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A Report from

Sri Lanka, November - December 2000,

Stijn De win


November - December 2000
Sun. 19 :Meet with Abey Deera outside airport at 10.30u.  Drive to Citizens Rest,
arrive at 13.30u.  Visit Bodhinagala forest from 14.15u till dark.
Mon. 20 :Leave from Ratnaloka Tour Inn at 5.20u to visit Gilimale forest.
Afternoon drive to Sinharaja (Martin’s Place)  took  1.30u + 40 min. jeep
Start birding 4.00u, walk to forest station.
Tues. 21 :Full day Sinharaja 4.30u start for Frogmouth.
Wed. 22 : Full day Sinharaja.
Thu. 23 : Start 5.00u for Spurfowl outside park.  Drive to Embilipitya. 
14.00u leave from Centauria Inn to Kalametya wetland. (1.15u drive)
Fry. 24 :Visit Uda Walawe National Park.  At 10.00u leave for Tissa birding enroute
and near Hambantota, outside Bundala park. (Priyankara hotel)
Sat. 25 :Visit Bundala National Park.  Afternoon around Tissa tanks.
Sun. 26 : Visit Yala National Park and road to Yala Park.
Mon. 27: Leave for hill country birding enroute.  Drive through Yala B53 road.  Visit
Surrey Tea Estate.  Evening arrive at Rock Hotel in Nuwara Eliya.
Tues. 28 :Leave at 4.00u to Horton Plains Whistling Thrush. (only heard)  At noon
visit Victoria Park.  Afternoon Hakgala Botanical garden.
Wed. 29 :Leave at 4.30u to Horton Plains Whistling Thrush. (great views).  Visit
Galleway road Nuwara Eliya and Hakgala Bot. garden. (Bush Warbler)
Drive to Kandy Queens Hotel (takes 3.00u) visit Tea Factory enroute.
Thu. 30 :Visit Uda Wattakele Sanctuary and Peredenya Bot. Garden in Kandy.
Fry. 1 : Drive to Kitulgala Plantation Hotel.  Afternoon visit rubber plantation.
Sat. 2 : Kitulgala forest.  Drive to Citizens Rest again for Collared Scops Owl.
Then drive via Attidiya to hotel Sirimedura near Airport.
Sun. 3 : Morning departure.


By far the best way to go birding in Sri Lanka is to hire a vehicle and driver/birdwatching-guide.  The best company to get there is :
A.Baur & Co. (Travel) Ltd.
No.5, Upper Chatham Street
P.O. Box No 11
Colombo-1/ Sri Lanka
Tel : 0094-1-3220551-6 / 0094-1-448822
Fax : 0094-1-448493
E-mail :
Website :
Maybe still better is to go for a all included package tour with them. I did.  It was 1520 $ (one person) for a 14 day birdwatching tour and this price includes :
-Transport with Toyota-minibus with driver/birdwatching-guide.
-Accomodation on full board basis in 2-3 star hotels.
-All entrance fees, Tipping & Porterage.
- Jeep hires where applicable.
Not included are Departure Airport tax of Rs. 500 (approx. $ 7), and BEER.
Doing like this will save you from many unexpected expensive surprices like many tips, entrances, just anything Sri Lankans could find to get money from you.
Baurs provide also transport services only with driver/birding-guide for Rs. 22 per running mile (50 miles minimum per day) and Rs. 550 drivers subsistence per day.
I organised and booked everything with Baurs via E-mail.

Guide and birds
My guide was Abey Deera and he was fantastic.  He knows many sites you could never find yourself, knows the bird calls and best of all he is working very hard to get you all the endemics.  I saw them in 8 days.  Interrupted by 3 days of birding at the southern coast wich is very good but not for endemics.  The last 3 days of my trip there was almost nothing left to see for me! I ended my trip with 245 species from which 78 were lifers.

Getting there
I flew with Martinair directly from Amsterdam to Colombo. The flight takes about 11 hours.
My return ticket booked with Connections cost me approx. 26000 BEF/ 645 EUR.
Baurs will reconfirm the flight during your visit.

1 USD = 78 Rupees at the airport in november 2000
I changed 100$ and this was enough for the whole trip.  (Beer and soft drinks, souvenirs)
Sri Lanka has a two-level cost.  There is an official policy of charging visitors a much higher price than local residents.  This applies at places like national parks, botanical gardens, hotels etc…  The charges for overseas visitors here can be two to ten times what local residents pay!
(Plain racism!?)  Also locals try to overcharge tourists for anything from a bus fare, a souvenir to a soft drink.
Sri Lanka normally has to be an incredebly cheap country for foreign visitors!!!  It is NOT !!

Almost everybody speaks English!

Good and save but somewhat dull.

All the endemics and good birds can be seen in the south were it is a safe country.  Problems are in the north.

Getting around
Definitely rent a car. (See Baurs)
Traffic is very slow and chaotic.  Expect to get around at only 40-50 km per hour.
Roads are very bad with many potholes, winding, etc.
If you like the smell of diesel, Sri Lanka is your country!!

Total kms of my trip was 3457 km.

