Birdwatching Trip Reports from Ethiopia


Appendix 3: Species Lists

Part A: Birds Seen


Specific names' & taxonomy is based on The Birds of Africa, volumes 1 5 as published, and volumes 6 & 7 as planned.  The sub-species are based on same work, but restricted to volumes 1 to 5 as the remaining information is not yet available. The remaining sub-species were based on various references, (primarily) Urban & Brown’s “A Checklist of the Birds of Ethiopia”, Mackworth-Praed & Grant’s “Birds of Africa: Series 1” and Clement’s “Finches & Sparrows”. Where some authorities have split (or lumped) species, these are indicated in the text (where known).

The sub-specific assignments were based (in order) on:

(a)     clearly identifiable characteristics (e.g. Plectropterus gambensis gambensis, Otus scops senegalensis / scops, Phoenicurus phoenicurus phoenicurus / samamisicus, Nectarinia venustus albiventris /  fazoqlensis, etc); otherwise

(b)     clearly defined geographic distribution (e.g. Gyps rueppellii erlangeri, Melierax canorus poliopterus, Lybius undatus leucogenys /  undatus / salvadori / thiogaster, etc); otherwise

(c)     comparative evaluation in which considerable confidence was placed (e.g. Falco tinnunculus rupicolaeformis / rufescens / rupicolus, Streptopelia turtur turtur / arenicola / isabellina, Oenanthe pleschanka  pleschanka / cypriaca, etc); or otherwise

(d)     best guess (e.g. Coturnix coturnix coturnix / erlangeri, Apus apus apus / pekinensis, Monticola solitarius solitarius / longirostris, etc)

Key to the list

Status of species is given in general terms and based on my own observations - which do not necessarily reflect their actual status.  I define the terms as follows:

"common" to mean that I generally saw the species at least once per day when in suitable habitat and within its normal range;

"frequent" to mean that the species was seen several times when in suitable habitat and within its normal range;

where a species was seen only once or twice, then the location is given.  I have not given exact locations as I believe that in general birds move around, although for a few localized species (Harwood's Francolin, Red-chested Swallow, Ankober Serin, Long-eared Owl, Salvadori's Serin, Ruspoli's Turaco and Sidamo Lark), I did rely on the localities described in Richard Webb's excellent trip report;

"widespread" to mean that the species was seen in a variety of localities within its normal range; and

where terms such as south, west, highlands, etc are used, the areas defined in Urban & Brown's “A Checklist of the Birds of Ethiopia” are used.

In many cases I didn’t bother to clearly identify species that were easily seen, but often hard to identify accurately enough to record.  Examples are swallows (European / Red-chested), coucals, cisticolas, weavers & bishops (most being in non-breeding plumage).  Hence many of these species were under-recorded in the list that follows.

Species marked with a * were lifers to me.

Introductory comments

In only a few areas did I specifically go to a particular spot searching for a single species, since I prefer to find an area that has potential, and then settle down to see what is prepared to show itself.  Consequently, in the open habitats of Ethiopia (as opposed to Kenyan and Ugandan forest), I avoid using guides.  The species where I felt that you had to search for in “their” locality were Harwood’s Francolin, Djibouti Francolin, Ruspoli’s Turaco, Sombre Rock-Chat, Sidamo & Degodi Larks, Yellow-throated Seed-eater, Salvadori’s Seed-eater and Ankober Serin.  All of these species are so range restricted, that although it would be better to search nearby (and so create range extensions), that unless one has almost unlimited time, one is forced to visit the same site as everyone else.  However, virtually all the other species I saw were seen in areas where I wasn’t expecting them, which emphasizes the importance of not becoming too focussed on one species.  Ethiopia is still very “under-birded” and even when the Ethiopian Bird Atlas is published, the lack of information regarding ranges will far exceed the amount known.

There is no doubt that birders will still concentrate on the key endemic areas – which for twitchers means the sites identified by Richard Webb in his trip report, rather than the Important Bird Areas identified by the Ethiopian Wildlife & Natural History Society (EWNHS).  However, due to the nature of my trip, and the fact that I didn’t stay in any one area enough to generate meaningful data, I was not able to provide records for the Atlas.  Obviously there are a variety of sightings, but this does not provide the coverage required to contribute properly to the Atlas.  I still feel rather guilty about this.


1. Ostrich (Struthio camelus camelus) – one seen in Awash NP.

(S. c. molybdophanes) -[considered as a separate species S. molybdophanes "Somali Ostrich" from S. camelus including S. c. camelus, S. c. massaicus and S. c. australis "Common Ostrich" or "Masai Ostrich" of the rest of  Africa by some authorities] – one seen in Northern Kenya near Samburu NP.

2. Little Grebe (Tachybaptus ruficollis capensis) – widespread & common.

3. Great Crested Grebe (Podiceps cristatus infuscatus) – 2 pairs on Lake Heyk.

4. White-breasted Cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo lucidus) – frequent in the Rift Valley and Lake Tana.

5. Reed Cormorant (Phalacrocorax africanus africanus) – frequent in the Rift Valley and Lake Tana.

6. Darter (Anhinga melanogaster rufa) – only one at Lake Heyk.

7. Great White Pelican (Pelecanus onocrotalus) – approx. 20 on Lake Abiata.

8. Pink-backed Pelican (Pelecanus rufescens) – 2 on Lake Abiata.

9. Squacco Heron (Ardeola ralloides) – widespread & common.

10. Cattle Egret (Bubulcus ibis ibis) – widespread & common.

11. Green-backed Heron (Butorides striatus atricapillus) – widespread & frequent.

12. Black Heron (Egretta ardesiaca) – approx. 30 in the cultivated wetlands to the east of Lake Tana (Bahir Dar).

13. * Western Reef Heron (Egretta gularis asha) – several birds on the mud-flats of Djibouti harbour, and one on the right of the main road into Djibouti city.

14. Little Egret (Egretta garzetta garzetta) – widespread & frequent.

15. Yellow-billed Egret (Egretta intermedia brachyrhyncha) – widespread & frequent.

16. Great White Egret (Egretta alba melanorhynchos) – widespread & frequent.

17. Purple Heron (Ardea purpurea purpurea) – one in the cultivated wetlands to the east of Lake Tana (Bahir Dar).

18. Grey Heron (Ardea cinerea cinerea) – widespread & common.

19. Black-headed Heron (Ardea melanocephala) – widespread & common.

20. Goliath Heron (Ardea goliath) – two near Lake Tana (Bahir Dar).

21. Hamerkop (Scopus umbretta umbretta) – widespread & common.

22. Yellow-billed Stork (Mycteria ibis) – two at Lake Ziway.

23. Black Stork (Ciconia nigra) – a small flock on the road from Lake Langano to Addis Ababa.

24. Abdim's Stork (Ciconia abdimii) – widespread & common in Tanzania and to the south, not seen in Ethiopia.

25. Woolly-necked Stork (Ciconia episcopus microscelis) – a pair between Addis Ababa and Nekempte.

26. White Stork (Ciconia ciconia ciconia) – a small flock between Lake Langano & Addis Ababa; common in Zimbabwe on the return.

27. Saddle-billed Stork (Ephippiorhynchus senegalensis) – a pair at Lake Ziway.

28. Marabou Stork (Leptoptilos crumeniferus) – common in Rift Valley.

29. Glossy Ibis (Plegadis falcinellus) – several in the cultivated wetlands east of Lake Tana (Bahir Dar).

30. Hadeda (Bostrychia hagedash brevirostris) – widespread & common in Tanzania & southern Kenya

                   (B. h. nilotica) - widespread and frequent.

31. * Wattled Ibis (Bostrychia carunculata) – common in the highlands.

32. Sacred Ibis (Threskiornis aethiopica aethiopica) – widespread & common.

33. * Eurasian Spoonbill (Platalea leucorodia archeri) – one on the mudflats south of the main road just outside Djibouti city.

34. Greater Flamingo (Phoenicopterus ruber roseus) – a few on Lake Abiata.

35. Lesser Flamingo (Phoeniconaias minor) – a few on Lake Abiata.

36. Fulvous Whistling-Duck (Dendrocygna bicolor) – several hundred roosting near the hotel at Lake Tana (Bahir Dar).

37. White-faced Whistling-Duck (Dendrocygna viduata) – several small flocks at Lake Awasa.

38. * Blue-winged Goose (Cyanochen cyanopterus) – common in the highlands.

39. Egyptian Goose (Alopochen aegyptiacus) – widespread and common.

40. Spur-winged Goose (Plectropterus gambensis gambensis) – approx. 10 feeding in the floating vegetation on Lake Ziway.

41. Knob-billed Duck (Sarkidiornis melanotos melanotos) – 5 on Lake Awasa.

42. African Pygmy Goose (Nettapus auritus) – a pair on Lake Ziway.

43. * Eurasian Wigeon (Anas penelope) – 2 males and 3 females on one of the small lakes some way from the road on Bale Mountains.

44. * Green-winged Teal (Anas crecca crecca) – a flock of about 50 on Gefersa Reservoir.

45. Yellow-billed Duck (Anas undulata undulata) – common on small lakes in Kenya  and southwards.

(A. u. rueppelli) – widespread & common in Ethiopia.

46. * Northern Pintail (Anas acuta acuta) – a flock of approx. 10 on Gefersa Reservoir.

47. Red-billed Teal (Anas erythrorhyncha) – several in the small ponds near the Awash River on the road from Lake Langano to Addis Ababa.

48. Hottentot Teal (Anas hottentota) – approx. 6 in the small ponds near the Awash River on the road from Lake Langano to Addis Ababa.

49. Northern Shoveler (Anas clypeata) – common in small flocks in the Rift Valley.

50. * Common Pochard (Aythya ferina) – 3 on Lake Heyk.

51. * Tufted Duck (Aythya fuligula) – approx. 200 on Lake Heyk.

52. Maccoa Duck (Oxyura maccoa) – seen two near Wondo Genet.

There was a surprising and notable absence of waterfowl throughout Ethiopia, with few Palearctic migrants – with the exception of Northern Shoveler. (c.f. “lake terns”).

53. Osprey (Pandion haliaetus haliaetus) – several hunting along the sea-shore on the northern side of the Gulf of Tadjoura, Djibouti.

54. Black-shouldered Kite (Elanus caeruleus caeruleus) – several in the thorn bush areas on the western side of Awash NP.

55. * African Swallow-tailed Kite (Chelictinia riocourii) – several in the grassland (and scattered bush) areas on the north-eastern side of Awash NP.

56. Black Kite (Milvus migrans parasitus) [these three sub-species treated as separate species M. parasitus "Yellow-billed Kite", M. migrans, "Black Kite", and M. aegyptius "Egyptian Kite" by some authorities] – widespread and common.

                   (M. m. migrans) – widespread & common.

                   (M. m. aegyptius) - common in Djibouti.

57. African Fish Eagle (Haliaeetus vocifer) – widespread and frequent.

58. Palm-nut Vulture (Gypohierax angolensis) – seen once flying along the main road near Mpika in Zambia.

59. * Lammergeier (Gypaetus barbatus meridionalis) – frequent & widespread.

