quina),
*White-bellied Cinclodes (1 Milloc Valley, 5 Ticlio Pass),
*Peruvian Seaside Cinclodes (2 on rocks Pucasana),
*Royal Cinclodes (2 polylepis Abra Malaga),
White-winged Cinclodes (Santa Eulalia),  Bar-winged Cinclodes,  Lesser Hornero (common Iquitos Amazonia islands),  Pale-legged Hornero (Amazonia),
*Bay Hornero (1 Rio Napo),
Cordilleran Canastero (1 Abra Malaga),  Canyon Canastero (1 upper Santa Eulalia),  *Streak-throated Canastero (1 Abra Malaga, common Central Highway),
*Rusty-fronted Canastero (2 Huacarpay Lake),
*Cactus Canastero (several seen others heard Tinajas Valley),
*Junin Canastero (1 Abra Malaga),
*Marcapata Spinetail (2 west side Abra Malaga, fairly common east side),
*Creamy-crested Spinetail (2 west side Abra Malaga),
*Baron's Spinetail (2 polylepis Quinua),
*Cabanis's Spinetail (1 seen others heard Pilcopata),
*Red-and-white Spinetail (common islands Iquitos Amazonia),
*Parker's Spinetail (several islands off Explorama, ExplorNapo),
*Ash-browed Spinetail (1 mid Manu Road),
Rufous Spinetail (Paty Trail),  Dark-breasted Spinetail (Ceiba Tops island),  Azara's Spinetail (common Andes),  Plain-crowned Spinetail (Pilcopata),
*White-bellied Spinetail (common islands Iquitos Amazonia),
*Rusty-crowned Tit-Spinetail (2 race pileata upper Santa Eulalia, 3 race cajambae Quinea),
*White-browed Tit-Spinetail (1 polylepis Abra Malaga),
*Tawny Tit-Spinetail (6 polylepis Abra Malaga),
Streaked Tit-Spinetail (Santa Eulalia),
White-chinned Thistletail (1 Bosque Unchog race plengei),
*Puna Thistletail (1 upper Manu Road),
Streaked Xenops (Manu Road),  Slender-billed Xenops (Amazonia Lodge),  Plain Xenops,  Wren-like Rushbird (Huacarpay & Junin lakes),  Pearled Treerunner (common Andes),  Spotted Barbtail (mid Manu Road),  Streaked Tuftedcheek (Manu Road, Paty Trail),  Montane Foliage-gleaner (Manu Road),  Chesnut-winged Hookbill (ACTS canopy walk),   [Striped Treehunter (mid Manu Road)],  Chesnut-crowned Foliage-gleaner (Pilcopata),  Olive-backed Foliage-gleaner (Pilcopata),
*Dusky-cheeked Foliage-gleaner (1 Pilcopata),
Buff-throated Foliage-gleaner (Pilcopata, ExplorNapo),  Cinnamon-rumped Foliage-gleaner (ExplorNapo),  Strong-billed Woodcreeper (race orenocensis Amazonia Lodge, Ceiba Tops),
*Zimmer's Woodcreeper (1 island off Explorama, heard island off Iquitos),
*Elegant (Spix's) Woodcreeper (2 Explorama),
*Tschudi's (Ocellated) Woodcreeper (1 Pilcopata),
White-chinned Woodcreeper (Explorama),  Plain-brown Woodcreeper (Explorama),  Buff-throated Woodcreeper (Amazonia Lodge),  Black-banded Woodcreeper (Mishana),  Straight-billed Woodcreeper (Iquitos Amazonia),  Long-tailed Woodcreeper (Ceiba Tops),
*Spot-throated Woodcreeper (1 Mishana),
Montane Woodcreeper (Manu Road),  Olive-backed Woodcreeper (Manu Road),  Lineated Woodcreeper (Amazonia Lodge, Explorama, Mishana),  Long-billed Woodcreeper (Explorama),  Cinnamon-throated Woodcreeper (common  Amazonia varzea),  Olivaceous Woodcreeper (Amazonia Lodge),  Wedge-billed Woodcreeper (Amazonia),  Red-billed Scythebill (Amazonia Lodge),
*Bamboo Antshrike (1 Pilcopata, 2 Amazonia Lodge; others heard),