I was lucky and had only few (tropic) showers the first days of the trip.
Its not unlikely to have rain almost every day there.  Bring your umbrella!
So, hot and wet in the wet zone  (Sinharaja, Kitulgala, etc.) and hot and dry in the dry zone (Tissa, Bundala, Uda Walawe, etc.)
Cold early morning at Horton Plains.  Nice at noon Nuwara Eliya.

Sri Lanka is generally a pretty healty country.  Drink bottled drinks.
Be sure you have the right vaccinations before leaving for Sri Lanka, consult your doctor.
Check on the last situation for malaria as several (not to bad) mosquitos will be encountered.
Several at Sinharaja and many, many at Kitulgala.  It’s a good idea to bring leeches socks.

Literature and optic instruments
A field guide to the birds of Sri Lanka, John Harrison. 
This book is very good and complete.
Lonely Planet travel guide.
Nelles Map Sri Lanka 1:450000
Booklet of Oriental Bird Club ; A Birdwatcher’s Guide to Sri Lanka.
Several reports from the internet from witch Steve Webb’s report dec’99-jan’00 is very usefull.
Field Guide to the Mammals of the Indian Subcontinent. Gurung &Singh ISBN 0 12 3093503
A telescope is very useful at Kalametya lagoon, Hambantota, Tissa area.
Tapes are essential for some endemics, frogmouth, owls, etc.  Baurs guides have them.


All information you need can be found in the Oriental Bird Club booklet.  I only give here a short overview.

Bodhinagala forest :

This is a small tract of secondary lowland rain forest adjoinging a buddhist monastery.
Good site for Chestnut-backed Owlet, Sri Lanka Grey Hornbill.  We heard Green-billed Coucal here.  It’s a difficult place to see them, Sinharaja is better.
The only place were I saw Tickell’s Blue Flycatcher.

Citizens Rest Ratnapura:

I saw 2 Collared Scops Owl near the stream in front of the resthouse at there regular dayroost   

Gilimale Forest :

A low-elevation wet zone forest close to Ratnapura.  All birds that occur here (and Bodhinagala) can also be seen at Sinharaja.
The only place of the trip were Layard’s Parakeet was seen very well.  Also Brown-capped Babbler, White-throated Flowerpecker, Sri Lanka Myna and Spot-winged Thrush.

Sinharaja Man and Biosphere Reserve:

The most important site in Sri Lanka (endemics) and internationally important for its biodiversity. The reserve encompasses some of the few remaining sizeable tracts of undisturbed primary lowland rainforest.
By far the best place to stay is at Martin’s place.  All birds can be seen between here and the forest station, including the few side trails.
I saw Green-billed Coucal about halfway between Martin’s place and the forest station.  First passing a large clearing at the RHS, then about 100 meters after a right hand bend were an ugly yellow plate says ‘The Beauty of this forest crowns it a king’.  Maybe bit of a stake-out because other birders have also seen them there and I heard them often in this vicinity.
Sri Lanka Frogmouth by playing tape few hundred meters before the Coucal.
I heard Sri Lanka Spurfowl often in Sinharaja, both morning and evening and had two brief views, both evening.  They are not uncommon here but very difficult to see because of its behaviour.  I saw 2 females an 1 male walking slowly over the road near a roosting site about halfway between Kudawa Forest Department office and the main road, at a sitetrack.  This was at first light in the morning and we had incredible views.
I saw six Scaly Thrushes at Sinharaja.  Most other endemics were fairly easily seen and we had a few great flocksChestnut-backed Owlet heard only here.  Indian Pitta below Martin’s place.

Uda Walawe National Park :

Contents of grassland, scrub jungle and riverine forest. Entance by vehicle only and with guide= expensive jeep rides.
By far the best place to see Elephants in Sri Lanka.  We had min. 30 ex. on a 2 hours jeep drive.  (Only one at Yala in 6 hours)
Malabar Pied Hornbill was much easyer here than in Yala with several sightings.  Also Brown Fish Owl, Blue Faced Malkoha, Sikeer Malkoha, Forest Wagtail, etc…

Kalametiya lagoon :

A wetland with two brackish lagoons, mangrove swamps and open areas with pockets of scrub jungle.  A very pleasant site to go birding. I had ± 60 species in less than 2 hours.
Many migrant/wintering shorebirds.  I saw here 2 Caspian Plovers among many others.
I had also Eurasian and Great Thick-knee, Brahminy and Rosy Starlings, Ashy-crowned Finch Lark, White-bellied Sea-eagle, Glossy Ibis.

Hambantota :

Close to town are several Lewayas (= salt pans) which regularly host congregations of birds.
We only visited Karagan Lewaya and stopped also at another site with viewpoint from the road before Hambantota.
Hundreds of Terns (7 species), many shorebirds and two Small Pratincole.