60. Egyptian Vulture (Neophron percnopterus percnopterus) – abundant between Awash & Djibouti border.

61. Hooded Vulture (Necrosyrtes monachus pileatus) – widespread and common.

62. African White-backed Vulture (Gyps africanus) – several groups on the Jemmu escarpment, and occasionally seen elsewhere.

63. Rόppell's Griffon  (Gyps rueppellii erlangeri) – several near Fantalle Crater, Awash NP, and occasionally elsewhere.

64. * European Griffon (Gyps fulvus fulvus) – 2 seen on the road to Weldiya north of Lake Heyk.

65. Lappet-faced Vulture (Aegypius tracheliotus) – common in Rift Valley.

66. White-headed Vulture  (Aegypius occipitalis) – widespread & common.

67. European Snake Eagle (Circaetus gallicus gallicus) [considered as separate species C. gallicus "Short-toed Snake Eagle" from C. pectoralis "Black-breasted Snake Eagle" of southern & eastern Africa by some authorities] – one over Sof Omar.

                   (C. g. pectoralis) - frequent in Rift Valley.

68. Brown Snake Eagle (Circaetus cinereus) – frequent in western highlands.

69. Bateleur (Terathopius ecaudatus) – common  & widespread.

70. Gymnogene (Polyboroides typus typus) – common between Metu & Gambela.

71. Pallid Harrier (Circus macrourus) – common on Solulta plains & between Bati and Weldiya.

72. Montagu's Harrier (Circus pygargus) – common on Solulta plains & between Bati and Weldiya.

73. Marsh Harrier (Circus aeruginosus aeruginosus) – widespread & frequent.

74. Gabar Goshawk (Micronisus gabar) – common & widespread.

75. Dark Chanting Goshawk (Melierax metabates metabates) – one at the edge of the Nechisar plains.

76. Pale Chanting Goshawk (Melierax canorus poliopterus) [considered as separate species M. poliopterus "Eastern Chanting Goshawk" to M. canorus including M. c. canorus and M. c. argentior "Pale Chanting Goshawk" of southern Africa by some authorities] – common in south & Kenya.

77. Shikra (Accipiter badius sphenurus) – one identified near Nekempte.

78. African Little Sparrowhawk (Accipiter minullus) – one near Nekempte.

79. Ovambo Sparrowhawk (Accipiter ovampensis) – several seen around the bush behind the hotel at Lake Langano.

80. * European Sparrowhawk (Accipiter nisus nisus) – one seen in the more open cultivated areas near Metu.

81. * Grasshopper Buzzard (Butastur rufipennis) – one perching on sisal flowers, near Same, Northern Tanzania.  None seen in Ethiopia.

82. Steppe Buzzard (Buteo buteo vulpinus) – frequent & widespread.

83. * Long-legged Buzzard (Buteo rufinus rufinus) – common between Bati and Weldiya.

84. Jackal Buzzard (Buteo rufofuscus augur) – [considered as separate species A. augur "Augur Buzzard" by some authorities] common in the highlands.

85. * Greater Spotted Eagle (Aquila clanga) – a pair between Dese and Weldiya.

86. Tawny Eagle (Aquila rapax rapax) – frequent in the Rift Valley.

                   (A. r. belisarius) – seen near Metu.

                   (A. r. orientalis) [considered as separate species A. nipalensis including A. r. nipalensis "Steppe Eagle" by some authorities] – frequent in the Rift Valley.

                   (A. r. nipalensis) [considered as separate species A. nipalensis including A. r. orientalis "Steppe Eagle" by some authorities] – flock of 8 near west of Dinsho at around 3600m.

87. * Imperial Eagle (Aquila heliaca heliaca) – a single bird scavenging road kill near Lake Langano.

88. * Golden Eagle (Aquila chrysaetos homeyeri) – a single bird at the top of the Goba escarpment, Bale Mountains.

89. African Hawk Eagle (Hieraaetus spilogaster) – a single bird in tree next to road to Fantalle Crater, Awash NP.

90. Booted Eagle (Hieraaetus pennatus pennatus) – a single bird near Jima.

91. Long-crested Eagle (Lophaetus occipitalis) – abundant  on sisal flowers in northern Tanzania.

92. Secretary Bird (Sagittarius serpentarius) – several on the Nechisar plains.

93. Pygmy Falcon (Polihierax semitorquatus) – frequent in the open thorn bush in Awash NP.

94. Lesser Kestrel (Falco naumanni) – widespread & frequent.

95. Rock Kestrel (Falco tinnunculus rupicolaeformis) – frequent around Lalibela & Simien.

(F. t. rufescens) – widespread & frequent.

(F. t. rupicolus) – seen along road in Zimbabwe.

96. Greater Kestrel (Falco rupicoloides arthuri) – a single bird perching on sisal flowers near Same in northern Tanzania.

                   (F. r. fieldi) – common along the road from Awash to Djibouti.

97. Grey Kestrel (Falco ardosiaceus) – one seen in the Abiata-Shala NP.

98. Hobby (Falco subbuteo subbuteo) – one in the Abiata-Shala NP.

99. Lanner Falcon (Falco biarmicus abyssinicus) – widespread & frequent.

100. * Saker Falcon (Falco cherrug cherrug) – a single bird in trees in the grounds of the Gorgora Hotel, Lake Tana.

101. Peregrine Falcon (Falco peregrinus peregrinus) – near the escarpment at Goba, Bale Mountains.

102. Vulturine Guineafowl (Acryllium vulturinum) – common south of Yavello through to Isiolo in Kenya.

103. Helmeted Guineafowl (Numida meleagris meleagris) – common in the south of Ethiopia.

104. Common Quail (Coturnix coturnix coturnix) – common in Awash NP, frequent elsewhere.

                   (C. c. erlangeri) – a pair thought to be of this sub-species in the grassland near the rim of Fantalle Crater, Awash NP.

105. Harlequin Quail (Coturnix delegorguei delegorguei) – frequent in Awash NP.

106. * Stone Partridge (Ptilopachus petrosus petrosus) – heard on the escarpment above Metu and on the escarpment just north of Nekempte, differentiated from P. p. major purely on the basis that the call was very different for the Stone Partridges heard in Jemmu.

                   (P. p. major) – 2 heard at Jemmu valley,.

107. Coqui Francolin (Francolinus coqui maharao) – two in the Abiata - Shala NP.

108. * Moorland Francolin (Francolinus psilolaemus psilolaemus) – common on Bale Mountains.

109. Crested Francolin (Francolinus sephaena granti) – widespread & common.

110. Scaly Francolin (Francolinus squamatus) – seen near Metu.

111. * Clapperton's Francolin (Francolinus clappertoni) – seen near Weldiya.

112. * Harwood's Francolin (Francolinus harwoodi) – at the edge of the reed-beds upstream of the bridge, Jemmu Valley.

113. * Chestnut-naped Francolin (Francolinus castaneicollis castaneicollis) – common on Bale Mountains.

                   (F. c. atrifrons) – one seen just north of Moyale.

114. * Djibouti Francolin (Francolinus ochropectus) – Heard at Dittilou.

115. * Erckel's Francolin (Francolinus erckelii) –  common on highland escarpments.

116. Yellow-necked Francolin (Francolinus leucoscepus) – widespread & common in the south.

117. Kurrichane Button-Quail (Turnix sylvatica leptirana) – on the track up to Fantalle Crater, Awash NP.

118. * Rouget's Rail (Rougetius rougetii) – a pair seen crossing the road at Jima and common on Bale Mountains.

119. Black Crake (Amaurornis flavirostris) – widespread & common.

120. Common Moorhen (Gallinula chloropus meridionalis) – widespread & common.

121. Red-knobbed Coot (Fulica cristata) – widespread & common.

122. * Common Crane (Grus grus grus) – more than 10 pairs, usually with one or two young, on the road between the Jemmu valley and Debre Birhan, and a scattered flock of approx. 100 on the cultivated wetlands to the east of Lake Tana (Bahir Dar).

123. Wattled Crane (Bugeranus carunculatus) – a pair came in to roost in the evening at one of the tarns on Bale Mountains.

124. * Black Crowned Crane (Balearica pavonina ceciliae) – individuals and small flocks common around Lake Tana (Bahir Dar).

125. * Arabian Bustard (          Ardeotis arabs arabs) – one seen at Awash NP, and several more on the road to the Yangudi–Rassa NP.

126. Kori Bustard (Ardeotis kori struthiunculus) – several seen in Awash NP north of the main road, and common in Nechisar NP.

127. Crested Korhaan (Eupodotis ruficrista gindiana) [considered as a separate species E. gindiana "Buff-crested Bustard" from E. ruficrista "Red-crested Korhaan" of southern Africa and E. savilei "Savile's Bustard" of the Sahel region by some authorities] – widespread & frequent.

128. White-bellied Korhaan (Eupodotis senegalensis canicollis) [considered as a separate species E. senegalensis "White-bellied Bustard" from E. barrowii " Barrow's Korhaan" of southern Africa] – widespread & frequent.

129. Black-bellied Korhaan (Eupodotis melanogaster melanogaster) – widespread & common.

130. African Jacana (Actophilornis africana) – several at Lake Awasa & Lake Ziway.

131. Crab Plover (Dromas ardeola) – a small flock of approx. 5 on the mudflats in Djibouti harbour.

132. * Eurasian Oystercatcher (Haematopus ostralegus longipes) – common on the mud-flats (!) of Djibouti harbour and sandy areas along the eastern sea-shore.

133. Black-winged Stilt (Himantopus himantopus himantopus) – a few at Lake Awasa & Djibouti harbour.

134. Eurasian Avocet (Recurvirostra avosetta) – approx. 10 on the mudflats at Djibouti harbour.

135. * Senegal Thick-knee (Burhinus senegalensis) – a pair on the river near the bridge in Jemmu Valley.

136. Spotted Dikkop (Burhinus capensis maculosus) – common at night along the tracks in the Nechisar plains.

137. Temminck's Courser (Cursorius temminckii) – one seen between Marsabit & Moyale, Kenya.

138. * Little Ringed Plover (Charadrius dubius curonicus) – one identified in the small ponds near the Awash River on the road from Lake Langano to Addis Ababa.

139. Ringed Plover (Charadrius hiaticula tundrae) – 2 seen at Lake Abiata.

140. Kittlitz's Plover (Charadrius pecuarius pecuarius) – several on the mud-flats of Djibouti harbour.

141. Three-banded Plover (Charadrius tricollaris tricollaris) – only one on the cultivated wetlands east of Lake Tana.

142. * Kentish Plover (Charadrius alexandrinus alexandrinus) – a flock of 5 on the northern shore of Gulf of Tadjoura, Djibouti.

143. Greater Sand-Plover (Charadrius leschenaultii columbinus) – several on the eastern seashore, Djibouti.

144. * Lesser Golden Plover (Pluvialis dominica fulva) – approx. 10 at Lake Abiata.