Fasciated Antshrike,  Barred Antshrike,  Chesnut-backed Antshrike (lower Manu Road, COT Lodge),  Great Antshrike ,  Uniform Antshrike (Paty Trail),  Variable Antshrike (3 below Machu Picchu),  Spot-winged Antshrike (Amazonia Lodge),  Plain-winged Antshrike (1 Amazonia Lodge; heard Pilcopata, Iquitos Amazonia),
*Pearly Antshrike (1 Ceiba Tops, 1 Mishana),
*Bluish-slate Antshrike (several Pilcopata, Amazonia Lodge),
Cinereous Antshrike (Iquitos Amazonia),  Dusky-throated Antshrike (Iquitos Amazonia; 1 Amazonia Lodge), Mouse-coloured Antshrike (Amazonia Lodge, Mishana),  Castelnau's Antshrike (common islands Iquitos Amazonia),
*White-lined Antbird (1 Pilcopata, 1 Amazonia Lodge),
*Black-and-white Antbird (several, islands off Ceiba Tops, Explorama),
Manu Antbird (2 Amazonia Lodge),  Lunulated Antbird (4+ Explorama antswarm),  Pygmy Antwren (Amazonia Lodge),  Short-billed Antwren (Iquitos Amazonia),  Stripe-chested Antwren (common lower Manu Road),  Grey Antwren (Iquitos Amazonia),  Long-winged Antwren (Explorama),  Plain-throated Antwren (Iquitos Amazonia),  *Leaden Antwren (1 island off Ceiba Tops),
*Ancient Antwren (2 Mishana),
Rufous-tailed Antwren (Amazonia Lodge),  Foothill Antwren (common lower Manu Road, Pilcopata),  Ornate Antwren (COT Lodge, lower Manu Road),
*Yellow-breasted Antwren (several lower Manu Road),
White-flanked Antwren (Ceiba Tops),  Dot-winged Antwren (Pilcopata),   Slaty Antwren (COT Lodge),  Long-tailed Antbird (Paty Trail),
*Yellow-browed Antbird (1 Mishana),
Warbling Antbird (COT Lodge, lower Manu Road, Iquitos Amazonia),  Band-tailed Antbird (Amazonia Lodge),  Spot-winged Antbird (Ceiba Tops, Explorama),
*Slate-coloured Antbird (Explorama, several with previous species at antswarm),  *Allpahuayo  Antbird (1 Mishana),
Grey Antbird (Amazonia Lodge),  Black Antbird (COT Lodge),  Blackish Antbird (ExplorNapo),  Black-throated Antbird (Iquitos Amazonia),
*Northern Chesnut-tailed Antbird (1 Mishana),
*Southern Chesnut-tailed Antbird (1 seen lower Manu Road others heard),
White-backed Fire-eye (lower Manu Road),  Sooty Antbird (ExplorNapo),
[Plumbeous Antbird (Ceiba Tops)],
*White-shouldered Anbird (1 Explorama),
*Goeldi's Antbird (1 Amazonia Lodge),
Spot-backed Antbird (Amazonia Lodge),  Scale-backed Antbird (Explorama, ExplorNapo),
*Ash-breasted Antbird (1 island off Iquitos),
Black-faced Antbird (Explorama),  [White-browed Antbird (Amazonia Lodge)],  Bicoloured Antbird  (3+ Explorama antswarm),
*White-plumed Antbird (2+ at ExplorNapo antswarm),
Reddish-winged Bare-eye (1+ Explorama antswarm),   Black-spotted Bare-eye (4+ Explorama antswarm),  Rufous-capped Antthrush (ExplorNapo),
[Undulated Antpitta (Bosque Unchog)],  [Black-faced Antthrush (Amazonia Lodge)],  [Thrush-like Antpitta (Amazonia Lodge)],  Amazonian Antpitta (Amazonia Lodge)],
*Rufous Antpitta (1 race obscura seen at Bosque Unchog; others heard Manu Road, Abra Malaga),
*Stripe-headed Antpitta (polylepis 1 Abra Malaga, 1 Quinua),
*Red-and-white Antpitta (1 seen, others heard, usual site behind toilets, Pillahuata), [White-throated Antpitta (Manu Road)],