Bundala :

Scrub jungle bordering the sea together with large shallow pools.  A salt pan on the edge can be visited from both inside and outside the reserve.  Acces by vehicle only.  Expensive jeep rides. 
I saw Black-necked Stork (probably a bird wich came over from Yala),  Lesser Adjudant, Painted Stork, Terek Sandpiper, Broad-billed Sandpiper, Indian Pitta, Yellow-crowned Woodpecker, etc…

Yala :

The most visited national park comprising a diversity of habitats including scrub jungle, tanks, brackish lagoons and riverine habitat.  Acces by vehicle only. Expensive jeep rides.
I saw Barred Buttonquail, Pallid Harrier, White-bellied Sea-eagle, Grey-headed Fish Eagle, Black-necked Stork, Lesser Adjudant, Indian Pitta, Brahaminy Starling, Brown-capped Woodpecker, Malabar Pied Hornbill, etc…   Also a Leopard Cat.

Tissa Tanks area:
Including roads to Yala and Bundala.
Good area to go birding if you know the sites.
I saw 2x2 Small Pratincoles, 4 Red-necked Phalarope, 5 Painted Snipe, White-naped Woodpecker, Ashy Woodswallow, Spot-billed Pelican, Painted Stork, Indian Nightjar, Jerdon’s Nightjar, rice field full of (hundreds/thousands??) Black-tailed Godwit, etc…

Road through Yala and further north, B53:

Interesting road to drive slowly and bird enroute.  Passes through tall forest of Yala and more open country further north.
I saw here 3 Sri Lanka Grey Hornbill, Black-headed Cuckooshrike, Yellow-crowned Woodpecker, 2 Malabar Pied Hornbill, White-rumped Shama, Crimson-fronted Barbet and Jungle Owlet on a side road.  The area just north of the park is known as a good site for Streaked Weaver.

Following 5 sites
are in the Hill country which became virtually one tea plantation.  Looking
around here was making me really sad.  Very, very little forest remains.  There is some above
Hakgala Botanical garden and along the road from here to Nuwara Eliya. (protected?????)
Horton Plains is beautiful and perhaps to high up and cool for a tea plantation?

Surrey Tea Estate:

A very small piece of remnant forest within this place is the best site for Sri Lanka Wood Pigeon.  We had great views of them together with a roosting Brown Wood Owl

Hakgala Botanical Garden:

Nice garden with an important fragment of elfin forest situated above the garden. Entance rate for foreigners here is 11 times higher than for locals, being R130 and R 12 !!!
We saw here Sri Lanka Bush Warbler, Scaly Thrush, Forest Wagtail, Dull-blue Flycatcher, Brown Wood Owl (flying at dusk), Yellow-eared Bulbul, etc…

Victoria Park:

In the centre of Nuwara Eliya.
Pied Thrush along the stream, also male Kashmir Flycatcher, we do not saw Indian Pitta here, maybe because we were there at noon.

Galleway road:

Road through small patch of forest at the edge of Nuwara Eliya.
We saw Indian Pitta, Indian Blue Robin, Large-billed Leaf Warber.

Horton Plains:
A highland plateau comprising montane grassland and elfin forest.
This is the best place for Sri Lanka Whistling Thrush which we saw at our second morning try.  Look early morning at a long thin pool on the RHS several kms up the road from Pattipola.(Already passed a pool before which is not a thin long pool)  I saw the bird one hour after dawn in a bush near the pool.  It was very close, less than 2 meter, I was not able to use my binoculars for this!  I heard the bird only the first morning.
In this vicinity also 2 Black-throated Munia, Blackbird (first bird at dawn giving some confusion for the Whistling Thrush), Dull-blue Flycatcher, Yellow-eared Bulbul, Indian Scimitar Babler, Velvet-fronted Nuthatch, Blyth’s Reed Warbler, etc…
Hill Swallow in and near Pattipola village. (railway station)
Also Eurasian Otter playing in the thin long pool and several Sambar.

Uda Wattakele Sanctuary Kandy:

A tract of rainforest very close to town that has enjoyed protection from historical times.  The most beautiful forest I have seen in Sri Lanka.  Note that you can hear the noisy city Kandy almost from everywhere in this reserve!  Many birds but certainly not an important site to get Sri Lankan specialities.
We saw Brown Fish Owl, Stork-billed Kingfisher, Brown Capped Babbler, Emerald Dove, Indian Blue Robin, Indian Pitta heard, etc…

Peradeniya Botanic Gardens Kandy:

Garden with only high trees and lawns. Definitely not a good place to go birding.
Thousands of Fruit Bats (Flying Fox), Crimson-fronted Barbet, Asian Palm Swift.

Kitulgala Forest:

Secondary lowland rainforest supporting many of Sri Lanka’s endemic fauna and flora.
Take the ferry from the Rest House across the river to reach the forest.
We saw Sri Lanka Grey Hornbill, Yellow-fronted Barbet, Spot-winged Thrush, Orange-billed Babbler, Sri Lanka Spurfowl heard, Indian Pitta, Plum-headed Parakeet, etc…
At the other side of the road a small road leads up to a rubber plantation.  This is a good site for Chestnut-backed Owlet.  We saw also Black Eagle, Black-headed Cuckoo-shrike, etc..

Bellanwila-Attidiya Sanctuary:

Just do not go there.  This place is Colombo’s wastebin.  Very dirty, I had one Yellow-bittern in a sewage-canal.