145. Grey Plover (Pluvialis squatarola) – several on the mud-flats of Djibouti harbour.

146. Wattled Plover (Vanellus senegallus senegallus) – common in Nechisar NP.

147. * Spot-breasted Plover (Vanellus melanocephalus) – common in the Dinsho area (especially on the road itself), but not on Sanetti plateau, Bale Mountains.

148. Spur-winged Plover (Vanellus spinosus) – widespread & common.

149. Black-winged Plover (Vanellus melanopterus melanopterus) – common in the highlands, usually in flocks of approx. 10.

150. Crowned Plover (Vanellus coronatus coronatus) – frequent in south.

151. Sanderling (Calidris alba) – several on the eastern seashore, Djibouti.

152. Little Stint (Calidris minuta) – common on Lake Abiata & Djibouti harbour.

153. * Temminck's Stint (Calidris temminckii) – several identified at Lake Abiata.

154. Curlew Sandpiper (Calidris ferruginea) – common on the mud-flats of Djibouti harbour.

155. * Dunlin (Calidris alpina alpina) – several on the mud-flats of Djibouti harbour.

156. * Buff-breasted Sandpiper (Tryngites subruficollis) – flock of approx. 10 on the mud-flats of Djibouti harbour.

157. Ruff (Philomachus pugnax) – common at Lake Abiata & the mud-flats of Djibouti harbour.

158 Black-tailed Godwit (Limosa limosa limosa) – approx. 6 on the mud-flats of Djibouti harbour.

159. Whimbrel (Numenius phaeopus phaeopus) – several seen on the mud-flats of Djibouti harbour.

160. Eurasian Curlew (Numenius arquata orientalis) – two seen on the mud-flats of Djibouti harbour.

161. * Redshank (Tringa totanus ussuriensis) – several at Lake Abiata & the mud-flats of Djibouti harbour.

162. Marsh Sandpiper (Tringa stagnatilis) – several on the mud-flats of Djibouti harbour.

163. Greenshank (Tringa nebularia) – 2 on the mud-flats of Djibouti harbour.

164. Green Sandpiper (Tringa ochropus) – one at the gravel pit above the hot-springs, Wondo Genet.

165. Wood Sandpiper (Tringa glareola) – several on the mud-flats of Djibouti harbour.

166. Terek Sandpiper (Xenus cinereus) – several on the mud-flats of Djibouti harbour.

167. Common Sandpiper (Actitis hypoleucos) – widespread & common.

168. Ruddy Turnstone (Arenaria interpres interpres) – several on the eastern seashore, Djibouti.

169. * Hemprich's Gull (          Larus hemprichii) – several on the mud-flats to the south of the main road into Djibouti city, and the mud-flats of Djibouti harbour.

170. * White-eyed Gull (Larus leucophthalmus) – 2 amongst a flock of Hemprich’s Gulls on the mud-flats of  Djibouti harbour.

171. * Great Black-headed Gull (Larus ichthyaetus) – 5 on Lake Abiata.

172. Grey-headed Gull (Larus cirrocephalus poliocephalus) – approximately 30 on Lake Abiata.

173. * Black-headed Gull (Larus ridibundus) – several at Lake Langano & Lake Tana (Bahir Dar).

174. * Slender-billed Gull (Larus genei) - several in Djibouti Harbour

175. Lesser Black-backed Gull (Larus fuscus fuscus) – approx. 10 with the other gulls on Lake Abiata.

176. * Herring Gull (Larus argentatus heuglini) – common on the mud-flats to the south of the main road into Djibouti city, and the mud-flats of Djibouti harbour.

177. Gull-billed Tern (Gelochelidon nilotica nilotica) – widespread & common.

178. Swift Tern (Sterna bergii velox) – several on the eastern seashore, Djibouti.

179. Common Tern (Sterna hirundo) – several on northern shore of the Gulf of Tadjoura, Djibouti.

180. * White-checked Tern (Sterna repressa) – common on the mud-flats in Djibouti harbour.

181. Little Tern (Sterna albifrons albifrons) – several on the mud-flats of Djibouti harbour (with Saunder’s Terns & also on the northern shore of the Gulf of Tadjoura, Djibouti.

182. * Saunders' Tern (Sterna saundersi saundersi) – approx. 10 on the mud-flats of Djibouti harbour.

There was a surprising and notable absence of “lake terns” throughout Ethiopia, with few Gull-billed terns in evidence (c.f. waterfowl).

183. Chestnut-bellied Sandgrouse (Pterocles exustus olivascens) – a pair in Nechisar NP.

184. * Spotted Sandgrouse (Pterocles senegallus) – approx. 5 flocks in the morning along the road from Dikhil to the Ethiopian border.

185. Black-faced Sandgrouse (Pterocles decoratus ellenbecki) – a pair near Negele.

186. Lichtenstein's Sandgrouse (Pterocles lichtensteinii lichtensteinii) – several on the road from Djibouti to Serdo.

187. Tambourine Dove (Turtur tympanistria) – widespread & common.

188. Blue-spotted Wood Dove (Turtur afer) – widespread & common.

189. Black-billed Wood Dove (Turtur abyssinicus) – common in the west.

190. Emerald-spotted Wood Dove (Turtur chalcospilos) – common in the south.

191. Namaqua Dove (Oena capensis) – widespread & common.

192. Cinnamon Dove (Columba larvata bronzina) – common in the west, especially around Metu.

193. Rameron Pigeon (Columba arquatrix) – several seen around Wondo Genet.

194. Speckled Rock Pigeon (Columba guinea guinea) – widespread & common, especially on bridges & ion towns.

195. * White-collared Pigeon (Columba albitorques) – widespread & common in the highlands, especially in towns.

196. Rock Dove (Columba livia 'domestica') – only seen in Djibouti City, where presumed to be feral.

197. Red-eyed Dove (Streptopelia semitorquata) – widespread & common.

198. African Mourning Dove (Streptopelia decipiens decipiens) – widespread & common.

199. Vinaceous Dove (Streptopelia vinacea) – common in the west.

200. Cape Turtle Dove (Streptopelia capicola somalica) – several seen at Sof Omar.

                   (S. c. electa) – widespread & common.

201. * African Collared Dove (Streptopelia roseogrisea roseogrisea) – identified north of lake Tana (Gorgora).

                   (S. r. arabica) – common between Awash NP and Djibouti.

202. * African White-winged Dove (Streptopelia reichenowi) – several seen along the river near Melka Ghuba, even within 250m of the main road.

203. * European Turtle Dove (Streptopelia turtur turtur) – widespread & common; identified in Awash NP and Djibouti.

                   (S. t. arenicola) – widespread & common; identified in Djibouti.

                   (S. t. isabellina) – widespread & common; identified north of Lake Tana (Gorgora).

204. Dusky Turtle Dove (Streptopelia lugens) – common in the highlands.

205. Laughing Dove (Streptopelia senegalensis senegalensis) – widespread & common.

206. Meyer's Parrot (Poicephalus meyeri meyeri) – a small flock seen near Mega.

207. African Orange-bellied Parrot (Poicephalus rufiventris rufiventris) – widespread & common.

(P. r. pallidus) – a flock calling loudly was found at Sof Omar.

208. * Yellow-fronted Parrot (Poicephalus flavifrons) – several heard at the hotel at Lake Tana (Bahir Dar) & common at the hotel in Wondo Genet.

209. * Black-winged Lovebird (Agapornis taranta) – common around Lake Awasa.

210. * White-cheeked Turaco (Tauraco leucotis leucotis) – one seen near the river at the source of the Blue Nile.

                   (T. l. donaldsoni) – common in the forest above Wondo Genet.

211. * Ruspoli's Turaco (Tauraco ruspolii) – one found at top of the wadi near Genale River.

212. Ross's Turaco (Musophaga rossae) – several around Riverside camp, Iringa, Tanzania.

213. Bare-faced Go-Away Bird (Corythaixoides personata leopoldi) – several seen on the main road near Mikumi, Tanzania.

214. White-bellied Go-Away Bird (Criniferoides leucogaster) – common in the Rift Valley and southern areas.

215. Eastern Grey Plantain-eater (Crinifer zonurus) – several feeding around the Gorgora hotel,  Lake Tana.

216. Jacobin Cuckoo (Oxylophus jacobinus serratus) – many seen driving up through Zambia in November – but none seen on the return trip in January.

217. Great Spotted Cuckoo (Clamator glandarius) – One seen in Abiata-Shala NP.

218. Red-chested Cuckoo (Cuculus solitarius solitarius) – heard calling in the south, and throughout Kenya southwards.

219. African Cuckoo (Cuculus gularis) – one seen near Lake Langano.

220. Klaas's Cuckoo (Chrysococcyx klaas) – widespread & common.

221. Diederik Cuckoo (Chrysococcyx caprius) – widespread & frequent.

222. White-browed Coucal (Centropus superciliosus superciliosus) [considered as a separate species C. superciliosus including C. s. loandae and C. s. socotrae "White-browed Coucal" from C. burchellii "Burchell's Coucal" of southern Africa] – in dry thorn bush in Awash NP.

223. Blue-headed Coucal (Centropus monachus monachus) – in forest edge undergrowth near Lake Heyk.

224. Common Scops Owl (Otus scops senegalensis) [considered a separate species O. senegalensis "African Scops Owl" from O. scops "European Scops Owl" by some authorities] – common & widespread.

                   (O. s. scops) "European Scops Owl" – heard at the camp site in Dittilou, Djibouti (heard at same time as O. s. senegalensis).

225. Spotted Eagle-Owl (Bubo africanus africanus) – one in the bush behind the hotel at Lake Langano.

226. * Little Owl (Athene noctua somaliensis) – one sitting on the track from the lodge in Awash NP.

227. * Long-eared Owl (Asio otus abyssinicus) [considered a separate species A. abyssinicus "Abyssinian Long-eared Owl" from A. otus "Long-eared Owl" by some authorities] – a pair in the Eucalyptus trees at Kofele.

228. Mountain Nightjar (Caprimulgus poliocephalus poliocephalus) – Several calling at the “campsite” near Robe plains.

229. * Plain Nightjar (Caprimulgus inornatus) – spotlighted on the Nechisar plains.

230. Freckled Nightjar (Caprimulgus tristigma tristigma) – heard calling from the rocky hillside above the Seven Olives hotel at Lalibela.

231. * Dusky Nightjar (Caprimulgus fraenatus) – spotlighted on the Nechisar plains.

232. African Palm Swift (Cypsiurus parvus parvus) – large numbers at the hot springs, Awash NP.

233. European Swift (Apus apus apus) – several identified in the Rift Valley.

234. Little Swift (Apus affinis affinis) – a few seen near bridges around the Mega area.

The absence of Swifts throughout Ethiopia was a very notable feature.

235. Blue-naped Mousebird (Urocolius macrourus macrourus) – seen between Dilbe and Lalibela.

                   (U. m. pulcher) – Sof Omar.

