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A Report from

Venezuela - La Escalera and the western areas, May 29 – June 11, 2005,

Ron Hoff, Clinton, Tennessee USA

(Click to enlarge any bird photo)

My wife, Dollyann Myers, and I joined our friends Frank Bills and his wife Sharon Bostick for a 2 week trip to Venezuela. Frank had contracted with Venezuelan guide David Ascanio ( to guide us for this trip. David is a well known native Venezuela guide and guides regularly for Victor Emanuel Nature Tours and other tour companies, as well as private groups. We all found David to be one of the best guides we have ever used, anywhere. His knowledge of Venezuelan birds, their calls, and their habitats is unbelievable. On top of that he is a great guy with a superb sense of humor. We had a fantastic time with him and highly recommend him to anyone going to Venezuela or nearby countries. He has his own web site at

Our trip was oriented around trying to find as many endemics as we could, but not necessarily as many species as we could. This worked out fine for us and in the end I saw 413 species and heard another 36. This included 20 endemics. Clements’ list says there are 45 endemics in Venezuela, so this adds up to about 44% of Venezuela’s endemics. Adding in what others saw and heard but I didn’t, we finished up with nearly 500 species anyway. Pretty awesome for just 2 weeks!

I’ll write up the daily accounts, highlighting most of the new species for the day (but not necessarily the common birds like Tropical Kingbird, etc.), and then I’ll give the overall species list at the end of this report. In the itinerary below, (E) denotes a Venezuelan endemic, according to “Birds of the World: A Checklist” by James Clements.

I have tried to be as accurate as possible in writing up this report. If there are any mistakes, they are mine alone and I would like to hear about them at


Saturday, May 28 – Travel day to Caracas. We arrived mid-afternoon and were met at the airport by David’s younger brother. The transfer to our hotel, which is only 10 minutes away from the airport, was smooth and we encountered no problems. The hotel was a Best Western Hotel named Puerto Viejo and it was nice and clean with a good restaurant and internet availability.

Sunday, May 29 – This was mostly a travel day. We left Caracas and flew to Puerto Ordaz. We were met there by our driver for nearly all of the trip, a great guy named Carlos. He was an excellent driver and helped fix our meals on the road. We had a very nice, tall Mercedes van. It was comfortable and spacious. We left Puerto Ordaz and drove the 5-6 hours to Las Claritas, a small town at the base of La Escalera. We arrived near sunset and checked into our hotel there, the Anaconda. Our chalet was tidy and air-conditioned. It was nice, as the humidity in Las Claritas was pretty stuffy. Our evening meals were all at our hotel and the staff there did a great job cooking for us. On the drive from Puerto Ordaz, we spotted a couple of Savannah Hawks and a couple of Aplomado Falcons. At our hotel, we found a Bat Hawk in the trees behind the hotel along with a Ferruginous Pygmy-Owl. Night at The Anaconda Hotel.

Monday, May 30 – We got up at 4 am in oder to get to the Gran Sabana at daybreak. The staff fixed us a nice breakfast and we made good time up the Escalera, arriving at the egde of the Gran Sabana (1400m) right as it was getting light. Right away David heard a bird and it proved to be a Great Elaenia (E). After only a few minutes David heard and we found a Tepui Goldenthroat hummingbird. 2 lifers in about 10 minutes; this was going great! We drove a few miles into the Gran Sabana until we came to the park headquarters. David had recently found Roraiman Nightjar here, but we only got a quick look at “a nightjar” as it flew away and David heard one. It was getting too light anyway to have a good chance of finding nightjars and we were going to be looking for them in the next day or 2 anyway. While we were at the headquarters, 3 Tepui Swifts flew overhead and gave us fairly decent looks. From here we went back to the top of the Escalera and started birding our way down. This area is good for Rose-collared Piha and Red-banded Fruiteater. David heard a Piha, but we never could locate it. There was no sign of the fruiteater. Some of the birds we had along this stretch were White Hawk, Peacock Coquette (females only), Velvet-browed Brilliant, Golden-spangled Piculet (seen by David only), Tepui Spinetail, Roraiman Antwren, Tepui Antpitta (great look not far from the Sierra de Lema checkpoint), Lema’s Flycatcher (a possible split from McConnell’s Flycatcher), Black-fronted Tyrannulet (E), Ruddy Tody-Flycatcher, Bearded and White Bellbirds, Olive, Scarlet-horned (female only), and Orange-bellied Manakins, Olive-backed Tanager, Tepui Brush-Finch, and Golden-tufted Mountain-Grackle. David worked for several years with snakes and during our morning we found several snakes on the road (unfortunately most were dead having been run over by cars). Three of these were false coral snakes. One of them at the top of the Escalera was alive, making its way across the road. It was really pretty and we got to see it close up.

We had lunch near the police checkpoint at Sierra de Lema, and then started to work our way down to the lower part of the Escalera. There is a well known lek area for the Guianan Cock-of-the-rock and in this area David helped us find some more species like Paradise Jacamar and Blue-cheeked Parrots.

Blue-cheeked Parrots.
Blue-cheeked Parrots.

Sporadic showers followed us all day, but they didn’t hamper us too much. We finally called it quits and went back to the hotel, arriving at dusk. The hotel staff served up a delicious meal and then we retired to our rooms for the night. Night at the Hotel Anaconda.

Tuesday, May 31 – Today was basically a repeat of yesterday. We started out near the top of the Escalera and worked our way back down. We had a bit better luck with the Rose-collared Piha, as we got excellent looks near the top and eventually saw 5 for the day. A couple of other species we had were Red-and-green Macaw and Plumbeous Kite. We searched the forest near the Sierra de Lema checkpoint and eventually managed to fine a Roraiman Barbtail, a really stunning bird! A while later we had a feeding flock move through very quickly, taking only about 4 minutes to pass by, but in the flock were a Golden-spangled Piculet, another Roraiman Barbtail, and a Tepui Foliage-Gleaner. This morning also produce a Flutist Wren and a Tepui Whitestart. One of the birds we tried hard to find was the Red-banded Fruiteater. David briefly saw one and we heard them repeatedly, but we never got our bins on one.

We had lunch and then went back to Las Claritas to check out the Cuyuni’ Road (also known as the Capuchinbird Rd). Rain followed us for a while, but as it let up some, we decided to try some birding anyway. We went into the forest at the Capuchinbird lek area and David managed to find us a one perched in the rain. We all had great looks at it.


We didn’t find many more species that afternoon, as the rain persisted, so we finished up a bit early and went back to the hotel, knowing we had an early start for some nightjars tomorrow morning.