The list follows the sequence and scientific nomenclature of ‘ A field guide to the birds of Sri Lanka’ .  John Harrison.  ISBN 0 19 854960 1
Endemics in bold letters, subspecies found only in Sri Lanka mentioned in Latin names.
Used abbreviations :

SIN Sinharaja Man and Biosphere Reserve
UDA Uda Walawe National Park
KAL Kalametiya wetland
TIS Tissamaharama area including Yala, Bundala, Tanks
WAT Udawattakele Sanctuary Kandy
KIT Kitulgala Forest Reserve


1.Spot-billed Pelican     Pelecanus philippensis
            small numbers Tank near Embilipitiya, TIS, Kandy lake
2.Great Cormorant     Phalacrocorax carbo
            few TIS
3.Little Cormorant   Phalacrocorax niger
4.Indian Cormorant   Phalacrocorax fuscicollis
            small numbers TIS, few tank near Bellanwila
5. Oriental Darter     Anhinga melanogaster
            few throughout
6. Greater Flamingo    Phoenicopterus ruber
             ± 10 near Bundala
7.Purple Heron  Ardea purpurea
            few throughout
8.Grey Heron     Ardea cinerea
            few TIS, KAL
9.Intermediate Egret   Mesophoyx intermedia
            fairly common
10.Great Egret Casmerodius albus
            fairly common
11.Little Egret Egretta garzetta
12.Cattle Egret     Bubulcus ibis
            very common
13.Indian Pond Heron   Ardeola grayii
            very common
14.Striated Heron      Butorides striatus
            one KAL, one TIS
15.Black-crowned Night Heron     Nycticorax nycticorax
            3 evening flight Tissa Tank
16.Yellow Bittern      Ixobrychus sinensis
            one tank near Embilipitiya, few TIS, one Bellanwila-Attidiya   
17.Black Bittern   Ixobrychus flavicollis
            one Ratnaloka Tour Inn, one tank near Embilipitiya, KAL, few TIS
18.Painted Stork  Mycteria leucocephala
            fairly common TIS
19.Asian Openbill      Anastomus oscitans
            fairly common dry zone
20.Woolly-necked Stork    Ciconia episcopus
            Several TIS, UDA
21. Black-necked Stork      Ephippiorhynchus asiaticus
            one Bundala, two Yala
22.Lesser Adjudant      Leptoptilos javanicus
            two Bundala, one Yala
23. Glossy Ibis Plegadis falcinellus
            several KAL
24.Black-headed Ibis  Threskiornis melanocephala
            fairly common
25.Eurasian Spoonbill   Platalea leucorodia
            good numbers TIS
26.Little Grebe     Tachybaptus ruficollis
            common throughout
27.Lesser Whistling-duck   Dendrocygna javanica
            common TIS, KAL
28.Common Teal Anas crecca
            few TIS
29.Garganey   Anas querquedula
            several TIS
30.Oriental Honey-buzzard   Pernis ptilorhynchus
            one SIN, one UDA
31.Common Buzzard    Buteo buteo
            one Bellanwila-Attidiya Sanctuary
32.Brahminy Kite      Haliastur indus
            fairly common dry zone
33.Besra     Accipiter virgatus
            few  throughout
34.Shikra     Accipiter badius
            one near Hambantota
35.Black-winged Kite      Elanus caeruleus
            only one near Tissamaharama
36.Pallid Harrier   Circus macrourus
            one Yala
37.Crested Serpent Eagle   Spilornis cheela
            SIN, UDA, TIS, WAT
38.Black Eagle     Ictinaetus malayensis
            one SIN,  4 enroute SIN-Embilipitya, one KIT rubber plantation
39.Changeable Hawk Eagle  Spizaetus cirrhatus ceylanensis
            common UDA, few Bundala and Yala
40.White-bellied Fish Eagle   Haliaeetus leucogaster
            one KAL, 4 Yala
41.Grey-headed Fish Eagle   Ichthyophaga ichthyaetus
            one Yala
42.Booted Eagle  Hieraaeteus pennatus
            few Yala
43.Common Kestrel  Falco tinnunculus
            one Bundala
44.Barred Buttonquail     Turnix suscitator leggei
            one outside Yala, 2 pairs inside Yala National Park
45.Sri Lanka Spurfowl        Galloperdix bicalcarata
            Great views of 2 females and 1 male crossing the road outside SIN, on a side-track
            from the road to the Kudawa Forest Department offfice, 30 min. after dawn.
            Also very poor view of one crossing trail and one flushed SIN, many others heard.
            heard only KIT
46.Sri Lanka Junglefowl    Gallus lafayettii
            one SIN, several TIS, one KIT, UDA
47.Indian Peafowl     Pavo cristatus
            common dry zone
48.White-breasted Waterhen    Amaurornis phoenicurus
            common paddy’s, wetlands
49.Common Moorhen     Gallinula chloropus
            several Tissa tank
50.Purple Swamphen     Porphyrio porphyrio
            common vegetation covered tanks and wetlands
51.Pheasant-tailed Jacana   Hydrophasianus chirurgus
            common vegetation covered tanks and wetlands
52.Eurasian Oystercatcher     Haemotopus ostralegus
            one Bundala, one Yala