                   (U. m. abyssinicus) – common in south and Rift Valley.

                   (U. m. griseogularis) – seen near Gambela.

236. Speckled Mousebird (Colius striatus leucotis) – widespread & common.

237. Narina's Trogon (Apaloderma narina narina) – at Ruspoli's Turaco site near the River Genale.

238. Grey-headed Kingfisher (Halcyon leucocephala leucocephala) – one in Nechisar NP.

239. Woodland Kingfisher (Halcyon senegalensis senegalensis) – several in the grounds of the hotel at Lake Awasa.

240. African Pygmy Kingfisher (Ceyx picta picta) – One seen in the bush behind the hotel at Lake Langano.

241. Malachite Kingfisher (Corythornis cristata galerita) – Several in the small pond in the gardens of the hotel at Lake Awasa.

242. Pied Kingfisher (Ceryle rudis) – widespread & common.

243. Little Bee-eater (Merops pusillus ocularis) – common in north.

                   (M. p. cyanostictus) – common in south .

244. Blue-breasted Bee-eater (Merops variegatus lafresnayii) [considered as race of M. oreobates "Cinnamon-chested Bee-eater" by some authorities] – widespread & common.

245. European Bee-eater (Merops apiaster) – only saw one small flock in the south.

246. Carmine Bee-eater (Merops nubicus nubicus) [considered a separate species Merops nubicus "Northern Carmine Bee-eater" from M. nubicoides "Southern Carmine Bee-eater" by some authorities] – common within approx. 30 km of large lakes.

247. Purple Roller (Coracias naevia naevia) – common in south and southern Rift Valley.

                   (C. n. mosambica) – common in Zimbabwe and southern Zambia.

248. * Abyssinian Roller (Coracias abyssinica) – common in north.

249. European Roller (Coracias garrulus garrulus) – frequent in south.

250. Lilac-breasted Roller (Coracias caudata caudata) – common in Kenya and to the south.

                   (C. c. lorti) – widespread & frequent.

251. Red-billed Wood-Hoopoe (Phoeniculus purpureus niloticus) – a flock seen near the hot springs in Nechisar NP.

252. * Black-billed Wood-Hoopoe (Phoeniculus somaliensis neglectus) – several seen along the Mega to Yavello road.

253. Violet Wood-Hoopoe (Phoeniculus damarensis granti) [considered as a separate species P granti "Grant's Wood-Hoopoe" from P. damarensis "Violet Wood-Hoopoe" of Namibia by some authorities] – one seen (and heard) near Metu.

254. Scimitarbill (Phoeniculus cyanomelas shalowi) – widespread & common.

255. Black Wood-Hoopoe (Phoeniculus aterrimus notatus) – one, with an orangy – ivory coloured bill, seen in Nechisar NP.

256. Abyssinian Scimitarbill (Phoeniculus minor cabanisi) – several at Sof Omar.

257. Hoopoe (Upupa epops senegalensis) [considered as a separate species U. epops including U. e. epops and U. e. waibeli "European Hoopoe" from U. africana "African Hoopoe" by some authorities ] – identified in Jemmu valley,  and southern and western areas.

                   (U. e. waibeli) – identified in Gambela NP.

                   (U. e. epops) – identified north of Lake Tana (Gorgora).

258. Abyssinian Ground Hornbill (Bucorvus abyssinicus) – widespread & common.

259. Red-billed Hornbill (Tockus erythrorhynchus erythrorhynchus) – widespread & frequent.

                   (T. e. rufirostris) – seen on track to Shiwa Ngandu, Zambia.

260. Eastern Yellow-billed Hornbill (Tockus flavirostris) – common in south.

261. Von der Decken's Hornbill (Tockus deckeni deckeni) [considered separate species T. deckeni "Von der Decken's Hornbill" from T. jacksoni "Jackson’s Hornbill" by some authorities] – widespread & frequent.

262. Hemprich's Hornbill (Tockus hemprichii) – fairly common along escarpments in the eastern half of the country.

263. Crowned Hornbill (Tockus alboterminatus) – seen north of Mega.

264. Pale-billed Hornbill (Tockus pallidirostris neumanni) – several seen near the road in the Mpika area, Zambia.

265. African Grey Hornbill (Tockus nasutus nasutus) – widespread & frequent.

266. Silvery-checked Hornbill (Ceratogymna brevis) – widespread & frequent.

267. Red-fronted Tinkerbird (Pogoniulus pusillus affinis) – several seen at Sof Omar.

                   (P. p. uropygialis) – one north of Lake Tana (Gorgora).

268. Yellow-fronted Tinkerbird (Pogoniulus chrysoconus chrysoconus) –  widespread & frequent.

                   (P. c. xanthostictus) – one in the bush behind the hotel at Lake Langano.

269. Red-fronted Barbet (Tricholaema diademata diademata) – one seen in the bush behind the hotel at Lake Langano.

270. Miombo Pied Barbet (Tricholaema frontata) – Common on the track to Shiwa Ngandu, Zambia.

271. Black-throated Barbet (Tricholaema melanocephala stigmatothorax) – one in Awash NP.

272. * Banded Barbet (Lybius undatus leucogenys) – in gardens at the back of the hotel at Lake Langano.

                   (L. u. undatus) – in the grounds of the Seven Olives Hotel, Lalibela.

273. Black-billed Barbet (Lybius guifsobalito) – common around Fantalle Crater, Awash NP and in the lower levels of the northern highlands.

274. Black-collared Barbet (Lybius torquatus pumilio) – frequent in the south and Rift Valley south of Addis Ababa.

275. Double-toothed Barbet (Lybius bidentatus aequatorialis) – in the forest above Wondo Genet.

276. * Yellow-breasted Barbet (Trachyphonus margaritatus margaritatus) – north of Lake Tana (Gorgora).

                   (T. m. somalicus) – in the wadi below Dittilou, Djibouti.

277. D'Arnaud's Barbet (Trachyphonus darnaudii bohmi) – seen twice near Moyale, Kenya, once on my way north, and again – in almost the same spot, while going south.

278. Eastern Green-backed Honeybird (Prodotiscus zambesiae ellenbecki) – one near River Genale while looking for Ruspoli’s Turaco.

279. Greater Honeyguide (Indicator indicator) - widespread & common.

280. Lesser Honeyguide (Indicator minor teitensis) – on track to Shiwa Ngandu, Zambia

                   (I. m. diadematus) – widespread & common.

281. Nubian Woodpecker (Campethera nubica nubica) – in the grounds of the hotel at Lake Awasa.

282. Golden-tailed Woodpecker (Campethera abingoni  suahelica) – in the grounds of the hotel at Lake Awasa.

283. * Abyssinian Woodpecker (Dendropicos abyssinicus) – common in Simien Mountains.

284. Cardinal Woodpecker (Dendropicos fuscescens massaicus) – frequent in the Rift Valley.

                   (D. f. hemprichii) – at the campsite, Awash NP.

285. Bearded Woodpecker (Dendropicos namaquus schoensis) – one in grounds of the hotel at Lake Awasa.

286. Grey Woodpecker (Dendropicos goertae spodocephalus) [considered a separate species D. spodocephalus "Grey-headed Woodpecker" by some authorities] – two in grounds of the hotel at Lake Awasa.

287. African Broadbill (Smithornis capensis albigularis) – heard calling at Shiwa Ngandu

288. * Singing Bush-Lark (Mirafra cantillans marginata) – several in Djibouti.

                   (M. c. chadensis) – several seen near Gambela.

289. White-tailed Bush-Lark (Mirafra albicauda) – on the northern edge of the Nechisar plains.

290. * Williams's Lark (Mirafra williamsi) – approx. 25 km north of Marsabit.

291. Red-winged Bush-Lark (Mirafra hypermetra gallarum) – frequent in the Rift Valley.

292. Flappet Lark (Mirafra rufocinnamomea omoensis) – common around Fantalle Crater in Awash NP, probably seen elsewhere, but not identified.

293. Fawn-coloured Lark (Mirafra africanoides intercedens) – frequent in Awash NP.

294. * Sidamo Lark (Heteromirafra sidamoensis) – at the “normal” site (see Richard Webb’s trip report) just after the turn-off from Negele to Melka Ghuba.

295. * Hoopoe-Lark (Alaemon alaudipes desertorum) – Several along the road from Dikhil to Djibouti city.

296. * Bimaculated Lark (Melanocorypha bimaculata bimaculata) – one between Serdo and Djibouti.

297. * Desert Lark (Ammomanes deserti assabensis) – several small flocks between Serdo and Djibouti.

298. * Greater Short-toed Lark (Calandrella brachydactyla brachydactyla) – on the main road to Djibouti city.

299. Red-capped Lark (Calandrella cinerea erlangeri) [considered as a separate species C. erlangeri "Erlanger's Lark" by some authorities] – common in the highlands.

300. * Masked Lark (Spizocorys personata yavelloensis) – one, approx. 20 km north of Marsabit.

301. Crested Lark (Galerida cristata altirostris) – common in the south.

302. * Thekla Lark (Galerida malabarica praetermissa) – common in the higher elevation highlands.

                   (G. m. huei) – Bale Mountains.

303. Chestnut-backed Sparrow-Lark (Eremopterix leucotis leucotis) – common between the Yangudi-Rassa NP and Djibouti.

304. * Black-crowned Sparrow-Lark (Eremopterix nigriceps melanauchen) – common throughout Djibouti.

305. Black Saw-wing (Psalidoprocne pristoptera blandfordi) [considered as a separate species P. pristoptera with P. p. pristoptera "Blue Saw-wing" by some authorities] – a small flock  west of Metu .

                   (P. p. oleaginea) [considered as a separate species P. oleaginea "Ethiopian Saw-wing" by some authorities] – two seen in near Jima.

 (P. p. antinorii) [considered as a separate species P. antinorii "Brown Saw-wing" by some authorities] – a flock at the gravel pit, Wondo Genet.

306. White-headed Saw-wing (Psalidoprocne albiceps albiceps) – in dense woodland near Shiwa Ngandu, Zambia.

307. Brown-throated Sand Martin (Riparia paludicola schoensis) – along the cliffs behind the hotel at Lake Langano.

308. Grey-rumped Swallow (Pseudhirundo griseopyga griseopyga) – a single bird seen west of Metu.

309. Red-breasted Swallow (Hirundo semirufa semirufa) – common from central Kenya southwards.

310. Lesser Striped Swallow (Hirundo abyssinica abyssinica) – widespread & common.

311. Red-rumped Swallow (Hirundo daurica rufula) – identified on the road to the Simien mountains.

                   (H. d. melanocrissa) – identified near Addis Ababa.

                   (H. d. emini) – identified near Isiolo.

312. Rock Martin (Hirundo fuligula fusciventris) – widespread and common.

                   (H. f. pusilla) – identified on Jemmu escarpment.

313. * Crag Martin (Hirundo rupestris) – a pair at the top of the Jemmu escarpment.