Wednesday, June 1 – We got up extra early this morning to try for some nightjars. After breakfast, we drove straight to the Gran Sabana park headquarters. We got there about 30 minutes before light and were able to get good looks at both Roraiman and Band-winged Nightjars. After this we went back to near the top of the Escalera to have breakfast and look for the Red-banded Fruiteater. David eventually heard the fruiteaters several times but each time they eluded our eyes. I have poor high-pitch hearing, so I never even heard them call anyway. We kept trying and trying and eventually we managed to track a pair down. They hung around a fruiting tree this time, allowing us to get some really good views of them. The male was drop dead gorgeous. We all breathed a big sigh of relief, as we all knew this was our last chance to find this cryptic species.

Red-banded Fruiteater
Red-banded Fruiteater

This was the last species we needed up here so we decided that we should go back down to see if we could find some Guianan Cock-of-the rocks. We did, eventually finding about 10 of them. Along with them we also had great looks at a Roraiman Warbler.

From here, we returned to the Cuyuni’ Road. Some of the more interesting species we found there were Greater Yellow-headed Vulture, Red-throated Caracara, Green-and-rufous Kingfisher, Green Aracari, Rufous-throated Saphire, Red-necked Woodpecker, Cinereous and Dusky-throated Antshrikes, Brown-bellied Antwren, Slender-footed Tyrannulet, Slate-headed Tody-Flycatcher, and Cayenne Jay. It was pretty hot and humid at this point and the activity slowed down, so we went back to the hotel for lunch and a brief rest. Later in the afternoon, we went to the formerly famous Guyana Trail. The habitat looked great once we got away from the highway a bit, but with an impending thundershower, we had few birds. David did manage to flush a couple of Variegated Tinamous, but he was the only one to get a decent look. The thundershowers did come just as we emerged from the forest, so we went back to the hotel. Final night at the Anaconda Hotel.

Thursday, June 2 – Basically today was a travel day, but we did find a few things on the way back to Puerto Ordaz. Among these were Blue-tailed Emerald, Long-billed Starthroat, and a small covey of 7 Crested Bobwhite. The best find was a Pinnated Bittern in a small marsh right next to the highway. It was only the second time I’ve ever seen this species and we had superb views of it in spite of the nearby traffic. We continued on and got back to Puerto Ordaz in plenty of time to catch our flight to Caracas. After about a 2 hour layover we caught our next flight, which took us to Merida. We arrived in Merida and then went to our hotel to check in for 2 nights.

Friday, June 3 – This was our first trip into what people call the Merida Andes. Actually it’s called the Sierra Nevada national park Here we took what is often called the Pico Humboldt trail (locally known as La Mucuy trail). Right off, before we got onto the trail we ticked Moustached Brush-Finch. Once on the trail, David found loads of birds for us, including Andean Guan, Longuemare’s Sunangel, Montane Woodcreeper, Venezuelan Tyrannulet, Andean Solitaire, Chestnut-bellied Thrush, White-fronted  Redstart (E), Green-and-black Fruiteater, Oleaginous Hemispingus, and Yellow-backed Oriole. Once we got high enough to try for the endemic Gray-naped Antpitta, we heard a couple calling but couldn’t coax them in. The last one we heard was down the hill a bit and David decided to try going down the slope some to try to get into its territory a bit more and increase our chances of seeing it. This was no easy task, as the slope on the hillside approached 70°. We were very careful and 3 of us went down with David about 25 feet, found a comfortable spot and tried calling in the Gray-naped Antpitta (E). Over the next 30 minutes or so, we eventually got a quick, fair look at the Gray-naped (unfortunately our friend Frank was blocked), a stunning look at a Chestnut-crowned Antpitta, a drop-dead superb look at a Slate-crowned Antpitta, a Longuemare’s Sunangel, and a great view of Merida Tapaculo!! Not too bad for standing still in one spot! It was one of the most memorable birding experiences I’ve ever had. On the way back down we found a pair of Yellow-bellied Chat-Tyrants and some Gray-capped Hemispinguses (E). Night in Merida.

Saturday, June 4 – David decided to tweak our original itinerary a bit to give us a chance at Rose-crowned Parakeet (E), so we went in the morning to La Culata National Park, which is in the Maracaibo drainage basin. It worked, as we found a group of these gorgeous birds. Some of the other new species we picked up for the day were Black Hawk-Eagle, Golden-tailed Saphire, Velvet-fronted Brilliant, Orange-throated Sunangel, Wedge-billed Hummingbird, Crested Quetzal, Black-mandibled Toucan, Rufous Spinetail, and Yellow-bellied Siskin. It was a fun morning. We then went back to Merida for lunch and checked out of our hotel. Our destination was a hotel for the night near a town called Santo Domingo. Along the way we found an Andean Teal and some Brown-bellied Swallows. We got to our hotel and checked in. It was raining, but the hotel had lots of flowers to look for hummers and other birds. While we were standing around, I spotted a Golden Starfrontlet (E) working the flowers. It was one of the prettiest hummers I’ve ever seen. We got superb looks at it, but after that night, we never saw it again.

Sunday, June 5 – Today was to be our only really high elevation attempt at some of the paramo species and we were all anticipating it. The main target was the Bearded Helmetcrest hummingbird. This species is sometimes missed on trips earlier in the year. David knew just where to look at eventually we bumped into 5-6 of these stunning birds.

Helmetcrest hummingbird
Bearded Helmetcrest

Some of the other delights we found were Tawny-rumped Tyrannulets in our hotel parking lot before we went up high, Torrent Duck, Black-chested Buzzard-Eagle, Andean Tit-Spinetail, Ochre-browed Thistletail (E), Paramo Wren (E), Paramo Pipit, and Masked, White-sided, and Merida (E) Flowerpiercers. From here we went back to our hotel, checked out, and then had a long day in the van traveling to our next destination, which was a town called Sanare.

Monday, June 6 – Sanare was our base for birding the Yacambu National Park. It’s a large park with some great habitat. We had a bit of rain early, but it let up and some of the birds we found were Brown-throated and Blood-eared Parakeets (E), Red-headed Barbet, Black-capped, Golden-faced, Southern Beardless, and Mouse-colored Tyrannulets, Golden-breasted Fruiteater, Golden-winged Manakin, Rufous-breasted Wren, and lots of tanagers. Our main quarry for the day though was the super skulking Great Antpitta (E). We spent a fair amount of time inside the forest before we finally got some glimpses of this beast. My wife had the best look, but we were all pleased to get what glimpses we did. While we were hunting for the antpitta, we got to within a few feet of a Highland Tinamou but we could never actually see it. It was frustrating. David eventually got a look at it but we all dipped. David had run into some bird researchers during the morning, so we went to the park headquarters and talked to them for a while. They were pleased to have the company and gave us some great information. Hopefully we would put it to good use tomorrow. We had lunch on the roadside and then spent the end of the afternoon on the slope of Sanare looking to Tocuyo Sparrow and Rosy Thrush-Tanager. We heard the sparrow, but it was getting late and all we found were some common species. No sign of the Thrush-Tanagers. Night in Sanare.