53.Black-winged Stilt    Himantopus himantopus
            common TIS, Hambantota area
54.Eurasian Thick-knee         Burhinus oedicnemus
            two KAL, Yala
55.Great Thick-knee   Esacus recurvirostris
            fairly common KAL, TIS, Hambantota area
56.Small Pratincole    Glareola lactea
            two Karagan Lewaya near Hambantota, two saltpans and two near lagoon on the Yala
           entrance road.  Surprisingly beautiful bird.
57.Yellow-wattled Lapwing  Vanellus malabaricus
            fairly common KAL, TIS
58.Red-wattled Lapwing       Vanellus indicus
59.Pacific Golden Plover       Pluvialus fulva
            fairly common KAL, TIS
60.Grey Plover    Pluvialis squatarola
            few Hambantota, TIS
61.Common Ringed Plover   Charadrius hiaticula
            several TIS, Hambantota
62.Little Ringed Plover          Charadrius dubius
            several TIS
63.Kentish Plover      Charadrius alexandrinus
            several TIS, Hambantota
64.Mongolian Plover     Charadrius mongolus
            very common KAL, TIS, Hambantota
65.Greater Sand Plover         Charadrius leschenaultii
            few KAL, Hambantota
66.Caspian Plover     Charadrius asiaticus
            two KAL
67.Black-tailed Godwit   Limosa limosa
            common TIS
68.Eurasian Curlew     Numenius arquata
            few TIS
69.Whimbrel   Numenius phaeopus
            one Bundala
70.Common Redshank   Tringa totanus
            several KAL, TIS, Hambantota
71.Spotted Redshank            Tringa erythropus
            few TIS, Hambantota
72.Marsh Sandpiper     Tringa Stagnatilis
            UDA, very common KAL, TIS, Hambantota
73.Common Greenshank       Tringa nebularia
            few UDA, TIS
74.Green Sandpiper    Tringa ochropus
            several  TIS, etc.
75.Wood Sandpiper    Tringa glareola
            several TIS, etc.
76.Terek Sandpiper     Xenus cinereus
            two Bundala
77.Common Sandpiper  Actitis hypoleucos
            several throughout
78.Ruff    Philomachus pugnax
            one KAL
79.Ruddy Turnstone     Arenaria interpres
            fairly common KAL, Hambantota, TIS
80.Red-necked Phalarope     Phalaropus lobatus
            4 ex. saltpan along Yala entrance road
81.Greater Painted-snipe       Rostratula benghalensis
            2 males and 3 females seen from room in rice-fields behind Priyankara hotel Tissa
82.Common Snipe                Gallinago gallinago
            one Common certain TIS, several Common-Pintails TIS
83.Sanderling  Calidris alba
            few Bundala
84.Curlew Sandpiper     Calidris ferruginea
    fairly common KAL, TIS, Hambantota
85.Temminck’s Stint   Calidris temminckii
            few TIS
86.Little Stint  Calidris minuta
            common TIS, Hambantota
87.Broad-billed Sandpiper    Limicola falcinellus
            ± 20 ex. Bundala-Yala area
88.Brown-headed Gull      Larus brunnicephalus
            few near Bundala
89.Caspian Tern  Hydroprogne caspia
            fairly common KAL, Hambantota, Bundala-Yala area
90.Great Crested Tern     Thalasseus bergii velox
            fairly common Hambantota, Bundala-Yala area
91.Lesser Crested Tern         Thalasseus bengalensis
            several Hambantota, Bundala
92.Gull-billed Tern  Gelochelidon nilotica
            fairly common Hambantota, Bundala
93.Common Tern Sterna hirundo
            common TIS
94.Whiskered Tern               Chlidonias hybridus
            common throughout
95.White-winged Tern          Chlidonias leucopterus
            few TIS
96.Little Tern  Sterna albifrons
            common Hambantota, Bundala-Yala area.  maybe also Saunders’s Tern ?
97.Sri Lanka Woodpigeon Columba torringtoni
            great views of two birds Surrey Tea Estate
98.Spotted Dove Streptopelia chinensis
99.Emerald Dove Chalcophaps indica robinsoni
            several SIN, WAT, UDA, Gilimale forest
100.Orange-breasted Green Pigeon Treron bicincta leggei
            common UDA, Bundala, Yala
101.Pompadour Green Pigeon         Treron pompadora
            several UDA, Yala, Gilimale forest
102.Green Imperial Pigeon   Ducula aenea
            several throughout
103.Sri Lanka Hanging Parrot      Loriculus beryllinus
            fairly common SIN, Bodhinagala, Gilimale, KIT, WAT
104.Alexandrine Parakeet       Psittacula eupatria
            several WAT
105.Rose-ringed Parakeet       Psittacula krameri
            common UDA, TIS
106.Plum-headed Parakeet  Psittacula cyanocephala
            one KIT
107.Layard’s Parakeet        Psittacula calthropae
            pair Gilimale forest, one SIN, 3 flight near Hakgala Botanical Garden
108.Red-faced Malkoha      Phaenicophaeus pyrrhocephalus
            several SIN
109.Blue-faced Malkoha     Rhopodytes viridirostris
            two UDA, several enroute near Ambalantota, Yala