314. Wire-tailed Swallow (Hirundo smithi smithi) – frequent in the Rift Valley.

315. * White-tailed Swallow (Hirundo megaensis) – several close to Yavello on the road from Negele.

316. Ethiopian Swallow (Hirundo aethiopica aethiopica) – one in Awash NP.

317. * Red-chested Swallow (Hirundo lucida rothschildi) – two on the Solulta plains.

318. Barn Swallow (Hirundo rustica rustica) – widespread & common.

319. Common House Martin (Delichon urbica urbica) –  widespread & frequent.

320. Yellow Wagtail (Motacilla flava flava) – widespread & common.

                   (M. f. thunbergi) – common in the Abiata Shala NP.

                   (M. f. feldegg) – common in the Abiata –Shala NP.

321. Grey Wagtail (Motacilla cinerea cinerea) – common in the Abiata-Shala NP.

322. Long-tailed Wagtail (Motacilla clara torrentium) – one near Wondo Genet.

323. * White Wagtail (Motacilla alba alba) – widespread and common.

324. African Pied Wagtail (Motacilla aguimp vidua) – several in the western lowlands.

325. Richard's Pipit (Anthus novaeseelandiae cinnamomeus) [considered, with all the other African sub-species, as a separate species A. cinnamomeus "African Pipit" by some authorities] – common throughout the Rift Valley.

                   (A. n. annae) – near Serdo on the road to Djibouti.

(A. n. lacuum) – seen around Mt Kenya.

326. * Tawny Pipit (Anthus campestris campestris) – one near the rim of Fantalle Crater, Awash NP.

327. Long-billed Pipit (Anthus similis hararensis) – widespread & common.

328. Plain-backed Pipit (Anthus leucophrys zenkeri) – several south of Negele.

                   (A. l. omoensis) – several seen between Nekempte and Metu.

                   (A. l. saphiroi) – common around Dinsho.

329. Tree Pipit (Anthus trivialis trivialis) – frequent in the Rift Valley.

330. * Red-throated Pipit (Anthus cervinus) – widespread and common.

331. * Abyssinian Longclaw (Macronyx flavicollis) – several on the Bale Mountains, and one possible in the wet cultivated lands to the east of Lake Tana (Bahir Dar).

332. * Red-shouldered Cuckoo-Shrike (Campephaga phoenicea) – a pair in the forest above Wondo Genet.

333. Black-eyed Bulbul (Pycnonotus barbatus schoanus) – common in the western highlands.

                   (P. b. somaliensis) – identified in Djibouti.

                   (P. b. spurius) – identified near Negele.

(P. b. dodsoni) [considered as a separate species P. dodsoni "Dodson's Bulbul" by some authorities] – one near the river at Melka Ghuba.

                   (P. b. tricolor) – at Shiwa Ngandu, Zambia.

334. * Nightingale (Luscinia megarhynchos africana) – one in the bush behind the hotel at Lake Langano.

335. * Irania (Irania gutturalis) – one in the gardens of the hotel at Lake Langano.

336. Rόppell's Robin-Chat (Cossypha semirufa semirufa) – frequent in the Rift Valley and western highlands.

                   (C. s. donaldsoni) – several in the Harrena forest.

337. White-browed Robin-Chat (Cossypha heuglini heuglini) – one, near Moyale.

338. Spotted Palm-Thrush (Cichladusa guttata intercalans) – common south of Yavello.

339. White-browed Scrub-Robin (Cercotrichas leucophrys leucoptera) – common in the Rift Valley.

340. * Rufous Scrub-Robin (Cercotrichas galactotes syriacus) – several seen on the edge of the Nechisar plains.

341. * Black Scrub-Robin (Cercotrichas podobe podobe) – several in bushed wadis on the main road to Djibouti city.

342. * Black Redstart (Phoenicurus ochruros phoenicuroides) – a pair near the bridge of the Jemmu valley.

343. Common Redstart (Phoenicurus phoenicurus phoenicurus) – widespread & common.

                   (P. p. samamisicus) – in company with P. p. phoenicurus at the campsite in Dittilou, Djibouti.

344. Common Stonechat (Saxicola torquata promiscua) – on road to Iringa, Tanzania.

                   (S. t. albofasciata) – common in the highlands.

                   (S. t. armenica) – common at Lalibela and  Simien Mountains.

                   (S. t. variegata) – frequent in the south & and the Rift Valley.

345. Whinchat (Saxicola rubetra) – one near Lake Langano.

346. * White-crowned Black Wheatear (Oenanthe leucopyga aegra) – common on the black lava in Djibouti.

347. Northern Wheatear (Oenanthe oenanthe oenanthe) – widespread & frequent, identified in the Abiata-Shala NP.

                   (O. o. libanotica) – widespread & frequent, identified in the Abiata-Shala NP.

348. * Pied Wheatear (Oenanthe pleschanka  pleschanka) – widespread & common, reaching as far south as northern Tanzania.

                   (O. p. cypriaca) – only identified at Sof Omar.

349. * Black-eared Wheatear (Oenanthe hispanica melanoleuca) – several on the Jemmu escarpment, and on other escarpments

350. * Mourning Wheatear (Oenanthe lugens lugubris) [considered as a separate species O. lugubris with O. l. schalowi "Schalow's Wheatear" by some authorities] – widespread & common.

(O. l. schalowi) [considered as a separate species O. schalowi "Schalow's Wheatear" by some authorities] – one seen near Arusha.

351. * Red-tailed Wheatear (Oenanthe xanthoprymna chrysopygia) – common from the eastern Rift Valley through to Djibouti.

352. * Desert Wheatear (Oenanthe deserti deserti) – one seen at the western end of the Gulf of Tadjoura, Djibouti.

353. * Red-breasted Wheatear (Oenanthe bottae heuglini) – frequent west of Metu.

                   (O. b. frenata) – common around the Gefersa reservoir, and towards the east.

354. Isabelline Wheatear (Oenanthe isabellina) – widespread & common.

355. Familiar Chat (Cercomela familiaris falkensteini) – on the edge of the Nechisar plains.

356. Brown-tailed Rock-Chat (Cercomela scotocerca turkana) – several seen on the eastern slopes of the Sof Omar valley.

357. * Black-tailed Rock-Chat (Cercomela melanura aussae) – several seen near Djibouti city.

358. Moorland Chat (Cercomela sordida sordida) – common above 3000 metres.

359. Northern Anteater-Chat (Myrmecocichla aethiops cryptoleuca) – common around Mount Kenya.

360. * Rόppell's Black Chat (Myrmecocichla melaena) – common on the Jemmu escarpment, and also around Lalibela.

361. White-fronted Black Chat (Myrmecocichla albifrons albifrons) – common around Addis Ababa.

362. Arnott's Chat (Myrmecocichla arnotti arnotti) – seen near the track to Shiwa Ngandu, Tanzania.

363. Mocking Chat (Myrmecochicla cinnamomeiventris subrufipennis) – several on the western escarpment near Metu.

                   (M. c. albiscapulata) – widespread in highlands.

364. * White-winged Cliff-Chat (Myrmecocichla semirufa) – common around Lalibela.

365. * Little Rock-Thrush (Monticola rufocinereus rufocinereus) – several at the top of the Jemmu escarpment.

366. * Mountain Rock-Thrush (Monticola saxatilis) – at the base of the cliffs at Lake Langano.

367. * Blue Rock-Thrush (Monticola solitarius longirostris) – one seen on the upper slopes of the escarpment at Jemmu.

368. * Abyssinian Ground-Thrush (Zoothera piaggiae piaggiae) – two in the forest above Wondo Genet.

369. Groundscraper Thrush (Psophocichla litsitsirupa simensis) – widespread and common in open grassland in the highlands.

370. Olive Thrush (Turdus olivaceus abyssinicus) [considered as a separate species T. abyssinicus "Mountain Olive Thrush" or “Mountain Thrush” by some authorities] – widespread and common.

371. African Thrush (Turdus pelios pelios) – several in Gambela NP.

                   (T. p. centralis) – one behind the hotel at Lake Langano.

                   (T. p. stormsi) – seen in the grounds of the Forest Inn, Zambia.

372. * Bare-eyed Thrush (Turdus tephronotus) – several around Negele.

373. * Song Thrush (Turdus philomelos philomelos) – one near the road to Gorgora from Gonder.

374. * Eurasian Reed-Warbler (Acrocephalus scirpaceus fuscus) – several at Lake Heyk.

375. African Reed-Warbler (Acrocephalus baeticatus cinnamomeus) – common on the escarpments in the west, a beautifully coloured bird that was behaving almost like a chat, hopping all over the road looking for insects.

376. Olivaceous Warbler (Hippolais pallida pallida) – common in the Rift Valley.

377. * Upcher's Warbler (Hippolais languida) – common in the Rift Valley.

378. Olive-tree Warbler (Hippolais olivetorum) – in the bush behind the hotel at Lake Langano.

379. Singing Cisticola (Cisticola cantans cantans) – frequent in the highlands.

380. Rattling Cisticola (Cisticola chiniana fricki) – near Lake Langano.

381. * Boran Cisticola (Cisticola bodessa bodessa) – 2 seen at Fantalle Crater, Awash NP.

382. Ashy Cisticola (Cisticola cinereolus schillingsi) – several in the bush behind the hotel at Lake Langano.

383. Stout Cisticola (Cisticola robustus robustus) – several in the bush behind the hotel at Lake Langano.

384. Croaking Cisticola (Cisticola natalensis inexpectatus) – several at the base of the escarpment at Lake Langano.

385. * Red-pate Cisticola (Cisticola ruficeps scotopterus) – 1 seen in bush close to Gambela.

386. Tiny Cisticola (Cisticola nanus) – common on the road from Negele to Melka Ghuba.

387. Short-winged Cisticola (Cisticola brachypterus zedlitzi) – in the Gorgora hotel grounds, Lake Tana.

388. Foxy Cisticola (Cisticola troglodytes troglodytes) – common on the escarpments around Nekempte and Metu.

389. Neddicky (Cisticola fulvicapillus muelleri) – at the border post between Zambia & Tanzania.

390. Fan-tailed Cisticola (Cisticola juncidis uropygialis) – several around Metu.

391. Desert Cisticola (Cisticola aridulus lavendulae) – several north of Mega.

392. * Black-backed Cisticola (Cisticola eximius eximius) – between Lalibela and Gonder.

393. * Pectoral-patch Cisticola (Cisticola brunnescens wambera) – between Weldiya and Lalibela.

Many Cisticolas remained unidentified, and I only concentrated in the areas where I thought there was a possibility of finding a lifer.

394. Tawny-flanked Prinia (Prinia subflava pallescens) – frequent in the highlands.

                   (P. s. subflava) – near Gambela.

395. * Graceful Prinia (Prinia gracilis carlo) – found in bush on the outskirts of Djibouti city.

396. Buff-bellied Warbler (Phyllolais pulchella) – common in the Rift Valley.

397. Yellow-breasted Apalis (Apalis flavida flavocincta) – one north of Mega.

(A. f. viridiceps) [considered as a separate species A. viridiceps "Brown-tailed Apalis" by some authorities] – several seen in the valley floor at Sof Omar.