*Slaty Gnateater (2 COT Lodge trail),
[Rusty-belted Tapaculo (Pilcopata, Amazonia Lodge],
*Trilling Tapaculo (1 Paty Trail; others heard here, upper Manu Road, Abra Malaga),  *Large-footed Tapaculo (1 Paty Trail),
*Diademed Tapaculo (1 upper Manu Road),
*Puna Tapaculo (3 polylepis Abra Malaga),
[Southern White-crowned Tapaculo (mid Manu Road)],
*Band-tailed Fruiteater (2 mid Manu Road, 2 Paty Trail),
White-browed Purpletuft (2 ACTS canopy walk),  Barred Fruiteater (upper Manu Road, Carpish Tunnel, Paty Trail),  Spangled Cotinga (1 ACTS canopy walk),  Pompadour Cotinga (2 Mishana),
*White-cheeked Cotinga (2 polylepis upper Santa Eulalia found after 1hr),
Red-crested Cotinga (several Abra Malaga, Bosque Unchog),
*Bay-vented Cotinga (2 Bosque Unchog),
Screaming Piha (ExplorNapo),  Greyish Mourner (Explorama),
Andean Cock-of-the-Rock (common COT Lodge, including several males at lek),  Amazonian Umbrellabird (2 COT Lodge),  Bare-necked Fruitcrow (Explorama),  [Purple-throated Fruitcrow (Iquitos Amazonia)],
Fiery-capped Manakin (Pilcopata, Amazonia Lodge)],  Blue-backed Manakin (1 ExplorNapo),  White-crowned Manakin (Mishana),  Band-tailed Manakin (Ceiba Tops),  *Yungas Manakin (several COT Lodge),
*Round-tailed Manakin (1 Amazonia Lodge),
Blue-crowned Manakin (Explorama),  Golden-winged Manakin (Explorama),
*Saffron-crested Tyrant-Manakin (1 Mishana),
Southern Beardless Tyrannulet,  White-lored Tyrannulet (1 Pilcopata),  Yellow-crowned Tyrannulet (Iquitos Amazonia),  Torrent Tyrannulet (Aguas Calientes),  Yellow-breasted Flycatcher (Pilcopata, ACTS canopy walk),  Yellow-margined Flycatcher,  Grey-crowned Flycatcher (Pilcopata),  Large-headed Flatbill (Amazonia Lodge),  Olivaceous Flatbill (Ceiba Tops),  Fulvous-breasted Flatbill (several mid-lower Manu Road),  Crowned Slaty-Flycatcher (ACTS canopy walk),  [Ringed Antpipit (Amazonia Lodge)],  Black-tailed Flycatcher (ExplorNapo),  Grey Elaenia,  White-crested Elaenia,  Forest Elaenia,  Sierran Elaenia (Bosque Unchog), 
*Brownish Elaenia (2 island off Ceiba Tops),
Highland Elaenia (1 below Machu Picchu),  Large Elaenia (1 Pilcopata),
*Yellow-crowned Elaenia (1 Rio Napo),
*Brownish Flycatcher (1 ExplorNapo, 6000th bird!),
*Plumbeous-crowned Tyrannulet (1 below Aguas Calientes, 1 mid Manu Road),  *Mishana Tyrannulet (2 Mishana),
*Peruvian Tyrannulet (1 Paty Trail),
White-banded Tyrannulet (Abra Malaga),  White-tailed Tyrannulet (Manu Road),  White-throated Tyrannulet (common Andes),  Marble-faced Bristle-Tyrant (COT Lodge),  Mottle-cheeked Tyrannulet (below Macchu Picchu),
*Bolivian Tyrranulet (2 mid Manu Road, 1 COT Lodge),
*Cinnamon-faced Tyrranulet (1 COT Lodge, 1 lower Manu Road),
*Orange-eyed Flycatcher (2 ExplorNapo),
River Tyrannulet (ExplorNapo islands),  Slaty-capped Flycatcher (Pilcopata),  Rufous-headed Pygmy-Tyrant (Paty Trail),  Ochre-bellied Flycatcher,  Olive-striped Flycatcher,  Streak-necked Flycatcher,
*Johannes's Tody-Tyrant (1 Amazonia Lodge others heard, 1 ExplorNapo),  *Flammulated Bamboo-Tyrant (1 Pilcopata),
*Buff-throated Tody-Tyrant (1 lower Manu Road),