Tuesday, June 7 – We spent all morning again in Yacambu. We started out the morning with a gift. Yesterday, David had talked with one of the researchers and found out that one of them had found a nest of a Yellow-throated Spadebill. Apparently this was the first nest ever discovered for this species. The researcher was delighted to take us to the nest, where we watched it for 15 minutes. What a lucky break! Next up was a Rusty-breasted Antpitta David taped in. This was our 6th species of antpitta so far! Some of the species we found for the rest of the morning were Stripe-throated Hermit, Booted Racket-tail, Crested Spinetail, Streak-headed Woodcreeper, Immaculate Antbird (at about 5 feet!), Euler’s Flycatcher, and Rusty Flowerpiercer. We had another lunch by the roadside and then went to the scrub-covered slopes of Sanare a bit earlier than yesterday, to give us some more time trying to find some of the specialties there. It worked. When we got into the scrub a bit, David played a Ferruginous Pygmy-Owl tape. I’ve never seen a response to an owl tape like what we had! In all, 21 species showed up! In amongst the species was Northern Scrub-flycatcher, Tocuyo Sparrow, and Gray Pileated-Finch. Later we added a Yellow Oriole. Night in Sanare.

Wednesday, June 8 – We left Sanare early and drove to Cerro Saroche National Park. This is desert scrub habitat and it’s not far from the city of Barquisimeto. It was wonderfully cool in the morning. Once we got there the birds came quickly as David found Rufous-vented Chachalaca, Crested Bobwhite, Pale-breasted Spinetail, White-whiskered Spinetail (unbelievably beautiful!), Red-and-green Macaw, Chestnut-fronted Macaw, Buffy Hummingbird, Pale-headed Jacamar, Black-crested Antshrike (this race is surely a separate species according to David´s recordings made first time some 12 years ago), Straight-billed Woodcreeper, White-fringed Antwren, Slender-billed Tyrannulet, Orinocan Saltator, Vermilion Cardinal, and Venezuela’s national bird, the Venezuelan Troupial. What a wonderful morning ! It was an amazing assortment of birds.

We left a bit before mid-day and drove to a swamp area called San Pablo. Our target here was the endemic Rusty-flanked Rail (E). David knew just where to look and it wasn’t long before we all had good looks at one. A Horned Screamer was a bonus. From here we drove to the coast and the Morrocoy National Park. David again knew exactly where to go and it wasn’t long before we had our second endemic rail of the day, a Plain-flanked Rail (E). We saw 4 of them, including both color forms.

Plain-flanked Rail
Plain-flanked Rail

From here we talked David into going to Cuare’ Wildlife Refuge, where we saw American Flamingo, Bare-eyed Pigeon, Scarlet Ibis, and Roseate Spoonbill. By the time we got back to our lodge for the night we added Pearl & Slender-billed Kites, Hooded Tanager, White-eared Conebill, and Crane Hawk.

Thursday, June 9 – After breakfast, we drove to Cerro Chichiriviche, which is in Morrocoy Nat. Park. Our main target was Black-backed Antshrike. David heard one and soon we were watching it in a vine tangle. Other species we found in the area included Reddish Egret (some white forms as well), a very brief look at a Pale-bellied Hermit, Russet-throated Puffbird, Red-billed Scythebill, White-bellied Antbird, Pale-tipped Tyrannulet, Glaucous Tanager, Lesson’s Seedeater, and a great look at a King Vulture.

We left this area and went back to our lodge, packed up and headed out for Henri Pittier National Park (HPNP). Our base here was a hotel in the city at the base of the mountain that contains HPNP, called Maracay. We checked in and found ourselves with enough time to go up the mountain for some late afternoon birding. This worked out supremely, as one of our main target birds for the whole trip, the endemic Scallop-breasted Antpitta (E), put in quite a showing while we were standing on the road!

Scallop-breasted Antpitta
Scallop-breasted Antpitta

We couldn’t believe our luck! Yet another endemic bird and our 7th antpitta for the trip. David was quickly achieving sainthood status with us!!! And we didn’t even have to crawl down a 70° slope! Some of the other species we bumped into here were Band-tailed Guan, Scarlet-fronted Parakeet, Guttulated Foliage-gleaner (E), Blue-naped Chlorophonia, and Chestnut-capped Brush-Finch. Night at Maracay.

Friday, June 10 – We went up the mountain very early in the hopes of finding a Foothill Screech-Owl. Fog conspired against us and all we could do is hear one. This was around the entrance to the Henri Pittier biological station. We had some breakfast along the road and then birded along the road for a while until the station opened up. We didn’t find much as there was a lot of wind and fog. After the station opened up, we proceeded to walk the trails behind it. Among the species we found were Ornate Hawk-Eagle (good look at a flyover), Lined Quail-Dove (Dollyann and David got the only, brief looks), Ruddy Pigeon, Golden-tailed Saphire, Moustached Puffbirds, Groove-billed Toucanet, 3 Gray-throated Leaftossers, Black-banded Woodcreeper, Venezuelan Antvireo (I was the only one who saw this species), Slaty Antwren, Black-faced Antthrush (David was the only one who saw this one), Plain-backed Antpitta (we heard this species often and got one to within 10 feet of us, but nobody got a good view since it flew very fast in front of us!), Marble-faced Bristle-Tyrant, Green-fronted Greenlet, Whiskered Wren, Handsome Fruiteater,

Handsome Fruiteater
Handsome Fruiteater

Roufous-and-white Wren, Southern Nightingale Wren, 15 species of tanagers, and Orange-crowned Oriole. Some of these birds were found right around the station, as we went back there to have lunch. After lunch and another hike along some of the station’s trails, we left and started going back down the road to Maracay. Along the road we added Red-billed Parrot and Small-billed Elaenia. We finished up at the Rancho Grande museum near the bottom of the hill, but we only added Bare-eyed Thrush. Night in Maracay.

Saturday, June 11 – Today was our final day and we had decided to try birding along the road up near where we had the Scallop-breasted Antpitta the other day, as we had heard both Short-tailed and Schwartz’s Antthrushes. Good intentions, but the weather was pretty horrible, as we had both high winds and heavy fog. We heard both the antthrushes but trying to see them was impossible. We did manage to fine a Golden-rumped Euphonia and an endemic Rufous-cheeked Tanager (E) in a small feeding flock, but little else. David suggested that we move on towards a place called Colonia Tovar. This is a German community and it held some promising birds for us. On the way David stopped at a place where we got a nice look at a Green-tailed Emerald (E). We also spotted a Zone-tailed Hawk along the road. We had lunch at Colonia Tovar and then birded on the other side of town. David had some special places of his and he managed to find a Black-throated Spinetail (E), Tyrian Metaltail, and an obliging Caracas Tapaculo (E). We tried one more place a bit further along the road back to Caracas and picked up a Southern Yellow Grosbeak. While we were there, I started whistling for Ferruginous Pygmy-Owl, just to see if I could stir up some birds. To our surprise, a Schwartz’s Antthrush answered! David cut a hole in some vegetation and we only got about 4-5 feet down a mild slope and then sat down for our attempt at this species that had eluded us for the whole trip. To our amazement, the bird came in to the tape and we all got a great look at it! This was truly icing on our cake and a nice way to finish! We then drove back to our hotel near the airport for our flight out on Sunday.