398. Bleating Warbler (Camaroptera brachyura brevicaudata) – identified in the Gorgora Hotel grounds, Lake Tana.

                   (C. b. abessinica) – widespread & common.

                   (C. b. insulata) – common in Gambela NP.

399. Grey Wren-Warbler (Calamonastes simplex) – seen between Mega and Yavello.

400. Yellow-bellied Eremomela (Eremomela icteropygialis griseoflava) – one in Awash NP.

401. * Yellow-vented Eremomela (Eremomela flavicrissalis) – one seen on the road north of Marsabit, Kenya.

402. Green-backed Eremomela (Eremomela canescens abyssinica) – one in Gambela NP.

403. Northern Crombec (Sylvietta brachyura brachyura) – frequent in north-east.

                   (S. b. leucopsis) – widespread & common.

404. * Somali Long-billed Crombec (Sylvietta isabellina) – one seen on the road from Negele to Melka Ghuba.

405. Willow Warbler (Phylloscopus trochilus acredula) – widespread & frequent.

                   (P. t. yakutensis) – widespread & frequent.

406. * Common Chiffchaff (Phylloscopus collybita collybita) – widespread & common, identified in Simien Mountains.

                   (P. c. abietinus) – widespread & common, identified in hotel grounds at Lake Awasa.

407. * Brown Woodland-Warbler (Phylloscopus umbrovirens umbrovirens) – several in the forest above Wondo Genet.

408. * Orphean Warbler (Sylvia hortensis crassirostris) – one out of range in the hotel grounds at Lake Awasa, and several in the bush of the wadi below Dittilou, Djibouti.

409. * Red Sea Warbler (Sylvia leucomelaena somaliensis) – several in the bush of the wadi below Dittilou, Djibouti.

410. * Blackcap (Sylvia atricapilla atricapilla) – identified in the grounds of the Gorgora hotel, Lake Tana

                   (S. a. dammholzi) – widespread and common.

411. * Lesser Whitethroat (Sylvia curruca curruca) – several in the hotel grounds at Lake Awasa.

412. * Menetries's Warbler (Sylvia mystacea mystacea) – several in the lightly bushed areas of Awash NP and in the wadi below Dittilou, Djibouti.

413. * Brown Parisoma (Parisoma lugens lugens) – several in the hotel grounds, Wondo Genet.

                   (P. l. griseiventris) – seen near Robe.

414. * Abyssinian Slaty Flycatcher. (Melaenornis chocolatinus chocolatinus) – in the grounds of the Seven Olives hotel, Lalibela.

415. Northern Black Flycatcher (Melaenornis edolioides lugubris) – several near Gambela.

                   (M. e. schistaceus) – widespread & common.

416. African Grey Flycatcher (Melaenornis microrhynchus neumanni) [considered as a separate species M. microrhynchus including M. m. neumanni "Large Grey Flycatcher" by some authorities] – frequent in south.

(M. m. pumilus) [considered as a separate species M. pumilus "Little Grey Flycatcher" by some authorities] – at Fantalle Crater, Awash NP.

417. Silverbird (Empidornis semipartitus) – frequent in the highlands.

418. African Dusky Flycatcher (Muscicapa adusta minima) – two at Sanford English School, Addis Ababa.

419. Bφhm's Flycatcher (Muscicapa boehmi) – common on the track to Shiwa Ngandu, Zambia.

420. African Paradise-Flycatcher (Terpsiphone viridis ferreti) – common, with several having partial rufous replacement with white, and one with total replacement.

                   (T. v. plumbeiceps) – at Shiwa Ngandu, Zambia.

421. Black-throated Wattle-eye (Platysteira peltata mentalis) – at Shiwa Ngandu campsite, Zambia.

422. Chinspot Batis (Batis molitor puella) – on the road to Shiwa Ngandu, Zambia.

423. * Grey-headed Batis (Batis orientalis bella) – in the bush behind the hotel at Lake Langano.

                   (B. o. chadensis) – several in Gambela NP.

424. * Black-headed Batis (Batis minor erlangeri) – frequent in Awash NP.

425. Pygmy Batis (Batis perkeo) – on the road from Negele to Yavello.

426. Ethiopian Hill-Babbler (Pseudoalcippe abyssinicus abyssinicus) – feeding in the open in the forest above Wondo Genet.

427. * Brown Babbler (Turdoides plebejaus cinerea) – two flocks near Gambela.

428. * Scaly Babbler (Turdoides squamulatus jubaensis) – one seen between the River Genale and Negele.

429. White-rumped Babbler (Turdoides leucopygius leucopygia) [considered as a separate from the southern African races  grouped under T. hartlaubi "Hartlaub's Babbler" by some authorities] – common in the Simien Mountains, totally white head caused some confusion.

                   (T. l. limbata) – several seen near Lake Heyk and Lalibela.

                   (T. l. smithi) – on the road from Serdo to Djibouti.

                   (T. l. omoensis) – several flocks in Nechisar NP.

                   (T. l. clarkei) – several flocks near Gambela.

                   (T. l. lacuum) – one group between Nechisar NP & Shashamene.

430. * Fulvous Chatterer (Argya fulvus acaciae) – seen in Awash NP .

431. Rufous Chatterer (Argya rubiginosus heuglini) – widespread & common.

432. * Ethiopian Catbird (Parophasma galinieri) – common on the Simien mountains, seldom seen elsewhere in the highlands.

433. Northern Grey Tit (Parus thruppi) – common at Sof Omar.

434. Miombo Grey Tit (Parus griseiventris) – common on the track to Shiwa Ngandu, Zambia.

435. White-winged Black Tit (Parus leucomelas leucomelas) – 3 at Lake Abiata-Shala NP.

436. * White-backed Black Tit (Parus leuconotus) – common on the road from Bale Mountains south towards Negele.

437. Mouse-coloured Penduline Tit (Anthoscopus musculus musculus) – in the bush behind the hotel at Lake Langano.

438. Amethyst Sunbird (Nectarinia amethystina kirkii) – on the track to Shiwa Ngandu, Zambia.

439. Scarlet-chested Sunbird (Nectarinia senegalensis cruentata) – widespread & frequent.

440. Variable Sunbird (Nectarinia venustus albiventris) – widespread, but common in the grounds of the Gorgora Hotel, Lake Tana (the name of "Yellow-bellied Sunbird" inappropriate to this race, as it is white-bellied).

                   (N. v. fazoqlensis) [considered as a separate species N. fazoqlensis "Northern Yellow-bellied Sunbird" by some authorities] – widespread, but common at Wondo Genet.

441. Miombo Double-collared Sunbird (Nectarinia manoensis) – along the track to Shiwa Ngandu, Zambia.

442. Smaller Black-bellied Sunbird (Nectarinia nectarinioides erlangeri) – one seen by the river near Melka Ghuba.

443. Shining Sunbird (Nectarinia habessinica habessinicus) – common on road to Fantalle Crater, Awash NP.

444. Copper Sunbird (Nectarinia cuprea cuprea) – one, near Metu.

445. Tacazze Sunbird (Nectarinia tacazze) – widespread and common.

446. Beautiful Sunbird (Nectarinia pulchella lucidipectus) – several on the track up Fantalle Crater, Awash NP.

447. Yellow-tufted Malachite Sunbird (Nectarinia famosa cupreonitens) – several seen from the main road near Mount Kenya.

448. * White-breasted White-eye (Zosterops abyssinicus abyssinicus) – widespread & common.

449. Yellow White-eye (Zosterops senegalensis jubaensis) – several at Sof Omar.

450. African Golden Oriole (Oriolus auratus auratus) – one seen at Nechisar NP

451. Black-headed Oriole (Oriolus larvatus rolleti) – common in the Rift Valley.

452. * Black-headed Forest Oriole (Oriolus monacha meneliki) – common at the hotel at Wondo Genet.

453. Red-backed Shrike (Lanius collurio) – common in Awash NP.

454. Red-tailed Shrike (Lanius isabellinus phoenicuroides) – common in Awash NP.

455. Lesser Grey Shrike (Lanius minor) – widespread & frequent.

456. * Great Grey Shrike (Lanius excubitor elegans) [including L. e. leucopygos in this race] [considered as  a separate species L. elegans "Southern Great Grey Shrike" from L. excubitor "Northern Shrike" by some authorities] – common in Djibouti.

                   (L. e. pallidirostris) – frequent between Weldiya, Lalibela & Gonder.

                   (L. e. buryi) – common in Djibouti.

                   (L. e. aucheri) – common in Awash NP and towards Djibouti.

457. Grey-backed Fiscal (Lanius excubitoroides bohmi) – frequent in the Rift Valley, south and south-east.

458. Long-tailed Fiscal (Lanius cabanisi) – common in the south and through Kenya.

459. Somali Fiscal (Lanius somalicus) – singles in Awash NP & near Negele.

460. Fiscal Shrike (Lanius collaris humeralis) – common in the Rift Valley and south.

461. * Woodchat Shrike (Lanius senator niloticus) – one at Lake Abiata-Shala NP.

462. Long-tailed Shrike (Urolestes melanoleucus aequatorialis) – one seen near Yavello.

463. Northern White-crowned Shrike (Eurocephalus ruppelli) – common in the south.

464. * Pringles' Puffback (Dryoscopus pringli) – one seen next to the road by the river near Melka Ghuba.

465. Northern Puffback (Dryoscopus gambensis erythreae) – widespread & frequent.

466. Three-streaked Tchagra (Tchagra jamesi jamesi) – frequent in the southern Rift Valley.

467. Black-headed Tchagra (Tchagra senegala habessinica) – widespread & common.

468. Rosy-patched Shrike (Rhodophoneus cruentus hilgerti) – common from Awash NP through to Djibouti.

469. Tropical Boubou (Laniarius aethiopicus aethiopicus) – widespread & common.

                   (L. a. major) – at campsite at Shiwa Ngandu, Zambia.

470. Crimson-breasted Bush Shrike (Laniarius attrococcineus erythrogaster) – common in the western lowlands near Gambela.

471. Slate-coloured Boubou (Laniarius funebris) – widespread & common.

472. Orange-breasted Bush Shrike (Malaconotus sulfureopectus similis) – widespread & frequent.

473. Grey-headed Bush Shrike (Malaconotus blanchoti approximans) – in the dry wadi near the River Genale while searching for Ruspoli’s Turaco.

474. White Helmet Shrike (Prionops plumatus poliocephala) [considered as  a separate species P. plumata "Straight-crested White Helmet Shrike" from P. cristata " Curly-crested White Helmet Shrike " by some authorities] – several at Forest Inn near Mkushi, Zambia.

                   (P. p. cristata) [ see above] – frequent in the Rift Valley.

475. Fork-tailed Drongo (Dicrurus adsimilis adsimilis) – widespread and common.

476. * Stresemann's Bush Crow (Zavattariornis stresemanni) – common on road from Moyale (from 40 km south of Mega) north to Yavello, although none seen on road from Negele to Yavello.