*Black-backed Tody-Flycatcher (1 Pilcopata),
*Zimmer's Tody-Tyrant (2 Mishana),
Spotted Tody-Flycatcher (common Iquitos Amazonia),  Yellow-browed Tody-Flycatcher (1 ACTS canopy walk),
*Black-throated Tody-Tyrant (1 upper Manu Road),
Rusty-fronted Tody-Flycatcher (1 Amazonia Lodge),  Yellow-billed Tit-Tyrant (common Tinajas & Santa Eulalia valleys),  Tufted Tit-Tyrant (Quinua, Abra Malaga),
*Black-crested Tit-Tyrant (2 above San Raphael, 4 Quinua),
*Ash-breasted Tit-tyrant (4 polylepis Abra Malaga),
*Unstreaked Tit-Tyrant (common Abra Malaga, Bosque Unchog),
Many-coloured Rush-Tyrant (Huacarpay & Junin lakes), [Scale-crested Pygmy-Tyrant (lower-mid Manu Road)],
*D'Orbigny's Chant-Tyrant (several Abra Malaga, Santa Eulalia, Quinua),
*Golden-browed Chat-Tyrant (1 Paty Trail),
*Maroon-chested Chat-Tyrant (1 mid Manu Road),
Brown-backed Chat-tyrant (common high Andes),  White-browed Chat-Tyrant (common dry Andes),  Rufous-breasted Chat-Tyrant (Abra Malaga, Bosque Unchog),  White-winged Black-Tyrant (1 Machu Picchu),  Andean Negrito (Junin Lake),  Bran-coloured Flycatcher (Amazonia Lodge),  Ruddy-tailed Flycatcher (ExplorNapo),  Fuscous Flycatcher (islands off Ceiba Tops, Explorama),  Ornate Flycatcher (lower Manu Road),  Cinnamon Flycatcher,  Vermilion Flycatcher,
*Red-rumped Bush-Tyrant (3 Bosque Unchog),
*Rufous-bellied Bush-Tyrant (2 Abra Malaga),
Streak-throated Bush-Tyrant (upper Manu Road,  Santa Eulalia),  Smoky Bush-Tyrant (Abra Malaga),  Drab Water-Tyrant (Iquitos Amazonia), 
*Little Ground-Tyrant (1 on road COT Lodge, 1 on island off Iquitos),
Spot-billed Ground-Tyrant (1 Huacarpay Lake, 2 Santa Eulalia),  Cinereous Ground-Tyrant (Central Highway),  Dark-faced Ground-Tyrant (Pucasana),  White-browed Ground-Tyrant (1 upper Santa Eulalia),  Plain-capped Ground-Tyrant (Abra Malaga),  Puna Ground-Tyrant (Abra Malaga, Central Highway),  White-fronted Ground-Tyrant (Milloc Valley, Ticlio Pass),  Ochre-naped Ground-Tyrant (1 Abra Malaga, 1 Milloc),  *Rufous-webbed Tyrant (1 Quinua),
Black-billed Shrike-Tyrant (upper Manu Road),  Short-tailed Field-Tyrant (1 Pucasana),  *Ochraceous-breasted Flycatcher (2 upper Manu Road),
*Unadorned Flycatcher (1 COT Lodge),
*Inca Flycatcher (1 below Aguas Calientes, 1 Paty Trail),
White-headed Marsh-Tyrant (Iquitos Amazonia),  Black-backed Water-Tyrant,  Long-tailed Tyrant,  Black Phoebe,  Tropical (Tumbes) Peewee (Paty Trail),  Smoke-coloured Peewee (Machu Picchu, Paty Trail),  Short-crested Flycatcher,  Dusky-capped Flycatcher (Manu Road),  Tropical Kingbird,  White-throated Kingbird (Iquitos),  Boat-billed Flycatcher,  Lemon-browed Flycatcher (Pilcopata),  Great Kiskadee,  Lesser Kiskadee (Amazonia Lodge),  Grey-capped Flycatcher,  Social Flycatcher,  Dusky-chested Flycatcher (ACTS canopy walk),  Golden-crowned Flycatcher (Aguas Calientes, lower Manu Road),  Streaked Flycatcher (Ceiba Tops),  Greater Schiffornis (Explorama),  Bright-rumped Attila (Iquitos Amazonia),
*Citron-bellied Attila (1 Mishana),