110.Asian Koel Eudynamys scolopaccea
            fairly common UDA, KAL, TIS
111.Sirkeer Malkoha              Taccocua  leschenaultii
            one UDA, one Yala
112.Green-billed Coucal      Centropus chlororhynchus
SIN one seen very well for 10 min. , others heard SIN and Bodhinagala
113.Greater Coucal   Centropus sinensis
            several thoughout, one in Bodhinagala forest !
114.Pied Cuckoo   Oxylophus jacobinus
            several Bundala-Yala area
115.Indian Cuckoo     Cuculus micropterius
            several UDA, Bundala
116.Plaintive Cuckoo  Cacomantis merulinus
            fairly common UDA, Bundala, Yala
117.Collared Scops Owl    Otus bakkamoena
            two day-time roost Citizens Rest Ingiriya
118.Brown Hawk Owl            Ninox scutulata
            two at dusk Citizens Rest Ingiriya
119.Jungle Owlet   Glaucidium radiatum
            one daytime in forest near Konketiya
120.Chestnut-backed Owlet Glaucidium castanonotum
            one seen Bodhinagala, heard SIN, one seen KIT rubber plantation
121.Sri Lanka Frogmouth       Batrachostomus moniliger
            one seen very well at dusk SIN, more heard (also daytime) SIN
122.Indian Nightjar     Caprimulgus asiaticus eidos
            several before dawn entrance road to Yala
123.Jerdon’s Nightjar    Caprimulgus atripennis aequabilis
            one seen, another heard at dusk near Tissamaharama
124.Brown Fish Owl     Bubo zeylonensis zeylonensis
            one day-time UDA, one day-time WAT-pond
125.Brown Wood Owl           Strix leptogrammica ochrogenys
            one day-time Surrey Tea Estate, one flight only at dusk Hakgala Bot. garden
126.Barn Owl   Tyto alba
            one at dusk Tissa tank
127.Sri Lanka Grey Hornbill   Tockus gingalensis
            Bodhinagala, Yala, KIT
128.Malabar Pied Hornbill   Anthracoceros coronatus
            6 ex. UDA, 2 flight only Yala
129.House Crow   Corvus splendens
            very common at coast around Colombo
130.Large-billed Crow   Corvus macrorhynchos
131.Malabar Trogon    Harpactes fasciatus fasciatus
            one male Bodhinagala, several SIN
132.Stork-billed Kingfisher   Halcyon capensis
            one UDA, two TIS, one KIT
133.White-throated Kingfisher   Halcyon smyrnensis
134.Common Kingfisher   Alcedo atthis
            fairly common
135.Pied Kingfisher     Ceryle rudis
            two Hambantota, few TIS
136.Little Green Bee-eater   Merops orientalis ceylonicus
            common dry zone
137.Chestnut-headed Bee-eater       Merops leschenaulti
            several throughout
138.Blue-tailed  Bee-eater      Merops philippinus
            fairly common throughout
139.Indian Roller   Coracias benghalensis
            several UDA, TIS, one near Ingiriya
140.Eurasian Hoopoe   Upupa epops
            several UDA, TIS
141.Coppersmith Barbet   Megalaima haemacephala
            several north of Yala enroute B53
142.Crimson-fronted Barbet   Megalaima rubricapilla rubricapilla
            Endemic race, considered by some authorities as separate species. Not in Clements
            fifth edition 2000.  Entrance road SIN, north of Yala B53, Peradenya Bot. gardens
143.Brown-headed Barbet      Megalaima zeylanica
144.Yellow-fronted Barbet   Megalaima flavifrons
            SIN, KIT, enroute SIN-Embilipitya
145.Brown-capped Woodpecker    Picoides moluccensis gymnophthalmus
            one Yala    (Dendrocopus nanus gymnophthalmus)
146.Yellow-crowned Woodpecker  Picoides mahrattensis
            one Bundala, one north of Yala enrute B53
147.Lesser Yellownape      Picus chlorolophus wellsi
            Gilimale forest, SIN
148.Black-rumped Flameback         Dinopium benghalense psarodes
            red-backed race, SIN, KAL, TIS
149.Greater Flameback          Chrysocolaptes lucidus stricklandi
            one UDA, one WAT
150.White-naped Woodpecker        Chrysocolaptes festivus tantus
            one pair coming to tree hole in a palm plantation near Tissamaharama tank at 16.30u
151.Rufous-winged Lark         Mirafra assamica
            very common UDA, also Yala
152.Ashy-crowned Sparrow Lark    Eremopterix grisea
            common KAL, Bundala-Yala area
153.Forest Wagtail      Dendromanthus indicus
            common UDA, few Hakgala Botanical Garden
154.Yellow Wagtail  Motacilla flava
            few KAL
155.Grey Wagtail   Motacilla cinerea
            few throughout
156.Paddyfield Pipit  Anthus rufulus
            few KAL, TIS
157.Grey-rumped Treeswift    Hemiprocne longipennis
            SIN, UDA, Yala
158.Asian Palm Swift    Cypsiurus balasiensis
            few near Ingiriya, Peradeniya Bot. Garden, rubber plantation near KIT
159.Brown-backed Needletail         Hirundapus giganteus
            SIN several evenings