477. * Red-billed Chough (Pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax docilis) – large flock of 100+ seen in Simien, and two pairs seen in the Bale Mountains.

478. House Crow (Corvus splendens splendens) – common in Djibouti city.

479. Pied Crow (Corvus albus) – widespread & common.

480. Black Crow (Corvus capensis kordofanensis) – widespread & common.

481. Fan-tailed Raven (Corvus rhipidurus) – common in the highlands.

482. White-necked Raven (Corvus albicollis) – frequent on the road past Mount Kenya.

483. * Thick-billed Raven (Corvus crassirostris) – very common in the eastern highlands, less so in the western.

484. Red-winged Starling (Onychognathus morio ruppellii) – common in northern Kenya and the south.

485. * Somali Chestnut-winged Starling (Onychognathus blythii) – a small flock seen at the Fantalle Crater, Awash NP.

486. * Slender-billed Chestnut-winged Starling (Onychognathus tenuirostris tenuirostris) – several flocks seen in the forest above at Wondo Genet.

487. * White-billed Starling (Onychognathus albirostris) – common along highland escarpments

488. Greater Blue-eared Glossy Starling (Lamprotornis chalybeus chalybeus) – widespread & common.

                   (L c. sycobius) – on the track to Shiwa Ngandu, Zambia.

489. Lesser Blue-eared Glossy Starling (Lamprotornis chloropterus chloropterus) – widespread & common.

490. Splendid Glossy Starling (Lamprotornis splendidus splendidus) – common in the grounds of the hotel at Lake Awasa.

491. Rόppell's Long-tailed Glossy Starling. (Lamprotornis purpuropterus purpuropterus) – common in the southern Rift Valley.

492. Superb Starling (Lamprotornis superbus) – common in Kenya and southern Ethiopia.

493. * Shelley's Starling (Lamprotornis shelleyi) – common on the road between Mega and Yavello.

494. * White-crowned Starling (Spreo albicapillus) – common on the road from Mega to Yavello, as well as from Melka Ghuba to Yavello.

495. Golden-breasted Starling (Cosmopsarus regius) – common in N Kenya and southern Ethiopia.

496. Ashy Starling (Cosmopsarus unicolor) – the commonest bird on the main road west of Iringa as it passes along the edge of the Udzungwa NP.

497. * Sharpe's Starling (Cinnyricinclus sharpii) – one bird seen while lazing in the Wondo Genet hot-springs.

498. Violet-backed Starling (Cinnyricinclus leucogaster leucogaster) – in the grounds of the Gorgora hotel, Lake Tana.

                   (C. l. arabicus) – frequent in the Rift Valley.

499. Magpie Starling (Speculipastor bicolor) – common from Moyale southwards.

500. Wattled Starling (Creatophora cinerea) – several in the hotel grounds at Lake Awasa.

501. Red-billed Oxpecker (Buphagus erythorhynchus erythorhynchus) – on cattle around Lake Tana.

                   (B. e. caffer) – from the southern Rift Valley southwards.

502. Rufous Sparrow (Passer motitensis shelleyi) [considered a separate species P. shelleyi “Kenya Rufous Sparrow” or "White Nile Rufous Sparrow" by some authorities] – common around Negele, also at Lalibela.

503. Grey-headed Sparrow (Passer griseus swainsonii) [considered a separate species P. swainsonii "Swainson's Sparrow" by some authorities] – very common from N Kenya to southern Ethiopia.

504. * Bush Petronia (Petronia dentata dentata) – on the road from Mille to Dese.

505. * Pale Rock-sparrow (Petronia brachydactyla) – near the main road on the outskirts of Djibouti city.

506. White-billed Buffalo Weaver (Bubalornis albirostris) – frequent in the western highlands.

507. Red-billed Buffalo Weaver (Bubalornis niger intermedius) – frequent on the road from Mega to Yavello.

508. White-headed Buffalo Weaver (Dinemellia dinemelli dinemelli) – common in the south.

                   (D. d. boehmi) – north of Arusha in Tanzania.

                   (D. d. ruspolii) – common around Lake Tana.

509. Speckle-fronted Weaver (Sporopipes frontalis frontalis) – common in the southern Rift Valley.

510. Stripe-breasted Sparrow-weaver (Plocepasser mahali pectoralis) – north of Arusha in Tanzania.

                   (P. m. melanorhynchos) – common in the south and Rift valley.

511. * Chestnut-crowned Sparrow-weaver (Plocepasser superciliosus brunnescens) – seen once on the escarpment near Metu.

512. Black-capped Social Weaver (Pseudonigrita cabanisi) – several in the Rift Valley.

513. Baglafecht Weaver (Ploceus baglafecht reichenowi) – identified near Mega.

514. Spectacled Weaver (Ploceus ocularis crocatus) – widespread.

515. Golden Weaver (Ploceus subaureus aureoflavus) – Riverside campsite, Iringa, Tanzania.

516. Holub's Golden Weaver (Ploceus xanthops) – at the hot-springs, Shiwa Ngandu, Zambia.

517. Lesser Masked Weaver (Ploceus intermedius intermedius) – widespread.

518. * Rόppell's Weaver (Ploceus galbula) – small flock in near-non-breeding plumage behind hotel at Lake Langano, but common and in full breeding plumage in northern Djibouti.

519. Speke's Weaver (Ploceus spekei) – common in the Rift Valley.

520. Black-headed Weaver (Ploceus cucullatus abyssinicus) – widespread.

521. * Jubaland Weaver (Ploceus dichrocephalus) – a flock seen along the river near Melka Ghuba, within 1.5 km of the main road.

522. Red-headed Weaver (Anaplectes rubriceps melanotis) – several seen at Sof Omar.

Most weavers were in non-breeding plumage, so very hard to identify.  Consequently these records do not reflect how common weavers are in all habitats throughout Ethiopia.

523. Red-billed Quelea (Quelea quelea aethiopica) – widespread and common, occasionally in large flocks (10 000+).

524. Fire-crowned Bishop (Euplectes hordeaceus craspedoptera) – widespread.

525. Northern Red Bishop (Euplectes franciscana pusilla) – widespread.

526. Yellow-mantled Widowbird (Euplectes macrourus macrocercus) – widespread in highlands.

527. White-winged Widowbird (Euplectes albonotatus albonotatus) – widespread.

Most Bishops and Widowbirds were in non-breeding plumage, so very hard to identify.

528. Long-tailed Widowbird (Euplectes progne delamerei) – seen around Mount Kenya, while looking for Jackson’s Widowbird.

529. Orange-winged Pytilia (Pytilia afra) - several seen in Nechisar NP.

530. Red-winged Pytilia (Pytilia phoenicoptera lineata) [considered as a separate species P. lineata "Lineated Pytilia" by some authorities] – seen several times along the road around Metu.

531. * Ethiopian Crimsonwing (Cryptospiza salvadorii salvadorii) – two in the forest above Wondo Genet.

532. Red-billed Firefinch (Lagonosticta senegala brunneiceps) – common in the highlands and north. (L. s. somaliensis) – common in the south.

533. * Black-faced Firefinch (Lagonosticta larvata larvata) [considered as a separate species L. larvata "Black-throated Firefinch" from L. vinacea "Black-faced Firefinch" of West Africa by some authorities] – several along the roadsides near Metu, mainly females.

534. Blue-billed Firefinch (Lagonosticta rubricata haematocephala) – at the campsite, Shiwa Ngandu, Zambia.

535. Jameson's Firefinch (Lagonosticta rhodopareia rhodopareia) – frequent in the western highlands.

536. Swee Waxbill (Estrilda melanotis quartinia) [considered as a separate species E. quartina "Yellow-bellied Waxbill" from E. melanotis "Swee Waxbill" and E. kilimensis "East Swee Waxbill" of southern Africa by some authorities] –.frequent in the western highlands.

537. Fawn-breasted Waxbill (Estrilda paludicola ochrogaster) [considered as a separate species E. ochrogaster "Abyssinian Waxbill" by some authorities] – several at Gefersa Reservoir.

538. Crimson-rumped Waxbill (Estrilda rhodopyga rhodopyga) – two near Gambela NP.

539. Common Waxbill (Estrilda astrild peasei) – widespread & frequent.

540. Blue Waxbill (Uraeginthus angolensis niassensis) – at Riverside campsite, Iringa, Tanzania.

541. Red-cheeked Cordon-bleu (Uraeginthus bengalus bengalus) – widespread & common..

542. Purple Grenadier (Uraeginthus ianthinogaster ianthinogaster) – often seen on the road north of Arusha to Kenya. (U. i. hawkeri) – common in Rift Valley.

543. Bronze Mannikin (Lonchura cucullata scutatus) – flocks at the Gorgora hotel, Lake Tana and at Wondo Genet.

544. Cut-throat (Amadina fasciata alexanderi) – one at Lake Heyk.

545. Village Indigobird (Vidua chalybeata centralis) – widespread & common, especially Lake Langano.

546. Pin-tailed Whydah (Vidua macroura) – common from Tanzania southwards.

547. Acacia Paradise Whydah (Vidua paradisea) – widespread & frequent, common in Awash NP.

548. * Exclamatory Paradise Whydah (Vidua interjecta) – common in the western lowlands around Gambela.

549. Cape Canary (Serinus canicollis flavivertex) – common in the Gorgora hotel grounds, Lake Tana.

550. * Black-headed Siskin (Serinus nigriceps) – common in the highlands, especially Bale Mountains..

551. African Citril (Serinus citrinelloides citrinelloides) – common at Lake Awasa and Wondo Genet.

552. Yellow-rumped Seedeater (Serinus atrogularis reichenowi) [considered as a separate species S. reichenowi "Kenya Yellow-rumped Seed-eater" or "Reichenow's Seedeater" from S. atrogularis "Black-throated Seed-eater" of southern Africa by some authorities] – several seen between Lake Beseka and the main gate to Awash NP.

553. * White-throated Serin (Serinus xanthopygius          xanthopygius) [considered as a sub-species of S. atrogularis "Yellow-rumped Seed-eater" by some authorities] – common around Lalibela.

554. * Salvadori's Serin (Serinus xantholaemus) – 3 at Sof Omar, but not in the valley but in the farmland within 3 km of the gorge.

555. Yellow-eyed Canary (Serinus mozambicus grotei) – several near Gambela.(S. m. gommaensis) – frequent in the western highlands.

556. Streaky-headed Seedeater (Serinus gularis erlangeri) – common throughout, especially Jemmu valley.

557. * Brown-rumped Seedeater (Serinus tristriatus tristriatus) – abundant in Addis Ababa, and common in the highlands.

558. * Yemen Serin (Serinus menachensis ankoberensis) [considered as a separate species S. ankoberensis "Ankober Serin" by some authorities] – at the standard site, no sign in any of the "normal" areas, but eventually found a pair singing from inside the only small tree in the area.