White-eyed Attila (1, island off Ceiba Tops),  Pink-throated Becard (ACTS canopy walk),  White-winged Becard (Ceiba Tops, ExplorNapo),  Black-capped Becard (Amazonia Lodge),  Barred Becard (Aguas Calientes, Paty Trail),  Cinereous Becard (Iquitos Amazonia),  Masked Tityra,
*White-collared Jay (several upper Manu Road, Bosque Unchog),
Violaceous Jay (Pilcopata),  Purplish Jay (Pilcopata),  Green (Inca) Jay (COT Lodge),  Southern Rough-winged Swallow Andean Swallow (high Andes),  White-winged Swallow,  Blue-and-white Swallow,  Brown-chested Martin,  White-banded Swallow (Iquitos Amazonia),  Brown-bellied Swallow (common forested high Andes), 
*Pale-footed Swallow (several Abra Malaga east side),
*Yellowish Pipit (3 by highway north of Pucasana),
Paramo Pipit (Abra Malaga, Bosque Unchog),  Short-billed Pipit (Central Highway),  *Inca Wren (common around Machu Picchu),
*Peruvian Wren (4 Paty Trail),
*Fulvous Wren (several upper and mid Manu Road),
*Grey-mantled Wren (1 lower Manu Road),
[Chesnut-breasted Wren (COT Lodge)],  Southern House Wren,  Mountain Wren (Abra Malaga, Bosque Unchog),   Buff-breasted Wren (Iquitos Amazonia),  Coraya Wren (Iquitos Amazonia),  Grey-breasted Wood-wren (common Andes),  Moustached Wren (Amazonia),  Scaly-breasted Wren (1 lower Manu Road, heard Iquitos Amazonia),  Thrush-like Wren (Explorama),  Black-capped Donacobius (Iquitos Amazonia),
*White-eared Solitaire (1 below Machu Picchu, 1 Paty Trail),
Andean Solitaire (1 seen others heard Manu Road),  Black-billed Thrush,  Andean Slaty-thrush (1 COT Lodge),  Chiguanco Thrush,  Great Thrush,
White-capped Dipper (several Aguas Calientes, Santa Eulalia),
Rufous-browed Peppershrike,  Red-eyed Vireo,  Brown-capped Vireo (Aguas Calientes),  Dusky-capped Greenlet (ExplorNapo),  Tropical Parula,  Slate-throated Redstart,  Spectacled Redstart,  Citrine Warbler (common Abra Malaga, Paty Trail),  *Pale-legged Warbler (2 below Aguas Calientes),
*Golden-bellied Warbler (several Pilcopata, Amazonia Lodge),
Three-striped Warbler (mid Manu Road),  Russet-crowned Warbler (below Machu Picchu, Paty Trail),  Two-banded Warbler (mid Manu Road),  Buff-rumped Warbler (Amazonia Lodge),
Cinerous Conebill,  Chesnut-vented Conebill,  Bananaquit,  Capped Conebill (Aguas Calientes, Manu Road),  Blue-backed Conebill (Abra Malaga, Bosque Unchog, upper Manu Road),  Giant Conebill (1 polylepis Abra Malaga, 1 Quinua),  
*White-browed Conebill (common Abra Malaga, upper Manu Road),
*Pearly-breasted Conebill (3, island off Ceiba Tops),
*Yellow-bellied Dacnis (1 Amazonia Lodge, 1 Ceiba Tops),
*Short-billed Honeycreeper (2 Ceiba Tops),
Purple Honeycreeper,  Green Honeycreeper,
Black-faced Dacnis (Amazonia),  Blue Dacnis,
*Pardusco (2 parties Bosque Unchog),
*Golden-backed Mountain-Tanager (1 close to small mixed flock including following species, Bosque Unchog),
Lacrimose Mountain-Tanager (Paty Trail),  Hooded Mountain-Tanager (Abra Malaga, Bosque Unchog),  Scarlet-bellied Moutain-Tanager (common forested high Andes),  *Chesnut-bellied Mountain-Tanager (2 Abra Malaga, 1 upper Manu Road),