160.Little Swift Apus affinis
            few north of Yala enroute B53
161.Indian Swiftlet      Aerodramus unicolor
162.Barn Swallow Hirundo rustica
            fairly common
163.Red-rumped Swallow      Hirundo daurica hyperythra
            several throughout, all Sri Lanka Swallow
164.Common Woodshrike      Tephrodornis pondicerianus affinis
            one near Hambantota
165.Bar-winged Flycatcher-shrike   Hemipus picatus leggei
            two enroute SIN-Embilipitiya
166.Small Minivet  Pericrocotus cinnamomeus
            several WAT
167.Flame Mivivet      Pericorcotus flammeus
            several throughout
168.Black-headed Cuckooshrike     Coracina melanoptera
            one female north of Yala enroute B53, one male rubber plantation near KIT
169.Brown Shrike  Lanius cristatus
170.Ashy Woodswallow         Artamus fuscus
            several Tissa tank
171.Black-headed Yellow Bulbul     Pycnonotus melanicterus melanicterus
            Endemic race, considered by some authorities as seperate species. Not in Clements
            fifth edition 2000.    Fairly common, mainly wet zone.
172.Red-vented Bulbul           Pycnonotus cafer cafer
173.Yellow-eared Bulbul      Pycnonotus penicillatus
            Fairly common around Nuwara Eliya.
174.White-browed Bulbul       Pycnonotus luteolus insulae
            several dry zone
175.Yellow-browed Bulbul  Hypsipetes indicus guglielmi
            Bodhinagala, SIN, KIT, WAT
176.Black Bulbul   Hypsipetes leucocephalus humii
            SIN, Hakgala Bot. garden
177.Common Iora Aegithina tiphia
            fairly common, SIN, UDA, TIS etc.
178.Jerdon’s Leafbird     Chloropsis cochinchinensis
            SIN, UDA
179.Black-hooded Oriole       Oriolus xanthornus ceylonensis
            fairly common dry zone
180.Indian Blue Robin    Erithacus brunneus
            several SIN, WAT, Galleway road N. Eliya, near Hakgala Bot. garden, Gilimale forest
181.White-rumped Shama      Copsychus malabaricus leggei
            UDA, TIS, north of Yala enroute B53
182.Oriental Magpie Robin  Copsychus saularis
            several throughout
183.Pied Bushchat Saxicola caprata
            common around Nuwara Eliya
184.Black-backed Robin        Saxicoloides fulicata leucoptera
            common KAL, Bundala, Yala
185.Sri Lanka Whistling Thrush   Myophonus blighi
            Horton Plains pool.  One male seen very well in bush at two meters distance,  to close  
            to use binoculars !  One hour after dawn the second morning we had a try at it.  Heard
            only the first morning.
186.Pied Thrush     Zoothera wardii
            One male Victoria Park at noon.  Not so easy to see very well.  Better in morning ?
187.Spot-winged Thrush       Zoothera spiloptera
            Gilimale forest, SIN, KIT.  On tracks in morning and evening.
188.Scaly Thrush   Zoothera dauma imbricata
            SIN two along Waturama trail on the ground, four in trees at dusk along main track,
Hakgala Botanic garden ; one high in trees with Black Bulbul at noon !
Very different race, probably only a matter of time before this form is given specific status.
189.Eurasian Blackbird     Turdus merula kinnisii
            One coming to the road at Horton Plains pool at first light.  Very confusing while looking for Whistling Thrush in bad light. Yellow eye-ring and bill !!
190.Indian Pitta Pitta brachyura
            Very common dry zone, less wet zone.  Many heard throughout.  Seen at Martin’s Place, enroute SIN-Embipitilya, Bundala, Yala,             Galleway road Nuwara Eliya, KIT. Not in Victoria Park at noon !
191.Brown-capped Babbler  Pellorneum fuscocapillum
            Gillimala forest, SIN, WAT.  Always close to the ground, not too difficult.
192.Indian Scimitar-babbler    Pomatorhinus horsfieldii melanurus
            SIN, Horton Plains
193.Dark-fronted Babbler       Rhopocichla atriceps siccata & nigrifrons
            KIT, Horton Plains, north of Yala along B53,  SIN, Bodhinagala
194.Tawny-bellied Babbler  Dumetia hyperythra phillipsi
            Citizens Rest Ingiriya, near Bundala, Yala
195.Yellow-eyed Babbler       Chrysomma sinense nasale
            several TIS
196.Orange-billed Babbler   Turdoides rufescens
           fairly common SIN, KIT
197.Yellow-billed Babbler    Turdoides affinis taprobanus
            fairly common
198.Ashy-headed Laughingthrush     Garrulax cinereifrons
            few SIN
199.Sri Lanka Bush-warbler         Bradypterus palliseri
            Two at the edge of the indigenous forest above the Hakgala Botanical garden.  Tried
            this species for hours at Horton Plains without succes.
200.Blyth’s Reed Warbler       Acrocephalus dumetorum
            fairly common, SIN, KIT, Horton Plains etc…