559. Streaky Seedeater (Serinus striolatus striolatus) – widespread & frequent.

560. * Ortolan Bunting (Emberiza hortulana) – several around the hotel at Lake Langano.

561. Cinnamon-breasted Rock Bunting (Emberiza tahapisi tahapisi) – widespread & common. (E. t. septemstriata) – several seen in the Simien Mountains.

562. Golden-breasted Bunting (Emberiza flaviventris flaviventris) – on the road between Gonder and Debark.

563. * Brown-rumped Bunting (Emberiza affinis omoensis) – several seen on the road north from Yavello to Lake Awasa.

Part B: Birds not seen

Target species missed (excluding the Sudanese species)

Socotra Cormorant (Phalacrocorax nigrogularis) – at best I would have been lucky to see this in Djibouti.

Waldrapp (Geronticus eremita) – extinct? in north east - a  key target species, but not really expected! Last seen in Eritrea in 1997, otherwise not recorded since the 1970's.

Ruddy Shelduck (Tadorna ferruginea) – should have been easy in the Bale Mountains.

Gadwall (Anas strepera) – frequent in Rift Valley lakes.

Mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) – supposedly rare, and given the euro-centricity of most reports, no further information was available.

Garganey (Anas querquedula) – common in Rift Valley lakes.

Ferruginous Duck (Aythya nyroca) – frequent in Rift Valley lakes.

Levant Sparrowhawk (Accipiter brevipes) – rare in western lowlands, no other details available.

Red-necked Buzzard (Buteo auguralis) – should be frequent in western lowlands.

Bonelli's Eagle (Hieraaetus fasciatus) – reported from mountains in Djibouti.

Sand Partridge (Ammoperdix heyi) – rare in the north - probably only possible in Eritrea.

Little Crake (Porzana parva) – rare in highlands, no other details available.

Eurasian Coot (Fulica atra) – rare, status uncertain given difficulty in separating species from Red-knobbed Coot in non-breeding plumage.

Demoiselle Crane (Anthropoides virgo) – should be frequent in north-west and western lowlands.

Heuglin's Bustard (Neotis heuglinii) – apart from Fejeje in south-west, could also be found in extreme south-east.

Egyptian Plover (Pluvianus aegyptius) – rare in western lowlands, no other details available.

Cream-coloured Courser (Cursorius cursor) – should be fairly easy to find in the extreme south-east.

Jack Snipe (Lymnocryptes minimum) – rare in highland marshes, no further information available.

Bridled Tern (Sterna anaethetus) – could be found in Djibouti ?

Brown Noddy (Anous stolidus) – could be found in Djibouti ?

Four-banded Sandgrouse (Pterocles quadricinctus) – supposedly frequent is western lowlands, but nocturnal.

Bruce's Green Pigeon (Treron waalia) – common in Rift Valley, supposedly hard to miss - I did.

Rock Dove (Columba livia) – may not reach Ethiopia from northern Eritrea.

Ring-necked Parakeet (Psittacula krameri) – frequent in north-east, possibly as far west as Awash NP.

Short-eared Owl (Asio flammeus) – rare in east, no other details available..

Long-tailed Nightjar (Caprimulgus climacurus) – frequent in the west .

Nechisar Nightjar (Caprimulgus solala) – rare in Nechisar plains (newly discovered species, although status is still being questioned since the sole “specimen” remains a single wing).

Donaldson-Smith's Nightjar (Caprimulgus donaldsoni) – frequent in extreme south-east.

Star-spotted Nightjar (Caprimulgus stellatus) – should be found in Awash NP and to the south.

Nubian Nightjar (Caprimulgus nubicus) – common in the desert areas of the eastern half of the country.

Standard-winged Nightjar (Macrodipteryx longipennis) – supposedly frequent, and seen in Nechisar NP.

Little Green Bee-eater (Merops orientalis) – should be frequent in north-west and west.

Vieillot's Barbet (Lybius vieilloti) – supposedly frequent in north-west.

Eurasian Wryneck (Jynx torquilla) – uncommon throughout.

Collared Lark (Mirafra collaris) – rare in extreme south, probably should be searched for in N Kenya.

Gillett's Lark (Mirafra gilletti) – rare in south-east and at Awash.

Degodi Lark (Mirafra degodiensis) – localized at Bokol Manyo in extreme south-east.

Chestnut-headed Sparrow-Lark (Eremopterix signata) – frequent in south and east.

Ethiopian Cliff Swallow (Hirundo species) – frequent in the river gorge at Awash and Lake Langano.

Bluethroat (Luscinia svecica) – uncommon in the north.

Grasshopper Warbler (Locustella naevia) – rare in extreme north-east.

Savi's Warbler (Locustella luscinioides) – uncommon in north.

Basra Reed-Warbler (Acrocephalus griseldis) – rare in western lowlands.

Philippa's Short-billed Crombec (Sylvietta philippae) – rare in extreme south-east near Bokol Manyo.

Wood Warbler (Phylloscopus sibilatrix) – rare in north-east.

Bonelli's Warbler (Phylloscopus bonelli) – reported from Djibouti.

Desert Warbler (Sylvia nana) – could be found in Djibouti ?

Gambaga Flycatcher (Muscicapa gambagae) – rare in western highlands, no further details available.

Semi-collared Flycatcher (Ficedula semitorquata) – scarce passage migrant.

White-headed Babbler (Turdoides leucocephalus) – uncommon in north.

Dusky Babbler (Turdoides tenebrosus) – restricted to the south-west.

Hinde's Pied Babbler (Turdoides hindei) – rare in Kenya highlands (locality mentioned in Nigel Wheatley's book is now agricultural land).

Scaly Chatterer (Argya aylmeri) – uncommon in the south-east.

Sudan Penduline Tit (Anthoscopus punctifrons) – not recorded south of Eritrea.

Masked Shrike (Lanius nubicus) – reported from Jemmu valley, but no other information available.

Red-naped Bush Shrike (Laniarius ruficeps) – frequent in extreme south-east.

Chestnut-bellied Starling (Lamprotornis pulcher) – uncommon in the north.

Somali Sparrow (Passer castanopterus) – uncommon in the south-west.

Sudan Golden Sparrow (Passer luteus) – supposedly in Eritrea and west.

Arabian Golden Sparrow (Passer euchlorus) – supposedly frequent in Djibouti.

Steel-blue Whydah (Vidua hypocherina) – frequent in the south, probably more easily found at Lake Baringo in Kenya.

Yellow-throated Seed-eater (Serinus flavigula) – rare at Fantalle Crater in Awash NP, as well as at Melka Ghebdu.

Cinereous Bunting (Emberiza cineracea) – rare in the extreme north.

Cretzschmar's Bunting (Emberiza caesia) – uncommon in the extreme north.

Part C: Mammals Seen

Bushpig  (Potamochoerus porcus) – in the forest near the HQ, Nechisar NP.

Warthog (Phacochoerus aethiopicus) – common in the Rift Valley.

Hippopotamus (Hippopotamus amphibius) – in several of the larger lakes.

Giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis) - only seen while driving through Mikumi NP, Tanzania.

Grey Duiker (Cephalophus grimmia) – widespread & frequent.

Salt's Dik-Dik (Madoqua saltiana) – several seen from Awash northwards to Mille.

Phillip's Dik-Dik (Madoqua phillipsi) – widespread & common.

Klippspringer (Oreotragus oreotragus) – common in Simien Mountains.

Bushbuck (Tragelaphus scriptus) – seen in the north of Awash NP.

Mountain Nyala (Tragelaphus buxtoni) – between Sanetti Plateau and the Harrena forest.

Greater Kudu (Tragelaphus strepsiceros) – several in Nechisar NP.

Lesser Kudu (Tragelaphus imberbis) – several in Kudu valley, Awash NP (not seen clearly), and one seen near Fτret du Day.

Beisa Oryx (Oryx gazella) – several in Awash NP.

Waterbuck (Kobus ellipsiprymnus) – seen in Lake Abiata-Shala NP.

Swayne's Hartebeest (Alcelaphus buselaphus) – several in Awash NP.

Soemmering's Gazelle (Gazella soemmeringi) – several at Awash NP.
Thomson's Gazelle (Gazella thomsoni) – several at Nechisar NP.

Walia Ibex (Capra ibex) – a single animal sleeping on the Simien Mountains.

African Wild Ass (Asinus africanus) – possible (or else feral) in the Yangudi-Rassa NP.

Grevy's Zebra (Hippotigris grevyi) – several in Awash NP.

Burchell's Zebra (Hippotigris quagga) –several herds in Nechisar NP.

Rock Hyrax (Heterohyrax brucei) – several at Fantalle Crater, Awash NP.

Cape Rock Hyrax (Procavia capensis) – common on Simien & Bale Mountains.

African Elephant (Loxodonta africana) – small herds on the road through Mikumi NP, and on the Zambezi escarpment. Also one between Immigration & Customs on the Zimbabwean side of the Beit Bridge border!

Geoffroy's Ground Squirrel (Euxerus erythropus) – seen near Gorgora.

Unstriped Ground Squirrel (Xerini rutilus) – common in Awash and towards Djibouti.

Gambian Sun Squirrel (Heliosciurus gambianus) – suspect this was the squirrel species occurring in the woodland near the HQ at Nechisar NP.

Cape Hare (Lepus capensis) – common in Simien & Bale Mountains.

Simien Fox (Canis simensis) – 4 (2 pairs?) on Sanetti Plateau.

Side-striped Jackal (Canis adustus) – widespread & frequent

Black-backed Jackal (Canis mesomelas) – two on the road from Negele to Yavello.

Honey Badger (Mellivora capensis) – one dead on the road north of Mega.
Egyptian Mongoose (Herpestes ichneumon) – several seen in scattered localities.
Slender Mongoose (Herpestes sanguineus) – widespread (seen about 5 times).

Yellow Mongoose (Herpestes ochracea) - Djibouti.

White-tailed Mongoose (Ichneumia albicauda) - widespread & common.

Spotted Hyaena (Crocuta crocuta) – once in Nechisar NP.

African Wild Cat (Felis silvestris) – one in Awash NP.

Lesser Galago (Galago senegalensis) - presumed this species in forest near HQ at Nechisar NP.

Olive or Anubis Baboon (Papio cynocephalus) – common in south.

Hamadryas Baboon (Papio hamadryas) – common from Awash to Djibouti.

Gelada Baboon (Papio gelada) – common in the Simien Mountains.

Ethiopian Grivet (Cercopithecus aethiops) – widespread, identified at the hotel at Bahir Dar, Lake Tana.

Abyssinian Grivet (Cercopithecus hilgerti) – widespread, identified at the hotel at Lake Awasa.

Matschie's Grivet (Cercopithecus ellenbecki) – identified at the hotel at Jima.

Tantalus Grivet (Cercopithecus tantalus) – identified at the hotel at Gambela.

Guereza (Colobus guereza) – widespread, often in hotel gardens.

Neumann's Colobus (Colobus gallarum) – identified on road between Sodo & Arba Minch.

Ethiopia Index
Part 1 Part 2 Part 3

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