Swallow-Tanager (southern Amazonia),  Magpie Tanager,  Masked Crimson Tanager (Amazonia Lodge), Blue-and-yellow Tanager,  Silver-beaked Tanager,  Blue-grey Tanager,  Palm Tanager,  Blue-capped Tanager,  Hooded Tanager (Ceiba Tops),  Common Bush-Tanager (mid Manu Road, Paty Trail),  Yellow-throated Bush-Tanager (Manu Road),  Yellow-whiskered Bush-Tanager (Manu Road),  Grey-hooded Bush-Tanager (Paty Trail),  Rust-and-yellow Tanager (Abra Malaga, Machu Picchu),  Orange-headed Tanager (Iquitos Amazonia),  Rufous-chested Tanager (Santa Eulalia, Paty Trail),
*Brown-flanked Tanager (2 near Huariaca),
*Yellow-throated Tanager (several COT Lodge and lower Manu Road),
*Golden-collared Tanager (several Abra Malaga, upper Manu Road),
Saffron-crowned Tanager (below Machu Picchu, Manu Road),  Orange-eared Tanager (Manu Road),  Grass-green Tanager (several Abra Malaga, Carpish Tunnel, Paty Trail),  Golden Tanager (Andes),  Green-and-gold Tanager (Amazonia),  Paradise Tanager (lower Manu Road, Amazonia Lodge),  Golden-eared Tanager,  Flame-faced Tanager (Paty Trail),  Fawn-breasted Tanager (Machu Picchu, Paty Trail),  Blue-necked Tanager (Andes),  Beryl-spangled Tanager (Manu Road, Paty Trail),  Turquoise Tanager (Amazonia),  Blue-and-black Tanager (common Andes),
*Golden-naped Tanager (2 below Machu Picchu),
*Yellow-scarfed Tanager (4 Paty Trail),
Spotted Tanager (lower Manu Road),  Opal-crowned Tanager (Amazonia),  White-lined Tanager (Manu Road),
*Slaty Tanager (several below Aguas Calientes, mid Manu Road),
*Yellow-crested Tanager (1 Amazonia Lodge),
Fulvous-crested Tanager (Explorama),  Flame-crested Tanager (ExplorNapo),  Black-goggled Tanager (lower Manu Road),  Grey-headed Tanager (Explorama),  White-shouldered Tanager (Pilcopata),  Hepatic Tanager (2 below Machu Picchu),
*Straw-backed Tanager (1 unexpectedly at COT Lodge),
Silver-backed Tanager (common below Machu Picchu),  Superciliared Hemispingus (race leugaster Paty Trail; race urubambae Manu Road), White-browed (Black-capped) Hemispingus (common high Andes),  Black-eared Hemispingus (Manu Road, Paty Trail),  Oleaginous Hemispingus (below Aguas Calientes, Paty Trail),
*Parodi's Hemispingus (2 Abra Malaga),
*Drab Hemispingus (2 Abra Malaga, 2 mid Manu Road),
*Three-striped Hemispingus (several Abra Malaga),
Rusty Flowerpiercer,  Deep-blue Flowerpiercer (common mid-lower Manu Road),  *Moustached Flowerpiercer (several Abra Malaga, Bosque Unchog, upper Manu Road),
Black-throated Flowerpiercer (upper Manu Road, Bosque Unchog),  Masked Flowerpiercer (Abra Malaga, Manu Road),  Blue-naped Chlorophonia (upper Manu Road, below Machu Picchu),  Thick-billed Euphonia,  White-lored Euphonia (ACTS canopy walk),  Orange-bellied Euphonia (Andes),  Rufous-bellied Euphonia (ExplorNapo),  Purple-throated Euphonia,  Bronze-green Euphonia (1 COT Lodge),  Rufous-collared Sparrow,  Yellow-browed Sparrow,  Band-tailed Seedeater (high Andes),  Plain-coloured Seedeater (1 Abra Malaga),
*Paramo Seedeater (2 Abra Malaga),
Chesnut-throated Seedeater (several Pucasana),  Drab Seedeater (2 Pucasana),  Lined Seedeater (1 Ex;orNapo island),  Chesnut-bellied Seedeater (Amazonia),  Parrot-billed Seedeater (several Pucasana),  Dull-coloured Grassquit (2 below Machu Picchu),   Chesnut-bellied Seed-Finch,  Slaty Finch (1 Abra Malaga),