Sunday, June 12 – David’s brother picked us up at the hotel and made sure we got on our flights home.

l-r: David Ascanio, Ron Hoff, Carlos (our driver), Dollyann Myers, Frank Bills, and Sharon Bostick. Night at hotel Puerto Viejo.


Birds of Venezuela
Steven Hilty: Buy from or

  • This book will surely become the definitive guide to Venezuela, with over 1300 species illustrated and expertly described. Accurate range maps are complemented by detailed notes on identification, similar species, voice, behavior, status and habitat. A comprehensive introduction includes a photographic guide to the main habitat types plus sections on migration and National Parks.

The numbers behind the species below are the dates I saw the birds. Other abbreviations will be: C = common or easy to find; L = David only saw it; LH – David heard it; H = heard only; G = someone besides me in the group saw it; GH = someone in the group heard it but not me. (Example: H6,7 = this species was heard only on June 6th and seen on the 7th).

Highland Tinamou – Nothocercus bonapartei. H 6,7; David got a brief look on the 6th.

Little Tinamou – Nothocercus soui. LH 10

Brown Tinamou-Crypturellus obsoletus. H6

Variegated Tinamou - Crypturellus variegatus David flushed 2 on the Guyana trail.

Least Grebe-Tachybaptus dominicus. L1

Brown Pelican-Pelecanus occidentalis. 8,9

Neotropic Cormorant-Phalacrocorax brasilianus. 4,5,8,9

Anhinga-Anhinga anhinga. 2, G8

Magnificent Frigatebird-Fregata magnificens. 8,9

Great Egret-Ardea alba. C

Reddish Egret-Egretta rufescens. 9

Tricolored Heron-Egretta tricolor. 9

Little Blue Heron-Egretta caerulea. 8

Snowy Egret-Egretta thula. 8

Cattle Egret-Bubulcus ibis. C

Striated Heron-Butorides striata. 8

Rufescent Tiger-Heron-Tigrisoma lineatum. 2,8

Pinnated Bittern-Botaurus pinnatus. 2

Wood Stork-Mycteria americana. G2,9

Bare-faced Ibis-Phimosus infuscatus. 5,8,9

Scarlet Ibis-Eudocimus ruber. 8,9

Roseate Spoonbill-Platalea ajaja. 8,9

Caribbean Flamingo-Phoenicopterus ruber. 8,9

Horned Screamer-Anhima cornuta. 8

Black-bellied Whistling-Duck-Dendrocygna autumnalis. 2,G8

Muscovy Duck-Cairina moschata. 5

Torrent Duck-Merganetta armata. 5

Speckled Teal-Anas flavirostris. 4

Black Vulture-Coragyps atratus. C

Turkey Vulture-Cathartes aura. C

Greater Yellow-headed Vulture-Cathartes melambrotus. 1

King Vulture-Sarcoramphus papa. 9

Osprey-Pandion haliaetus. 10

Swallow-tailed Kite-Elanoides forficatus. 29-5, pretty easy.

Pearl Kite-Gampsonyx swainsonii. 8

White-tailed Kite-Elanus leucurus. 5

Snail Kite-Rostrhamus sociabilis. 8,9

Slender-billed Kite-Rostrhamus hamatus. 8

Plumbeous Kite-Ictinia plumbea. G29, 31,G2

Crane Hawk-Geranospiza caerulescens. 8

White Hawk-Leucopternis albicollis. 30, G10

Common Black-Hawk-Buteogallus anthracinus. 8

Savanna Hawk-Buteogallus meridionalis. 29,2,G5,8

Harris's Hawk-Parabuteo unicinctus. 8

Black-chested Buzzard-Eagle-Geranoaetus melanoleucus. 5

Roadside Hawk-Buteo magnirostris. Pretty easy.

Zone-tailed Hawk-Buteo albonotatus. 11

Black Hawk-Eagle-Spizaetus tyrannus. 4

Ornate Hawk-Eagle-Spizaetus ornatus. 10

Red-throated Caracara-Ibycter americanus. 1

Northern Crested Caracara-Caracara cheriway. C

Yellow-headed Caracara-Milvago chimachima. C

Barred Forest-Falcon-Micrastur ruficollis. H3

American Kestrel-Falco sparverius. C in the west.

Aplomado Falcon-Falco femoralis. 29

Bat Falcon-Falco rufigularis. 29,7

Rufous-vented Chachalaca-Ortalis ruficauda. H6,8,9,GH10

Little Chachalaca-Ortalis motmot. H30

Band-tailed Guan-Penelope argyrotis. G7,9,H10

Andean Guan-Penelope montagnii. 3

Crested Bobwhite-Colinus cristatus. G7,8

Limpkin-Aramus guarauna. 8

(E) Rusty-flanked Crake-Laterallus levraudi. 8

Russet-crowned Crake-Laterallus viridis. H30

(E) Plain-flanked Rail-Rallus wetmorei. 8,H9

Purple Gallinule-Porphyrio martinica. 2

Common Moorhen-Gallinula chloropus. 7

Caribbean Coot-Fulica caribaea. 7

Wattled Jacana-Jacana jacana. G29,G2,5,8,9

Black-necked Stilt-Himantopus mexicanus. 8,9

Double-striped Thick-knee-Burhinus bistriatus. H8

Southern Lapwing-Vanellus chilensis. C

Greater Yellowlegs-Tringa melanoleuca. 8

Large-billed Tern-Phaetusa simplex. 8

Black Skimmer-Rynchops niger. 29,G8,G9

Rock Pigeon-Columba livia. C

Bare-eyed Pigeon-Patagioenas corensis. 8

Band-tailed Pigeon-Patagioenas fasciata. 3,4

Pale-vented Pigeon-Patagioenas cayennensis. G2,G8,11

Plumbeous Pigeon-Patagioenas plumbea. H1

Ruddy Pigeon-Patagioenas subvinacea. Pretty easy.

Eared Dove-Zenaida auriculata. C

Common Ground-Dove-Columbina passerina. C

Ruddy Ground-Dove-Columbina talpacoti. Easy.