201.Clamorous Reed Warbler Acrocephalus stentoreus meridionalis
            Bundala, near Tissa
202.Zitting Cisticola    Cisticola juncidis
            KAL, TIS
203.Grey-breasted Prinia  Prinia hodgsonii leggei
            KAL, TIS       
204.Plain Prinia Prinia subflava insularis
            fairly common
205.Ashy Prinia     Prinia socialis brevicauda
            TIS,  common UDA
206.Jungle Prinia    Prinia sylvatica valida
207.Common Tailorbird          Orthotomus sutorius sutorius
            several throughout
208.Bright-green Warbler       Phylloscopus nitidus
            fairly common throughout
209.Large-billed Leaf Warbler         Phylloscopus magnirostris
            Bodhinagala, Yala forest near river ; distinctive call
210.Black-naped Monarch   Hypothymis azurea ceylonensis
            Bodhinagala, SIN, WAT
211.Asian Paradise-flycatcher Terpsiphone paradisi ceylonensis
            fairly common SIN, WAT, Bodhinagala, KAL, UDA, TIS, KIT ; also paradisi
212.White-browed Fantail      Rhipidura aureola
            only few : Ratnaloka Tour Inn garden, TIS
213.Grey-headed Canary Flycatcher     Culicicapa ceylonensis
            few Horton Plains
214.Kashmir Flycatcher          Ficedula subrubra
            one male Victoria Park
215.Dull-blue Flycatcher      Eumyias sordida
            Surrey Tea Estate, Hakgala bot. garden, Horton Plains
216.Brown-breasted Flycatcher       Muscicapa muttui
            SIN, KIT, WAT
217.Asian Brown Flycatcher   Muscicapa dauurica
            fairly common
218.Tickell’s Blue Flycatcher  Niltava tickelliae jerdoni
            one male Bodhinagala forest
219.Great Tit    Parus major
            common around Nuwara Eliya
220.Velvet-fronted Nuthatch   Sitta frontalis
          Horton Plains, Hakgala bot. garden, WAT
221.Pale-billed Flowerpecker Dicaeum erythrorhynchos ceylonense
222.Tick-billed Flowerpecker Dicaeum agile zeylonicum
            several TIS
223.White-throated Flowerpecker     Dicaeum vincens
            two Gilimale forest, several SIN
224.Purple-rumped Sunbird    Nectarinia zeylonica zeylonica
225.Long-billed Sunbird    Nectarinia lotenia lotenia
            several throughout (Ratnaloka Tour Inn, SIN, etc…)
226.Purple Sunbird     Nectarinia asiatica
            few TIS
227.Oriental White-eye   Zosterops palpebrosa
            several throughout
228.Sri Lanka White-eye  Zosterops ceylonensis
            few SIN, common around Nuwara Eliya
229.White-throated Silverbill   Lonchura malabarica
            5 ex. entrance road to Yala Park
230.White-rumped Munia       Lonchura striata
            few SIN
231.Scaly-breasted Munia      Lonchura punctulata
            several throughout
232.Black-throated Munia      Lonchura kelaarti kelaarti
            Endemic race, considered by some authorities as separate species. Not in Clements
            fifth edition 2000.  two Horton Plains, near pool
233.Black-headed Munia        Lonchura malacca
            fairly common throughout
234.House Sparrow     Passer domesticus
            common near habitation
235.Baya Weaver  Ploceus philippinus
            fairly common UDA, TIS
236.Grey Drongo   Dicrurus leucophaeus
            one SIN, one KIT
237.Greater Racket-tailed Drongo    Dicrurus paradiseus ceylonicus
            Bodhinagala, SIN             lophorhinus
238.White-bellied Drongo       Dicrurus caerulescens leucopygialis
            common     insularis
239.Sri Lanka Magpie         Urocissa ornata
            one on two days near SIN forest station         
240.Brahminy Starling    Sturnus pagodarum
            KAL, Yala
241.Rosy Starling   Sturnus roseus
            two juv. near Ingiriya, large groups KAL, several TIS
242.White-faced Starling   Sturnus senex
            SIN ± 10, also in flock
243.Sri Lanka Myna    Gracula ptilogenys
            Flyby Gilimale forest, two perched SIN, more flying over.
244.Hill Myna   Gracula religiosa
            common WAT
245.Common Myna     Acridotheres tristis melanosturnus
            fairly common

Mammal list

Grey Langur (Hanunan Langur) Presbytis entellus
Purple-faced Leaf Monkey    Presbytis vetulus
Toque Macaque  ?
Golden Jackal        Canis aureus
Eurasian Otter (Common Otter)   Lutra lutra
Small Indian Civet  Viverricula indica
Indian Grey Mongoose    Herpestes edwardsii
Leopard Cat         Felis bengalensis
Indian Elephant      Elephas maximus
Wild Boar       Sus scrofa
Chital  (Spotted Deer)       Cervus axis
Sambar         Cervus unicolor
Water Buffalo (introduced)    Bubalus arnee
Indian Palm Squirrel        Funambulus palmarum
Northern Palm Squirrel     Funambulus pennantii
Indian Giant Squirrel       Ratufa indica
Indian Hare           Lepus nigricollis
Fruit Bats (Flying Fox)


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