*Great Inca-Finch (2 Santa Eulalia),
*Rufous-backed Inca-Finch (1 above San Raphael),
*Rufous-breasted Warbling-Finch (1 Santa Eulalia),
Collared Warbling-Finch (1 Santa Eulalia),
*Chesnut-breasted Mountain-Finch (1 west side Abra Malaga),
*Olive Finch (1 COT Lodge trail),
*Cusco (Slaty) Brush-Finch (several Abra Malaga),
*Rusty-bellied Brush-Finch (common Santa Eulalia),
*Dark-faced (Rufous-naped) Brush-Finch (2 upper Manu Road),
Tricoloured Brush-Finch (2 Paty Trail),  Chesnut-capped Brush-Finch (1 Machu Picchu),  Greyish Saltator,  Buff-throated Saltator,  Orange-billed Saltator (around Cusco, Santa Eulalia), Red-capped Cardinal (Iquitos Amazonia),  Golden-bellied Grosbeak (Santa Eulalia),  Blue-black Grosbeak (Pilcopata),  [Slate-coloured Grosbeak (ExplorNapo)],  Black-backed Grosbeak (Abra Malaga, Santa Eulalia),
*Peruvian Sierra-Finch (common high Andes),
Plumbeous Sierra-Finch (high Andes),  Ash-breasted Sierra-Finch (high Andes),  Mourning Sierra-Finch (Santa Eulalia),  Band-tailed Sierra-Finch (2 Tinajas Valley),  White-winged Duica-Finch (Abra Malaga, Central Highway),  Thick-billed Siskin (upper Santa Eulalia),  Black Siskin (upper Santa Eulalia),  Hooded Siskin,  Olivaceous Siskin (mid Manu Road),
*Raimondi's Yellow-Finch (several large parties Tinajas Valley),
Bright-rumped Yellow-Finch (high Andes),  Greenish Yellow-Finch,  House Sparrow,  Blue-black Grassquit,  Plush-capped Finch (several Abra Malaga),  Long-tailed Mockingbird (Santa Eulalia),
*Dusky-green Oropendola (common below Machu Picchu, lower Manu Road),  Crested Oropendola (Pilcopata),  Russet-backed Oropendola (southern Amazonia),  Yellow-rumped Cacique (Amazonia Lodge),  Mountain Cacique (Manu Road),  Solitary Cacique (Iquitos islands),  Epaulet Oriole (Amazonia Lodge),  Oriole Blackbird (Iquitos Amazonia),  Yellow-hooded Blackbird (Iquitos Amazonia),  Peruvian Meadowlark (Pucasana),  Yellow-winged Blackbird,  Velvet-fronted Grackle (Explorama),  Shiny Cowbird,  Giant Cowbird (Pilcopata).

660 species, 185 lifers


Black Agouti  (1 below Aguas Calientes,
*Brown Agouti (1 Amazonia Lodge),
Brown Cappuchin (common CTR Lodge),  Squirrel Monkey (Amazonia Lodge),
Saddleback Tamarin (common Explorama Lodge),  [Dusky Tit-Monkey (Mishana)],
*Yellow-throated Titi-Monkey (1 party Explorama Lodge),
*Black-mantled Tamarin (fairly common ExplorNapo Lodge),
*Pygmy Marmoset (1 ExplorNapo Lodge),
*Night Monkey (Amazonia Lodge - several moving about before dawn and at day roost),
Three-toed Sloth (1 Rio Napo near ExplorNapo Lodge),
*Neotropical Pygmy Squirrel (2 ExplorNapo Lodge),
Northern Amazonian Reddish Squirrel (2 ExplorNapo Lodge),
Kinkajou (1 spotlighted ExplorNapo Lodge),
*Large (Jamaican) Fruit-eating Bat (1 Explorama Lodge),
*Chesnut Sac-winged Bat (several Iquitos Amazonia),
Mountain Viscacha (several Tinajas Valley),
Vicuna (several Ticlio Pass),
*Pink River Dolphin (occasional individuals in Amazon River),.

19 species, 7 lifers


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