Scaled Dove-Columbina squammata. G2, 7-9

White-tipped Dove-Leptotila verreauxi. 6-9

Gray-fronted Dove-Leptotila rufaxilla. 2

Lined Quail-Dove-Geotrygon linearis. H3,H6,H7,G10

Ruddy Quail-Dove-Geotrygon montana. H1

Red-and-green Macaw-Ara chloroptera. 30-1,8

Chestnut-fronted Macaw-Ara severa. 8,10

Scarlet-fronted Parakeet-Aratinga wagleri. 9-11

Brown-throated Parakeet-Aratinga pertinax. 30,6-8,10

Painted Parakeet-Pyrrhura picta. LH1,L2

Fiery-shouldered Parakeet-Pyrrhura egregia. H30,G1,G2

(E) Red-eared Parakeet-Pyrrhura hoematotis.6,9,11

(E) Rose-headed Parakeet-Pyrrhura rhodocephala. 4

Green-rumped Parrotlet-Forpus passerinus. 29,2,7-11

Orange-chinned Parakeet-Brotogeris jugularis. H2

Golden-winged Parakeet-Brotogeris chrysopterus. G1

Tepui Parrotlet-Nannopsittaca panychlora. G1

Blue-headed Parrot-Pionus menstruus. 30, G1

Red-billed Parrot-Pionus sordidus. 10,11

Speckle-faced Parrot-Pionus tumultuosus. H3

Bronze-winged Parrot-Pionus chalcopterus. LH4

Blue-cheeked Parrot-Amazona dufresniana. 30

Yellow-crowned Parrot-Amazona ochrocephala. 8,9

Orange-winged Parrot-Amazona amazonica. C

Mealy Parrot-Amazona farinosa. 31

Squirrel Cuckoo-Piaya cayana. LH6,8,9

Smooth-billed Ani-Crotophaga ani. C

Groove-billed Ani-Crotophaga sulcirostris. C

Striped Cuckoo-Tapera naevia. 9

Foothill Screech-Owl-Otus roraimae. H10

Ferruginous Pygmy-Owl-Glaucidium brasilianum. 29,LH7,8,H10

Lesser Nighthawk-Chordeiles acutipennis. 5,8

Pauraque-Nyctidromus albicollis. 11

Band-winged Nightjar-Caprimulgus longirostris. 1

Roraiman Nightjar-Caprimulgus whitelyi. H30,1

Tepui Swift-Cypseloides phelpsi. 30

White-collared Swift-Streptoprocne zonaris. C

Chestnut-collared Swift-Cypseloides rutilus. G3

Band-rumped Swift-Chaetura spinicaudus. C at Las Claritas.

Gray-rumped Swift-Chaetura cinereiventris. C on La Escalera.

Short-tailed Swift-Chaetura brachyura. G8

Ashy-tailed Swift-Chaetura andrei. 1

White-tipped Swift-Aeronautes montivagus. 10

Neotropical Palm-Swift-Tachornis squamata. L2,G9

Straight-billed Hermit-Phaethornis bourcieri. H30,G1

Pale-bellied Hermit-Phaethornis anthophilus. 9

Reddish Hermit-Phaethornis ruber. LH1

Stripe-throated Hermit-Phaethornis striigularis. 7

Brown Violet-ear-Colibri delphinae. 30-1

Green Violet-ear-Colibri thalassinus. H3,GH6,GH7

Sparkling Violet-ear-Colibri coruscans. 4,5,GH7

Peacock Coquette-Lophornis pavoninus. 30,31

Spangled Coquette-Lophornis stictolophus. L4

Blue-chinned Sapphire-Chlorostilbon notatus. 9

Blue-tailed Emerald-Chlorostilbon mellisugus. 2,3,6,7

(E) Green-tailed Emerald-Chlorostilbon alice. 11

Violet-crowned Woodnymph-Thalurania colombica. 6,7

Fork-tailed Woodnymph-Thalurania furcata. 30,31

Rufous-throated Sapphire-Hylocharis sapphirina. 1

Golden-tailed Sapphire-Chrysuronia oenone. 4,10

Tepui Goldenthroat-Polytmus milleri. 30

Buffy Hummingbird-Leucippus fallax. 4

Syeely-vented Hummingbird-Amazilla saucerrottei. G7

Rufous-tailed Hummingbird-Amazilia tzacatl. 3

Speckled Hummingbird-Adelomyia melanogenys. 6

Violet-fronted Brilliant-Heliodoxa leadbeateri. 4

Velvet-browed Brilliant-Heliodoxa xanthogonys. 30,31

(E) Golden Starfrontlet-Coeligena eos. L3,4

Longuemare's Sunangel-Heliangelus clarisse. 3

Orange-throated Sunangel-Heliangelus mavors. 4,L5

Booted Racket-tail-Ocreatus underwoodii.7

Bearded Helmetcrest-Oxypogon guerinii. 5

Tyrian Metaltail-Metallura tyrianthina. 5,11

Long-tailed Sylph-Aglaiocercus kingi. 4,6,G9,10

Wedge-billed Hummingbird-Augastes geoffroyi. 4,9,10

Long-billed Starthroat-Heliomaster longirostris. 2

White-tailed Trogon-Trogon viridis. H1

Collared Trogon-Trogon collaris. 10,LH11

Masked Trogon-Trogon personatus.30-1,H3,6,7

Amazonian White-tailed Trogon-Trogon violaceus. GH1

Crested Quetzal-Pharomachrus antisianus. 4

Ringed Kingfisher-Ceryle torquatus. 7-9

Amazon Kingfisher-Chloroceryle amazona. 8

Green-and-rufous Kingfisher-Chloroceryle inda. 1

Pale-headed Jacamar-Brachygalba goeringi. 8

Green-tailed Jacamar-Galbula galbula. LH31

Rufous-tailed Jacamar-Galbula ruficauda. 9,H10

Paradise Jacamar-Galbula dea. 30,1

Great Jacamar-Jacamerops aureus. H1

Russet-throated Puffbird-Hypnelus ruficollis. 9

Moustached Puffbird-Malacoptila mystacalis. 10

Black Nunbird-Monasa atra. LH1

Swallow-wing-Chelidoptera tenebrosa. 1

Red-headed Barbet-Eubucco bourcierii. 6,7

Emerald Toucanet-Aulacorhynchus prasinus. 3,4,6

Groove-billed Toucanet-Aulacorhynchus sulcatus. G9,10

Green Aracari-Pteroglossus viridis. 1

Black-necked Aracari-Pteroglossus aracari. 31

Black-mandibled Toucan-Ramphastos ambiguus. 4

Red-billed Toucan-Ramphastos tucanus. L30,31

Golden-spangled Piculet-Picumnus exilis. L30,31

Scaled Piculet-Picumnus squamulatus. LH6,LH9,LH10

Olivaceous Piculet-Picumnus olivaceus. LH4

Yellow-tufted Woodpecker-Melanerpes cruentatus.  LH30,1

Red-crowned Woodpecker-Melanerpes rubricapillus. 2,8-10

Smoky-brown Woodpecker-Veniliornis fumigatus. G9,10

Red-rumped Woodpecker-Veniliornis kirkii. 31,9

Yellow-throated Woodpecker-Piculus flavigula. H1

Golden-olive Woodpecker-Piculus rubiginosus. 30,3-6,9

Lineated Woodpecker-Dryocopus lineatus. 8,9

Red-necked Woodpecker-Campephilus rubricollis. 1

Bar-winged Cinclodes-Cinclodes fuscus. 5

Pale-legged Hornero-Furnarius leucopus. 8,9

Andean Tit-Spinetail-Leptasthenura andicola. 5

White-whiskered Spinetail-Synallaxis candei. 8

Rufous Spinetail-Synallaxis unirufa. H3,4

(E) Black-throated Spinetail-Synallaxis castanea. 11

Pale-breasted Spinetail-Synallaxis albescens. H30,LH6,7,8,LH10

Stripe-breasted Spinetail-Synallaxis cinnamomea. 6,H7

Tepui Spinetail-Cranioleuca demissa. 30

Crested Spinetail-Cranioleuca subcristata. LH6,7

(E) Ochre-browed Thistletail-Schizoeaca coryi. 5

Streak-backed Canastero-Asthenes wyatti. H5

Roraiman Barbtail-Roraimia adusta. 31

Plain Xenops-Xenops minutus. 10

Montane Foliage-gleaner-Anabacerthia striaticollis. 6,9,10

(E) Guttulated Foliage-gleaner-Syndactyla guttulata. 9

Buff-fronted Foliage-gleaner-Philydor rufus. 10,11

White-throated Foliage-gleaner-Automolus roraimae. 31

Gray-throated Leaftosser-Sclerurus albigularis. 10

Plain-brown Woodcreeper-Dendrocincla fuliginosa. 10

Wedge-billed Woodcreeper-Glyphorynchus spirurus. LH31

Olivaceous Woodcreeper-Sittasomus griseicapillus. 31,10

Strong-billed Woodcreeper-Xiphocolaptes promeropirhynchus. 6

Black-banded Woodcreeper-Dendrocolaptes picumnus. 10

Olive-backed Woodcreeper-Xiphorhynchus triangularis. 6

Straight-billed Woodcreeper-Dendroplex picus. 8

Chestnut-rumped Woodcreeper-Xiphorynchus pardalotus. G1

Cocoa Woodcreeper-Xiphorynchus susurrans. LH10

Streak-headed Woodcreeper-Lepidocolaptes souleyetii.  7,10

Montane Woodcreeper-Lepidocolaptes lacrymiger. 3,4

Red-billed Scythebill-Campylorhamphus trochilirostris. 9-11

Black-crested Antshrike-Sakesphorus canadensis. 8,9H

Black-backed Antshrike-Sakesphorus melanonotus. 9

Barred Antshrike-Thamnophilus doliatus. H2,G6,H7,H9

Plain Antvireo-Dysithamnus mentalis. 7,10

White-streaked Antvireo-Dysithamnus leucostictus. 10

Dusky-throated Antshrike-Thamnomanes ardesiacus. 1

Cinereous Antshrike-Thamnomanes caesius. 1

Pygmy Antwren-Myrmotherula brachyura. 1

Brown-bellied Antwren-Myrmotherula gutturalis. 1

Slaty Antwren-Myrmotherula schisticolor. L6,10

Gray Antwren-Myrmotherula menetriestii. G1

Roraiman Antwren-Herpsilochmus roraimae. 30

White-fringed Antwren-Formicivora grisea. LH7,8,9

White-bellied Antbird-Myrmeciza longipes. H6,9

Long-tailed Antbird-Drymophila caudata. LH7

Immaculate Antbird-Myrmeciza immaculata. 7

Spot-backed Antbird-Hylophylax naevia. H31

Rufous-capped Antthrush-Formicarius colma. LH31

Black-faced Antthrush-Formicarius analis. H6,H7,L10

Short-tailed Antthrush-Chamaeza campanisona. H4,LH7,LH10,11

Schwartz's Antthrush-Chamaeza turdina. H9,H10,11

(E) Great Antpitta-Grallaria excelsa. 6

Plain-backed Antpitta-Grallaria haplonota. H10

Chestnut-crowned Antpitta-Grallaria ruficapilla. 3

(E) Gray-naped Antpitta-Grallaria griseonucha. 3

Tepui Antpitta-Myrmothera simplex. 30,H31,H1

Rusty-breasted Antpitta-Grallaricula ferrugineipectus. 7

(E) Scallop-breasted Antpitta-Grallaricula loricata. 9

Slate-crowned Antpitta-Grallaricula nana. 3

Merida Tapaculo-Scytalopus meridanus. 3,LH4,LH5

(E) Caracas Tapaculo-Scytalopus caracae. 11

Green-and-black Fruiteater-Pipreola riefferii. 3

Golden-breasted Fruiteater-Pipreola aureopectus. 6,LH7,LH9

(E) Handsome Fruiteater-Pipreola formosa. 10

Red-banded Fruiteater-Pipreola whitelyi. G31,1

Screaming Piha-Lipaugus vociferans. H1

Rose-collared Piha-Lipaugus streptophorus. GH30,31,1

Capuchinbird-Perissocephalus tricolor. 31,1

White Bellbird-Procnias alba. 30,31,H1

Bearded Bellbird-Procnias averano. 30,1

Red-ruffed fruitcrow-Pyroderus scutatus. L2

Guianan Cock-of-the-rock-Rupicola rupicola. H30,1

Olive Manakin-Chloropipo uniformis. 30

Lance-tailed Manakin-Chiroxiphia lanceolata. G9

Scarlet-horned Manakin-Pipra cornuta. 30 (female only)

Golden-headed Manakin-Pipra erythrocephala. LH1

White-crowned Manakin-Dixiphia pipra. LH1

Tepui Manakin-Lepidothrix suavissima. 30-1

Golden-winged Manakin-Masius chrysopterus. 6,7

Southern Beardless-Tyrannulet-Camptostoma obsoletum. 6,10

Mouse-colored Tyrannulet-Phaeomyias murina. 6,7,10

Yellow-crowned Tyrannulet-Tyrannulus elatus. LH1

Forest Elaenia-Myiopagis gaimardii. LH1

Yellow-bellied Elaenia-Elaenia flavogaster. 4

Small-billed Elaenia-Elaenia parvirostris. 10

Plain-crested Elaenia-Elaenia cristata. 30

(E) Great Elaenia-Elaenia dayi. 30

Sierran Elaenia-Elaenia pallatangae. 30

Olive-striped Flycatcher-Mionectes olivaceus. 4,G10

Slaty-capped Flycatcher-Leptopogon superciliaris. 7,10,LH11

Marble-faced Bristle-Tyrant-Pogonotriccus ophthalmicus. LH6,10

McConnell’s Flycatcher-Mionectes macconnelli. 30

(E) Black-fronted Tyrannulet-Phylloscartes nigrifrons. 30

Black-capped Tyrannulet-Phyllomyias nigrocapillus. 6

Tawny-rumped Tyrannulet-Phyllomyias uropygialis. 5

Venezuelan Tyrannulet-Zimmerius improbus. 3,4

Slender-footed Tyrannulet-Zimmerius gracilipes. 1

Golden-faced Tyrannulet-Zimmerius chrysops. 6,7

Northern Scrub-Flycatcher-Sublegatus arenarum. 7-9

White-throated Tyrannulet-Mecocerculus leucophrys. 4,11

Slender-billed Tyrannulet-Inezia tenuirostris. 8

Pale-tipped Tyrannulet-Inezia caudata. 9

Tawny-crowned Pygmy-Tyrant-Euscarthmus meloryphus. H6,7,LH8

Scale-crested Pygmy-Tyrant-Lophotriccus pileatus. 4

Helmeted Pygmy-Tyrant-Lophotriccus galeatus. H1

Slate-headed Tody-Tyrant-Poecilotriccus sylvia. 1

Pearly-vented Tody-Tyrant-Hemitriccus margaritaceiventer. 6,LH7

Ruddy Tody-Flycatcher-Poecilotriccus russatum. 30

Olivaceous Flatbill-Rhynchocyclus olivaceus. 1

Yellow-olive Flycatcher-Tolmomyias sulphurescens. 2

Yellow-breasted Flycatcher-Tolmomyias flaviventris. 9

Yellow-throated Spadebill-Platyrinchus flavigularis. 7

Bran-colored Flycatcher-Myiophobus fasciatus. 7,10

Cinnamon Flycatcher-Pyrrhomyias cinnamomea. 10

Cliff Flycatcher-Hirundinea ferruginea. 30,1

Euler's Flycatcher-Lathrotriccus euleri. 7

Smoke-colored Pewee-Contopus fumigatus. 3,G4,G10

Black Phoebe-Sayornis nigricans. 3-5,10

Vermilion Flycatcher-Pyrocephalus rubinus. 8,9

Yellow-bellied Chat-Tyrant-Ochthoeca diadema. 3

Brown-backed Chat-Tyrant-Ochthoeca fumicolor. 5

Streak-throated Bush-Tyrant-Myiotheretes striaticollis. 5

Pied Water-Tyrant-Fluvicola pica. 8

White-headed Marsh-Tyrant-Arundinicola leucocephala. 2

Cattle Tyrant-Machetornis rixosus. 2,4,5,8

Dusky-capped Flycatcher-Myiarchus tuberculifer. 9

Swainson's Flycatcher-Myiarchus swainsoni. 30

Short-crested Flycatcher-Myiarchus ferox. H7,8

Brown-crested Flycatcher-Myiarchus tyrannulus. 8

Lesser Kiskadee-Philohydor lictor. 7

Great Kiskadee-Pitangus sulphuratus. C

Boat-billed Flycatcher-Megarynchus pitangua. GH4,GH8,10

Rusty-margined Flycatcher-Myiozetetes cayanensis. 7

Social Flycatcher-Myiozetetes similis. 4,G7,9

Golden-crowned Flycatcher-Myiodynastes chrysocephalus. 3,4,11

Streaked Flycatcher-Myiodynastes maculatus. G29,31,H1,H2

Variegated Flycatcher-Empidonomus varius. 10

Tropical Kingbird-Tyrannus melancholicus. C

Gray Kingbird-Tyrannus dominicensis. G8

Fork-tailed Flycatcher-Tyrannus savana. 30,G2,5,G8,9

Barred Becard-Pachyramphus versicolor. 3

White-winged Becard-Pachyramphus polychopterus. GH2

Cinereous Becard-Pachyramphus rufus. 8

Cinnamon Becard-Pachyramphus cinnamomeus. LH4

Brown-chested Martin-Progne tapera. 2,8,9

Gray-breasted Martin-Progne chalybea. 30,1

White-winged Swallow-Tachycineta albiventer. 2

Blue-and-white Swallow-Notiochelidon cyanoleuca. C

Brown-bellied Swallow-Notiochelidon murina. 4,5

Tawny-headed Swallow-Alopchelidon fucata. 30

Southern Rough-winged Swallow-Stelgidopteryx ruficollis. 6-10

Paramo Pipit-Anthus bogotensis. 5

White-capped Dipper-Cinclus leucocephalus. 3,5

Long-billed Gnatwren-Ramphocaenus melanurus. LH9,LH10

Black-capped Donacobius-Donacobius atricapilla. 8

Bicolored Wren-Campylorhynchus griseus. 6-8

Stripe-backed Wren-Campylorhynchus nuchalis. LH8

Whiskered Wren-Thryothorus mystacalis. H4,G6,H7,10

Coraya Wren-Thryothorus coraya. 30,H31

Rufous-breasted Wren-Thryothorus rutilus. 6,GH7,LH10

Buff-breasted Wren-Thryothorus leucotis. LH2

Rufous-and-white Wren-Thryothorus rufalbus. 10

House Wren-Troglodytes aedon. C

Mountain Wren-Troglodytes solstitialis. H3

(E) Paramo Wren-Cistothorus meridae. 5

Gray-breasted Wood-Wren-Henicorhina leucophrys. H often in the western parts.

Scaly-breasted Wren-Microcerculus marginatus. 10,H11

Flutist Wren-Microcerculus ustulatus. GH30,31,LH1

Tropical Mockingbird-Mimus gilvus. C

Andean Solitaire-Myadestes ralloides. 3,LH4,6,G7

Rufous-brown Solitaire-Cichlopsis leucogenys. 1

Slaty-backed Nightingale-Thrush-Catharus fuscater. H3,H7

Spotted Nightingale-Thrush-Catharus dryas. H6

Orange-billed Nightingale-Thrush-Catharus aurantiirostris. LH6

Yellow-legged Thrush-Platycichla flavipes. 30-3

Great Thrush-Turdus fuscater. G3,4,5

Glossy-black Thrush-Turdus serranus. 4,9,G11

Black-hooded Thrush-Turdus olivater. 7

Chestnut-bellied Thrush-Turdus fulviventris. 3

Pale-breasted Thrush-Turdus leucomelas. 2,6,G7,10

Black-billed Thrush-Turdus ignobilis. 30-1

Bare-eyed Thrush-Turdus nudigenis. LH8,10

White-necked Thrush-Turdus albicollis. 10

Tropical Gnatcatcher-Polioptila plumbea. LH2,6-9

Green Jay-Cyanocorax yncas. 3,4,G6,G9

Cayenne Jay-Cyanocorax cayanus. 1

Brown-capped Vireo-Vireo leucophrys. C

Red-eyed Vireo-Vireo olivaceus. H2

Scrub Greenlet-Hylophilus flavipes. H2,G9

Tepui Greenlet-Hylophilus sclateri. LH30

Golden-fronted Greenlet-Hylophilus aurantiifrons. 10

Buff-cheeked Greenlet-Hylophilus musicapinus. LH1

Rufous-browed Peppershrike-Cyclarhis gujanensis. 6,G7,H10

Slaty-capped Shrike-Vireo-Vireolanius leucotis. H10

Andean Siskin-Carduelis spinescens. 5

Yellow-bellied Siskin-Carduelis xanthogastra. 4,G7

Lesser Goldfinch-Carduelis psaltria. G4,6,7

Tropical Parula-Parula pitiayumi. G3,6,10

Slate-throated Redstart-Myioborus miniatus. 31,3,4,10,11

Tepui Redstart-Myioborus castaneocapillus. 31

(E) White-fronted Redstart-Myioborus albifrons. 3

Two-banded Warbler-Basileuterus bivittatus. 1

Russet-crowned Warbler-Basileuterus coronatus. 3

Black-crested Warbler-Basileuterus nigrocristatus. 3,G4

Three-striped Warbler-Basileuterus tristriatus. C in western parts.

Bananaquit-Coereba flaveola. C

White-eared Conebill-Conirostrum leucogenys. 8

Blue-backed Conebill-Conirostrum sitticolor. L5

Black-faced Tanager-Schistochlamys melanopis. 30,L11

Magpie tanager-Cissopis leveriana. G4

Common Bush-Tanager-Chlorospingus ophthalmicus. C

(E) Gray-capped Hemispingus-Hemispingus reyi. 3

Oleaginous Hemispingus-Hemispingus frontalis. 3,4

Fulvous-headed Tanager-Thlypopsis fulviceps. 6

Hooded Tanager-Nemosia pileata. 8

Olive-backed Tanager-Mitrospingus oleagineus. 30,31

White-lined Tanager-Tachyphonus rufus. G2,6-11

Red-shouldered Tanager-Tachyphonus phoenicius. 30

Summer Tanager-Piranga rubra. 10

White-winged Tanager-Piranga leucoptera. 4

Silver-beaked Tanager-Ramphocelus carbo. 30-2,G7,10

Crimson-backed tanager-Ramphocelus dimidiatus. G4

Blue-gray Tanager-Thraupis episcopus. C

Glaucous Tanager-Thraupis glaucocolpa. 9

Blue-capped Tanager-Thraupis cyanocephala.  3,4,9,11

Palm Tanager-Thraupis palmarum. C

Blue-winged Mountain-Tanager-Anisognathus somptuosus. 9

Fawn-breasted Tanager-Pipraeidea melanonota. 6,7,10

Golden-rumped Euphonia-Euphonia cyanocephala. 11

Orange-bellied Euphonia-Euphonia xanthogaster. G30,31,6,10

Blue-naped Chlorophonia-Chlorophonia cyanea. 9

Turquoise Tanager-Tangara mexicana. 1

Paradise Tanager-Tangara chilensis. G30,31

Golden Tanager-Tangara arthus. 6,9-11

Saffron-crowned Tanager-Tangara xanthocephala. 6

Yellow-bellied Tanager-Tangara xanthogastra. 30,31

Speckled Tanager-Tangara guttata. C

Bay-headed Tanager-Tangara gyrola. C

Burnished-buff Tanager-Tangara cayana. 30,6,10

Rufous-cheeked Tanager-Tangara rufigenis. 11

Blue-necked Tanager-Tangara cyanicollis. 6,10,G11

Beryl-spangled Tanager-Tangara nigroviridis. 11

Black-capped Tanager-Tangara heinei. 3,G6

Black-headed Tanager-Tangara cyanoptera. 30-1,3,6,G10

Green Honeycreeper-Chlorophanes spiza. 10

Purple Honeycreeper-Cyanerpes caeruleus. 11

Red-legged Honeycreeper-Cyanerpes cyaneus. 1

Swallow-Tanager-Tersina viridis. 10

Pileated Finch-Coryphospingus pileatus. 7,8

Plumbeous Sierra-Finch-Phrygilus unicolor. 5

Blue-black Grassquit-Volatinia jacarina. 2,G5,G6,7,8

Gray Seedeater-Sporophila intermedia. 9

Lesson's Seedeater-Sporophila bouvronides. 9

Yellow-bellied Seedeater-Sporophila nigricollis. 3,4,7,10

Ruddy-breasted Seedeater-Sporophila minuta. 30,2,8,9

Plain-colored Seedeater-Catamenia inornata. 5

Black-faced Grassquit-Tiaris bicolor. 6-8

Dull-colored Grassquit-Tiaris obscura. G9

Rusty Flowerpiercer-Diglossa sittoides. 7

White-sided Flowerpiercer-Diglossa albilatera. 5

(E) Merida Flowerpiercer-Diglossa gloriosa. 5

Greater Flowerpiercer-Diglossa major. 31

Masked Flowerpiercer-Diglossopis cyanea. 3,5

Saffron Finch-Sicalis flaveola. 5-9

Wedge-tailed Grass-Finch-Emberizoides herbicola. H30

Moustached Brush-Finch-Atlapetes albofrenatus. 3,4

Ochre-breasted Brush-Finch-Atlapetes semirufus. LH7,G11

Tepui Brush-Finch-Atlapetes personatus. 30,31

Chestnut-capped Brush-Finch-Buarremon brunneinucha. G3,9,11

Pectoral Sparrow-Arremon taciturnus. 30

Tocuyo Sparrow-Arremonops tocuyensis. H6,7

Black-striped Sparrow-Arremonops conirostris. 10

Rufous-collared Sparrow-Zonotrichia capensis. C in west.

Streaked Saltator-Saltator striatipectus. 6,7,9,10

Grayish Saltator-Saltator coerulescens. 8

Buff-throated Saltator-Saltator maximus. 6

Orinocan Saltator-Saltator orenocensis. 8

Vermilion Cardinal-Cardinalis phoeniceus. 8

Golden-bellied Grosbeak-Pheucticus chrysogaster. 11

Ultramarine Grosbeak-Cyanocompsa brissonii. 6,7

Yellow-green Grosbeak-Caryothraustes canadensis. LH31

Blue-black Grosbeak-Cyanocompsa cyanoides. H1,LH10

Yellow-hooded Blackbird-Chrysomus icterocephalus. 8

Red-breasted Blackbird-Sturnella militaris. 8

Eastern Meadowlark-Sturnella magna. 30,G4,G5

Carib Grackle-Quiscalus lugubris. C

Shiny Cowbird-Molothrus bonariensis. 2,3

Giant Cowbird-Molothrus oryzivora. G1

Yellow-backed Oriole-Icterus chrysater. 3,4

Yellow Oriole-Icterus nigrogularis. 7,8,10

Orange-crowned Oriole-Icterus auricapillus. 10

Venezuelan Troupial-Icterus icterus. 8

Yellow-rumped Cacique-Cacicus cela. 31,G2

Red-rumped Cacique-Cacicus haemorrhous. 1

Crested Oropendola-Psarocolius decumanus. 31,G4,10

Russet-backed Oropendola-Psarocolius angustifrons. 4,G6,10

Oriole Blackbird-Gymnomystax mexicanus. 5,7-9

Golden-tufted Grackle-Macroagelaius imthurni. 30,31,H1


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